Tag Archives: Ovary

Cyst

Definition:
A cyst is a closed, saclike structure that contains fluid, gas, or semisolid material and is not a normal part of the tissue where it is located. Cysts are common and can occur anywhere in the body in people of any age. Cysts vary in size; they may be detectable only under a microscope or they can grow so large that they displace normal organs and tissues. The outer wall of a cyst is called the capsule.

Click to see the picture

Ganglion Cyst

Ganglion Cyst (Photo credit: Glenn E. Malone)

A collection of pus is called an abscess, not a cyst. Once formed, a cyst could go away on its own or may have to be removed through surgery.

Locations:
*Acne cyst – Pseudocysts associated with cystic acne. Actually an inflammatory nodule with or without an associated epidermoid inclusion cyst.
*Arachnoid cyst (between the surface of the brain and the cranial base or on the arachnoid membrane)
*Baker’s cyst or popliteal cyst (behind the knee joint)
*Bartholin’s cyst
*Breast cyst
*Buccal bifurcation cyst
*Calcifying odontogenic cyst
*Chalazion cyst (eyelid)
*Choroid plexus cyst (brain)
*Colloid cyst
*Cysticercal cyst (the larval stage of Taenia sp. (Crain’s backs))
*Dentigerous cyst (associated with the crowns of non-erupted teeth)
*Dermoid cyst (ovaries, testes, many other locations from head to tailbone)
*Epididymal cyst (found in the vessels attached to the testes)
*Ganglion cyst (hand/foot joints and tendons)
*Glandular odontogenic cyst
*Glial cyst (in the brain)
*Gartner’s duct cyst (vaginal or vulvar cyst of embryological origin)
*Hydatid cyst (larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus (tapeworm))
*Hydrocele (testicle)
*Keratocyst (in the jaws, these can appear solitary or associated with the Gorlin-Goltz or Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. *The latest World Health Organization classification considers Keratocysts as tumors rather than cysts)
*Liver cystic disease
*Meibomian cyst (eyelid)
*Mucoid cyst (ganglion cysts of the digits)
*Nabothian cyst (cervix)
*Ovarian cyst (ovaries, functional and pathological)
*Paradental cyst
*Paratubal cyst (fallopian tube)
*Periapical cyst (The periapical cyst, otherwise known as radicular cyst, is the most common odontogenic cyst.)
*Pericardial cyst
*Peritoneal cyst (lining of the abdominal cavity)
*Pilar cyst (cyst of the scalp)
*Pilonidal cyst (skin infection near tailbone)
*Renal cyst (kidneys)
*Polycystic ovary syndrome
*Pineal gland cyst
*Radicular cyst (associated with the roots of non-vital teeth, also known as Periapical cyst)
*Residual cyst
*Sebaceous cyst (sac below skin)
*Spermatocele (testicle)
*Tarlov cyst (spine)
*Trichilemmal cyst – Same as a pilar cyst. A familial cyst of the scalp.
*Vocal fold cyst

Cystic fibrosis:
Despite being described in 1938 as the microscopic appearance of cysts in the pancreas, cystic fibrosis is an example of a genetic disorder whose name is related to fibrosis of the cystic duct and does not involve actual cysts

Cystic neoplasm:
Most cysts in the body are benign (dysfunctional) tumors, the result of plugged ducts or other natural body outlets for secretions. However sometimes these masses are considered neoplasm:

*Dermoid cyst
*Keratocyst
*Calcifying odotogenic cyst

Symptoms:
Sometimes you can feel a cyst yourself when you feel an abnormal “lump.” For example, cysts of the skin or tissues beneath the skin are usually noticeable. Cysts in the mammary glands (breasts) also may be palpable (meaning that you can feel them when you examine the area with your fingers). Cysts of internal organs such as the kidneys or liver may not produce any symptoms or may not be detected by the affected individual.

