Tag Archives: Perspiration

Palmar hyperhidrosis

Description:
Palmer hyperhidrosis is profuse perspiration (excessive sweating) of the palms.It is one form of focal hyperhidrosis, meaning profuse perspiration affecting one area of the body. Sweaty palms may be accompanied by profuse perspiration of the feet, forehead, ckeeks, armpits (axillae) or be part of general hyperhidrosis (profuse perspiration throughout the body). Hyperhidrosis refers to profuse perspiration beyond the body’s thermoregulatory (temperature control) needs.

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Palmer  hyperhidrosis is a common condition in which the eccrine (sweat) glands of the palms and soles secrete inappropriately large quantities of sweat. The condition may become socially and professionally debilitating. The condition usually is idiopathic  and  it begins in childhood and frequently runs in families.

Symptoms:
The intensity of symptoms may vary among sufferers and trigger factors should be carefully noted. Common symptoms  are :

*Perspiration of the hands can vary from mild clamminess to severe perspiration resulting in dripping sweat.
*Temperature differences of palmar surface compared to surface temperature of other parts of the body may be noted.
*Sloughing (peeling) of skin may be noted in profuse perspiration.
*Episodes of profuse perspiration may be followed by periods of extreme dryness on the palmar surface.
*Hyperhidrosis often starts in puberty, and family history is often reported.

The secondary effects of palmar hyperhidrosis can result in both psychosocial effects as well as difficulty in undertaking certain tasks or handling equipment. Sufferers of palmar hyperhidrosis are often reluctant to partake in socially expected actions like shaking hands or touching loved ones. The embarrassment of dealing with this condition can affect the level of interactivity in both social and work situations. Difficulties with holding objects, gripping equipment or soiling electronic devices like keyboards may affect functioning at work. Daily activities such as writing with a pen or counting cash notes is often difficult.

Causes:
Hyperhidrosis is either primary focal or secondary generalized.

1. Primary Palmar  Hyperhidrosis

Focal palmar hyperhidrosis is usually localized and is referred to as primary (essential, idiopathic), meaning no obvious cause, except strong family predisposition can be found (4,5), and affected persons are otherwise healthy . Sweating on other locations as feet, armpits and face may appear. Primary palmar hyperhidrosis is caused by overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, primarily triggered by emotional causes including anxiety, nervousness, anger and fear .

There may be a significant reduction in perspiration during sleep or sedation.

2. Secondary Palmar Hyperhidrosis

In secondary palmar hyperhidrosis hands sweat due to an obvious underlying disorder like:

*Infections including local infections, tuberculosis and tinea ugunium.
*Neurological disorders like peripheral autonomic neuropathy
*Frostbite
*Arteriovenous Fistulas
*Acromegaly
*Acrodynia
*Complex Regional Pain Syndromes
*Pachyonychia Congenita
*Primary Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy
*Dyskeratosis Congenita
*Blue rubber-bleb nevus
*Glomus tumor

*Secondary palmar hyperhidrosis as part of generalized hyperhidrosis due to  several  hormonal causes (diabetes, hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, menstruation, menopause), metabolic disorders, malignant disease (lymphoma, pheochromocitoma), autoimmune disorders (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythrematosus), drugs like hypertensive drugs and certain classes of antidepressants (list of medications causing hyperhidrosis), chronic use of alcohol, Parkinson’s disease, neurological disorders (toxic neuropathy), homocystinuria, plasma cell disorders. Detailed list of conditions causing generalyzed hyperhidrosis.

How Sweat Glands Work:
In eccrine glands, the major substance enabling impulse conduction is acetylcholine, and in apocrine glands, they are catecholamines.

Body temperature is controlled by the thermoregulatory center in the hypothalamus and this is influenced not only by  by core body temperature but also by hormones, pyrogens, exercise and emotions.

Diagnosis:
The first step in diagnosing  the  Palmar  hyperhidrosis is to differentiate between generalized and focal hyperhidrosis.

A thorough case taking and medical history is usually sufficient to diagnose palmar hyperhidrosis and any trigger factors (scheduled drugs, narcotics, chronic alcoholism).