Causes:
Cysts can arise through a variety of processes in the body, including

#”wear and tear” or simple obstructions to the flow of fluid,

#infections,

#tumors,

#chronic inflammatory conditions,

#genetic (inherited) conditions,

#defects in developing organs in the embryo.

Most cysts arise due to the types of conditions listed above and are only preventable to the extent that the underlying cause is preventable.

Diagnosis:
Cysts of internal organs such as the kidneys or liver may not produce any symptoms or may not be detected by the affected individual. These cysts often are first discovered by imaging studies (X-ray, ultrasound, computerized tomography or CAT scan, and magnetic resonance imaging or MRI). Cysts may or may not produce symptoms, depending upon their size and location.

Treatment:
The treatment for a cyst depends upon the cause of the cyst along with its location. Cysts that are very large and result in symptoms due to their size may be surgically removed. Sometimes the fluid contained within a cyst can be drained, or aspirated, by inserting a needle or catheter into the cyst cavity, resulting in collapse of the cyst. Radiologic imaging may be used for guidance in draining (aspirating) cyst contents if the cyst is not easily accessible. Drainage or removal of a cyst at home is not advised.

Surgical removal of a cyst is sometimes necessary. If there is any suspicion that a cyst is cancerous, the cyst is generally removed by surgery or a biopsy is taken of the cyst wall (capsule) to rule out malignancy. In certain cases, aspirated fluid from a cyst is examined under a microscope to determine if cancer cells are present in the cyst.

If a cyst arises as part of a chronic medical condition (for example, in polycystic ovary syndrome or fibrocystic breast disease), treatment is generally directed at the underlying medical condition.

Prognosis:
The majority of cysts are benign conditions and do not result in long-term or serious complications. However, cysts that are associated with malignancy or serious infections can have a poor prognosis.

Prevention:
Prevention of cyst formation is only possible to the extent to which prevention of the underlying cause of the cyst is possible. Most kinds of cysts are not preventable.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyst
http://www.medicinenet.com/cysts/article.htm

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Talcum Powder Linked to Ovarian Cancer

Women have been warned to immediately stop using talcum powder around their genitals, as new research suggests particles may travel to the ovaries and trigger a process of inflammation that allows cancer cells to flourish.

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Previous studies have raised concerns over talc, but the latest findings suggest that women who use it are 40 percent more likely to get ovarian cancer.

Experts studied more than 3,000 women and found using talc merely once a week raised the risk of ovarian cancer by 36 percent. The danger rose to 41 percent for those applying powder every day.

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Homeopathy- Key to Ovarian Cysts

When 40-year-old Nisha felt muscles to the right of her abdomen go into a spasm, she gasped in pain. It recurred over the next two months. An ultras ound scan revealed she had a 30 mm cyst in her right ovary

click to see the pictures

An ovarian cyst is a sac filled with fluid, or a semisolid material, that develops on or within the ovary.

-Each time Reena, 50, ate oily food, she suffered shooting pain in her gall bladder. Doctors said she had gallstones. The only solution advised was to remove it.

Such chronic cases are typically treated by allopaths because most people wouldn’t want to hand themselves over to homeopaths. After all, hardly anyone has heard of homeopathy dissolving gall stones and causing cysts to disappear. But it can happen.

Nisha says, “I was told to take birth control pills as these prevent the ovaries from producing eggs during ovulation.” Cysts, incidentally, are formed when a follicle fails to rupture and release an egg, leaving behind fluid which forms a cyst.

Nisha didn’t want to take contraceptive pills. Instead, she took a three-month course of homeopathic pills and pain-relieving tablets. After three months, another scan showed the cyst had disappeared.

Homeopathy’s efficacy in ovarian cysts was corroborated, says Dr C Nayak, director, Central Council for Research in Homeopathy, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, by an article in the British Homeopathic Journal. The article, ‘Homeopathic treatment of ovarian cysts’, cited a study of 40 women with ovarian cysts. “After nine months of homeopathic treatment, the cysts disappeared in 90% cases,” the article said.

Gallstones are another affliction that homeopaths claim they can treat. Incidentally, the Dalai Lama too suffered from it and opted for surgery recently.

The gall bladder stores bile which helps in digestion. When bile contains too much cholesterol, it can harden into stones. In allopathy, the only option is removing the gall bladder. While homeopathic doctors say removal of bladder may lead to irritation in the small intestine, detractors of homeopathy aren’t convinced.

Dr Pradeep Chowbey, laparoscopic and endoscopic surgeon, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, says, “The gall bladder needs to be removed as the actual disease is in the wall of the organ. When its concentration goes down, stones are formed. Cholesterol is another factor. Some 6.9% of these stones can become cancerous. I doubt homeopathy’s efficacy here.”

There is excruciating pain when gallstones move and get lodged in ducts causing inflammation, fever and jaundice. A diet high in fats and low in fibre causes it.

Dr Kalyan Banerjee, a leading homeopath, counters this. “Homeopathy boosts the immune system and dissolves the stones, provided they aren’t too hard,” he says. “Patients should try homeopathic medicines for six months, before opting for surgery. Even after surgery, stones can recur in the bile duct.”

On ovarian cysts, Dr Neerja Batla, additional professor, AIIMS, says cysts less than 50 mm usually regress on their own. “I’m not sure how far homeopathy helps.”

Banerjee says, “Acute benign cysts take about six months to disappear. If it doesn’t work out even then, surgery is advised.” But get the cyst tested for malignancy. “If malignant, the ovaries and uterus are removed,” he says.

Adds Nayak, “Our council conducted a clinical study to ascertain usefulness of a homeopathic medicine, Fel taur, for gallstones. Results showed that out of 267 patients, 262 showed improvement in varying degrees.”

But ovarian cyst-sufferer Nisha has the last word on detractors of homeopathic treatment for her condition. “After the shooting pains I went through even with a 30 mm cyst and the consequent acidity through painkillers, homeopathy has given me a new lease of life.”

Sources: The Times Of India

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Ovarian Cysts

Alternative Names:Physiologic ovarian cysts; Functional ovarian cysts

Definition:
An ovarian cyst is any collection of fluid, surrounded by a very thin wall, within an ovary.It is a sac filled with fluid or a semisolid material that develops on or within an ovary. Any ovarian follicle that is larger than about two centimeters is termed an ovarian cyst. An ovarian cyst can be as small as a pea, or larger than a cantaloupe.

….CLICK  & SEE THE PICTURES

You may click to see pictures of ovarian cysts

Most ovarian cysts are functional in nature, and harmless (benign). In the US, ovarian cysts are found in nearly all premenopausal women, and in up to 14.8% of postmenopausal women.Ovarian cysts affect women of all ages. They occur most often, however, during a woman’s childbearing years.Some ovarian cysts cause problems, such as bleeding and pain. Surgery may be required to remove cysts larger than 5 centimeters in diameter.

Types:

Functional cysts
Some, called functional cysts, or simple cysts, are part of the normal process of menstruation. They have nothing to do with disease, and can be treated. There are 3 types, Graafian, Luteal, and Hemorrhagic.


Graafian follicle cyst

………CLICK & SEE
One type of simple cyst, which is the most common type of ovarian cyst, is the graafian follicle cyst, follicular cyst, or dentigerous cyst. This type can form when ovulation doesn’t occur, and a follicle doesn’t rupture or release its egg but instead grows until it becomes a cyst, or when a mature follicle involutes (collapses on itself). It usually forms during ovulation, and can grow to about 6cm (2.3 inches) in diameter. It is thin-walled, lined by one or more layers of granulosa cell, and filled with clear fluid. Its rupture can create sharp, severe pain on the side of the ovary on which the cyst appears. This sharp pain (sometimes called mittelschmerz) occurs in the middle of the menstrual cycle, during ovulation. About a fourth of women with this type of cyst experience pain. Usually, these cysts produce no symptoms and disappear by themselves within a few months. Ultrasound is the primary tool used to document the follicular cyst. A pelvic exam will also aid in the diagnosis if the cyst is large enough to be seen. A doctor monitors these to make sure they disappear, and looks at treatment options if they do not.