Diagnostic criteria for primary focal (including palmar) hyperhidrosis  are:

*Bilateral and relatively symmetric sweating
*Frequency of at least 1 episode per week
*Impairment of daily activities
*Age at onset before 25 years
*Family history
*Cessation of sweating during sleep

Tests may include:
*Hematological studies may be necessary to identify thyroid disorders (thyroid function test for T3 and T4 as well as thyroid antibodies) and diabetes (fasting blood glucose or a glucose tolerance test).

*X-rays and MRI scans will assist for diagnosing tuberculosis, pneumonia and tumors.

*Superficial electroconductivity can be monitored as any hyperhidrosis reduces skin electrical resistance.

*Thermoregulatory sweat test uses moisture-sensitive indicator powder to monitor moisture. Changes in the color of the powder at room temperature will highlight areas of increased perspiration.

Treatment:
Conservative management should be coupled with prescribed treatment by the Doctor to reduce the symptoms.

*Counseling may be effective in managing primary palmar hyperhidrosis in cases of mental-emotional etiology.

*Trigger foods and aggravating factors should be noted if possible and relevant dietary changes should be implemented.

*Effective prevention of secondary palmar hyperhidrosis is difficult with conservative management and drug therapy or surgery may be required.

*Excessive physical activity and extremes of heat may be two trigger factors that should be avoided as far as possible.

*In cases of diabetes, a glucose controlled diet with low glycemic index may improve glucose tolerance which could assist with palmar hyperhidrosis.

*Abstinence from alcohol and narcotics is advisable if it is the causative factor for sweaty palms.

*Stimulants such as caffeine and nicotine may aggravate palmar hypehidrosis and should relevant dietary and lifestyle changes should be implemented.

*Anti-perspirant compounds like aluminum chloride can be applied on the palms to reduce moisture or palmar surfaces. Recent research on an aluminum sesquichlorohydrate foam has shown that it is effective in reducing sweat in palmar hyperhidrosis

Treatment remains a challenge: options include topical and systemic agents, iontophoresis, and botulinum toxin type A injections, with surgical sympathectomy as a last resort. None of the treatments is without limitations or associated complications. Topical aluminum chloride hexahydrate therapy and iontophoresis are simple, safe, and inexpensive therapies; however, continuous application is required because results are often short-lived, and they may be insufficient. Systemic agents such as anticholinergic drugs are tolerated poorly at the dosages required for efficacy and usually are not an option because of their associated toxicity. While botulinum toxin can be used in treatment-resistant cases, numerous painful injections are required, and effects are limited to a few months.

Standard therapeutic protocol may differ among cases of palmar hyperhidrosis depending on medical history and underlying pathology.

*Anticholinergic drugs have a direct effect on the sympathetic nervous system although there are numerous side effects.

*Treatment should be directed at contributing factors.

*Ionophoresis involves the use of electrotherapeutic measures to reduce the activity of sweat glands.

*Botulinum injections at the affected area may be useful for its anticholinergic effects.

*Surgery should be considered if drug therapy proves ineffective. Endoscopic transthoracic sympathectomy involves resection of the sympathetic nerve supply to the affected area. This prevents nerve stimulation of the sweat gland of the palms. However surgery has a host of complications including exacerbating the problem or increasing generalized hyperhidrosis.

Surgical sympathectomy should be reserved for the most severe cases and should be performed only after all other treatments have failed. Although the safety and reliability of treatments for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis have improved dramatically, side effects and compensatory sweating are still common, potentially severe problems.

Ayurvedic Treatment ..click & see…>…….…(1) :....(2)

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Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0301/p1117.html

Causes and Treatment of Palmar Hyperhidrosis – Sweaty Palms/Hands

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Prickly Heat? Don’t Try Talc

Sweat (Hadise album)

Sweat (Hadise album) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

A genuine “Indian summer” is upon us now with temperatures all over the country in the high thirties and forties. Earlier, Indians used to wear white cotton clothes in summer but now most prefer to dress in synthetic silks, and polyester fabrics, little realising that those clothes are totally inappropriate in this weather.

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Even school children — who are issued uniforms with the material and tailoring regulated by the school — end up wearing thick synthetic clothes when ideally they should wear pure cotton or at least a 60 per cent cotton and 40 per cent polyester mix.