Corpus luteum cyst…….CLICK & SEE
Another is a corpus luteum cyst (which may rupture about the time of menstruation, and take up to three months to disappear entirely). This type of functional cyst occurs after an egg has been released from a follicle. The follicle then becomes a secretory gland that is known as the corpus luteum. The ruptured follicle begins producing large quantities of estrogen and progesterone in preparation for conception. If a pregnancy doesn’t occur, the corpus luteum usually breaks down and disappears. It may, however, fill with fluid or blood, causing the corpus luteum to expand into a cyst, and stay on the ovary. Usually, this cyst is on only one side, and does not produce any symptoms.

It can however grow to almost 10cm (4 inches) in diameter and has the potential to bleed into itself or twist the ovary, causing pelvic or abdominal pain. If it fills with blood, the cyst may rupture, causing internal bleeding and sudden, sharp pain. The fertility drug clomiphene citrate (Clomid, Serophene), used to induce ovulation, increases the risk of a corpus luteum cyst developing after ovulation. These cysts don’t prevent or threaten a resulting pregnancy. Women on birth control pills usually do not form these cysts; in fact, preventing these cysts is one way the combined pill works. In contrast, the progesterone-only pill can cause increased frequency of these cysts.

Hemorrhagic cyst……....CLICK & SEE
A third type of functional cyst, which is common, is a Hemorrhagic cyst, which is also called a blood cyst, hematocele, and hematocyst. It occurs when a very small blood vessel in the wall of the cyst breaks, and the blood enters the cyst. Abdominal pain on one side of the body, often the right side, may be present. The bleeding may occur quickly, and rapidly stretch the covering of the ovary, causing pain. As the blood collects within the ovary, clots form which can be seen on a sonogram. Occasionally hemorrhagic cysts can rupture, with blood entering the abdominal cavity. No blood is seen out of the vagina. If a cyst ruptures, it is usually very painful. Hemorrhagic cysts that rupture are less common. Most hemorrhagic cysts are self-limiting; some need surgical intervention. Even if a hemorrhagic cyst ruptures, in many cases it resolves without surgery. Patients who don’t require surgery will experience pain for 4 – 10 days after, and may require several days rest. Studies have found that women on tetracycline antibiotics recover 25% earlier than the majority of patients, a surprising correlation found in 2004. Sometimes surgery is necessary, such as a laparoscopy (“belly-button surgery” that uses small tools inserted through one or more tiny slits in the abdomen).

Dermoid cyst

CLICK & SEE
A dermoid cyst is a cystic teratoma that contains developmentally mature skin complete with hair follicles and sweat glands, sometimes luxuriant clumps of long hair, and often pockets of sebum, blood, fat, bone, nails, teeth, eyes, cartilage, and thyroid tissue. Because it contains mature tissue, a dermoid cyst is almost always benign. The rare malignant dermoid cyst usually develops squamous cell carcinoma in adults; in babies and children it usually develops endodermal sinus tumor.

Some authors use the term dermoid cyst as a frank synonym for teratoma, meaning any teratoma, regardless of its histology or location. Others use it to mean any mature, cystic teratoma. These uses appear to be most common in gynecology and dermatology.A dermoid cyst can occur wherever a teratoma can occur.

Endometrioid cyst…....CLICK & SEE
An endometrioma, endometrioid cyst, endometrial cyst, or chocolate cyst is caused by endometriosis, and formed when a tiny patch of endometrial tissue (the mucous membrane that makes up the inner layer of the uterine wall) bleeds, sloughs off, becomes transplanted, and grows and enlarges inside the ovaries. As the blood builds up over months and years, it turns brown. When it ruptures, the material spills over into the pelvis and onto the surface of the uterus, bladder, bowel, and the corresponding spaces between. Treatment for endometriosis can be medical or surgical. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used first in patients with pelvic pain, particularly if the diagnosis of endometriosis has not been definitively established. The goal of directed medical treatment is to achieve an anovulatory state. Typically, this is achieved initially using hormonal contraception. This can also be accomplished with progestational agents (i.e., medroxyprogesterone), danazol, gestrinone, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRH), as well as other less well-known agents. These agents are generally used if oral contraceptives and NSAIDs are ineffective. GnRH can be combined with estrogen and progestogen (add-back therapy) without loss of efficacy but with fewer hypoestrogenic symptoms. Laparoscopic surgical approaches include ablation of implants, lysis of adhesions, removal of endometriomas, uterosacral nerve ablation, and presacral neurectomy. They frequently require surgical removal. Conservative surgery can be performed to preserve fertility in young patients. Laparoscopic surgery provides pain relief and improved fertility over diagnostic laparoscopy without surgery. Definitive surgery is a hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy.

Pathological cysts:……….CLICK & SEE
The incidence of ovarian carcinoma (malignant cancer) is approximately 15 cases per 100,000 women per year.

Other cysts are pathological, such as those found in polycystic ovary syndrome, or those associated with tumors.

A polycystic-appearing ovary is diagnosed based on its enlarged size — usually twice normal —with small cysts present around the outside of the ovary. It can be found in “normal” women, and in women with endocrine disorders. An ultrasound is used to view the ovary in diagnosing the condition. Polycystic-appearing ovary is different from the polycystic ovarian syndrome, which includes other symptoms in addition to the presence of ovarian cysts, and involves metabolic and cardiovascular risks linked to insulin resistance. These risks include increased glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes, and high blood pressure. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is associated with infertility, abnormal bleeding, increased incidences of pregnancy loss, and pregnancy-related complications. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is extremely common, is thought to occur in 4-7% of women of reproductive age, and is associated with an increased risk for endometrial cancer. More tests than an ultrasound alone are required to diagnose polycystic ovarian syndrome.

Causes :
Typically, ovarian cysts are functional (not disease related) and occur as a normal process of ovulation. During the days before ovulation, a follicle grows. But at the time of expected ovulation, the follicle fails to break open and release an egg, as it is supposed to. Instead, the fluid within the follicle remains and forms a cyst.

Functional, or physiological, ovarian cysts usually disappear within 8 – 12 weeks without treatment. They are relatively common, and are more common during a woman’s childbearing years (puberty to menopause). Ovarian cysts are rare after menopause.

No known risk factors have been identified.

Functional ovarian cysts are not the same as ovarian tumors (including ovarian cancer) or cysts due to hormone-related conditions such as polycystic ovarian disease. Some non-functional ovarian cysts must be treated to go away.

Symptoms:
An ovarian cyst can cause pain if it pushes on nearby structures, ruptures, or bleeds. Pain may also occur if the cyst is twisted or causes twisting (torsion) of the fallopian tube. Symptoms of ovarian cysts can include:

*Dull aching, or severe, sudden, and sharp pain or discomfort in the lower abdomen (one or both sides), pelvis, vagina, lower back, or thighs; pain may be constant or intermittent — this is the most common symptom.

*Pelvic pain — constant, dull aching

*Pain with intercourse or pelvic pain during movement

*Pain during bowel movements

*Pelvic pain shortly after beginning or ending a menstrual period

*Abnormal uterine bleeding (change from normal menstrual pattern)

*Longer than usual menstrual cycle

*Shorter than usual menstrual cycle

*Absent menstruation

*Irregular menstruation

*Abdominal bloating or swelling

*Fullness, heaviness, pressure, swelling, or bloating in the abdomen

*Breast tenderness

*Pain during or shortly after beginning or end of menstrual period.

*Irregular periods, or abnormal uterine bleeding or spotting

*Change in frequency or ease of urination (such as inability to fully empty the bladder), or difficulty with bowel movements due to pressure on adjacent pelvic anatomy

*Weight gain

*Nausea or vomiting

*Fatigue

*Infertility

*Increased level of hair growth

*Increased facial hair or body hair

Note:Some or all of the following symptoms may be present, though it is possible not to experience any symptoms: Often no symptoms are noted.

Diagnosis:
Tests & Exams:

*Pelvic exam — may reveal an ovarian enlargement or a cyst

*Ultrasound — usually done first

*CT scan

*MRI

*Doppler flow studies

*Blood tests may be ordered:

*Serum HCG (pregnancy test) — may be done to rule out pregnancy

*Ca-125 — an ovarian cancer marker that may help to identify cancerous cysts in older women

*Hormone levels (such as LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone) — may be checked to evaluate for associated hormonal conditions

Treatment :
About 95% of ovarian cysts are benign, meaning they are not cancerous.Functional ovarian cysts usually go away without treatment. Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) may be prescribed to help establish normal cycles and decrease the development of functional ovarian cysts.

Treatment for cysts depends on the size of the cyst and symptoms. For small, asymptomatic cysts, the wait and see approach with regular check-ups will most likely be recommended.

Pain caused by ovarian cysts may be treated with:

*pain relievers, including acetaminophen (Tylenol), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil), or narcotic pain medicine (by prescription) may help reduce pelvic pain. NSAIDs usually work best when taken at the first signs of the pain.

*a warm bath, or heating pad, or hot water bottle applied to the lower abdomen near the ovaries can relax tense muscles and relieve cramping, lessen discomfort, and stimulate circulation and healing in the ovaries. Bags of ice covered with towels can be used alternately as cold treatments to increase local circulation.

*chamomile herbal tea (Matricaria recutita) can reduce ovarian cyst pain and soothe tense muscles.
urinating as soon as the urge presents itself.

*avoiding constipation, which does not cause ovarian cysts but may further increase pelvic discomfort.
in diet, eliminating caffeine and alcohol, reducing sugars, increasing foods rich in vitamin A and carotenoids (e.g., carrots, tomatoes, and salad greens) and B vitamins (e.g., whole grains).

*combined methods of hormonal contraception such as the combined oral contraceptive pill — the hormones in the pills may regulate the menstrual cycle, prevent the formation of follicles that can turn into cysts, and possibly shrink an existing cyst. (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 1999c; Mayo Clinic, 2002e)

Also, limiting strenuous activity may reduce the risk of cyst rupture or torsion.

Cysts that persist beyond two or three menstrual cycles, or occur in post-menopausal women, may indicate more serious disease and should be investigated through ultrasonography and laparoscopy, especially in cases where family members have had ovarian cancer. Such cysts may require surgical biopsy. Additionally, a blood test may be taken before surgery to check for elevated CA-125, a tumor marker, which is often found in increased levels in ovarian cancer, although it can also be elevated by other conditions resulting in a large number of false positives.

For more serious cases where cysts are large and persisting, doctors may suggest surgery. Some surgeries can be performed to successfully remove the cyst(s) without hurting the ovaries, while others may require removal of one or both ovaries.

Click to learn about Natural & Homeopathic Treatment of Ovarian Cysts..(1)……(2)…...(3).(4)

Click for Herbal Treatment…………………………………(1).….(2)(3).(4)

Possible Complications:
Complications are related to the specific diagnosis. Concern is given to cysts that twist, rupture, bleed, or show signs of cancerous changes.

Prevention:
If a woman is not seeking pregnancy and develops functional cysts frequently, they can be prevented by taking hormonal medications (such as birth control pills), which prevent follicle formation.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ovarian_cyst
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dermoid_cyst
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001504.htm

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