To survive, our bodies need to maintain an average internal temperature of 98.6ºF or 36.6ºC and it uses sweating to regulate the temperature. When the outside temperature is high, the body secretes sweat from glands situated in the layer below the skin. The sweat reaches the surface through coiled tubes and forms a thin film of fluid. As this layer evaporates, the body cools down. Sweating can be excessive when the temperature is high, there is increased physical exertion, there is little or no circulation of air and if the clothes are made of synthetic material that traps the sweat. (Nowadays many sports companies manufacture sports clothes out of special material that “wicks” away the sweat).

If sweat pores get blocked (by dead skin cells, dirt or talcum powder), the trapped sweat forms tiny clear bumps below the surface of the skin called miliria crystalline (prickly heat). These look unsightly but do not really cause any symptoms. Eventually, they turn red (miliria rubra), and evolve into a brown scaly rash which can be confused with pimples, folliculitis or chicken pox.

Prickly heat usually appears in covered areas where sweat cannot evaporate easily or the pores are blocked. The forehead is affected if it is covered with a fringe or cap. The upper back and chest, and the arms are other common locations. In adults the rash sometimes appears on the inner thighs or in areas where there are body folds. It is aggravated by friction between the skin and tight fitting non-absorbent synthetic clothing. The continuous rubbing can lead to the skin eventually peeling off, leaving a raw red area.

Prickly heat causes itching and a tingling sensation but scratching can cause secondary infection with bacteria. The appearance of the rash then changes and there can be a yellow pus discharge. The person may develop fever. Uninfected prickly heat, however, does not cause fever. Although prickly heat is uncomfortable and unsightly, with a little care it can be easily prevented.

• Stay away from the direct heat of the sun as far as possible

• Wear loose fitting cotton clothes or at least a 60-40 mix of cotton and polyester

• Make sure school uniforms are stitched out of natural materials, preferably thin materials

• Try to ensure that schools have fans and ventilation.

• Do not scratch. The more you scratch, the more it will itch.

• Use a mild dose of antihistamine to control itching.

• Do not apply thick oil-based creams and talc. They will only block the pores further.

Bathe two or three times a day in tepid water. Add a teaspoon of sodium bicarbonate to a bucket of water before bathing till the prickly heat disappears.

• Use soap containing trichlorhexidine (Dial, Neko) Do not apply soap directly to the skin. Use a moist wash rag, a herbal scrubber or a loofah.

• If prickly heat becomes red and pustular, changes appearance or the temperature rises, consult a doctor immediately.

Contrary to advertisements on television, talc does not soothe, relieve or prevent prickly heat. Talc is made up of finely powdered combinations of ground zinc stearate, and silicates. It blocks the skin pores, increasing the sweat build up and aggravating prickly heat.

Talc causes other medical problems as well. The size of the particles is so small that they can easily be inhaled. The particles can reach the smallest areas of the lung and cause pneumonia, inflammation or swelling of the airways. This can be fatal in babies. If applied to the groin and genital areas, talc can migrate through the vagina, uterus, and fallopian tubes to the ovary. Some scientific studies have found a relationship between the use of talcum powder and cancer of the ovary.

Baby powder is talc based and should not be used. Nappy rash is different from prickly heat and the treatment is different too.

If you get prickly heat, bathe two to three times a day. Use plain calamine lotion (not creams and ointment) to relieve the itching. If secondary infection has occurred, consult a doctor.

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*Remedies for Prickly Heat
*Natural Remedy for Prickly Heat

* Two baths a day keep bacteria at bay

Source : The Telegraph ( Kolkata, India)

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Body Oder

Definition & Causes:
Body odor, or B.O., bromhidrosis, osmidrosis and ozochrotia, is a perceived unpleasant smell our bodies can give off when bacteria that live on the skin break down sweat into acids – some say it is the smell of bacteria growing on the body, but it really is the result of bacteria breaking down protein into certain acids.

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Body odor usually becomes evident if measures are not taken when a human reaches puberty – 14-16 years of age in females and 15-17 years of age in males. People who are obese, those who regularly eat spicy foods, as well as individuals with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, are more susceptible to having body odor…

People who sweat too much – those with hyperhidrosis – may also be susceptible to body odor, however, often the salt level of their sweat is too high for the bacteria to break down – it depends where the excess sweating is occurring and which type of sweat glands are involved.

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.Body odour is caused by a natural process involving sweat that occurs on the skin’s surface. Sweat is odourless, but if left on the skin the bacteria that normally live there feed on it and break it down. This process releases chemicals that cause the unpleasant smell.

Some areas of the skin, such as the armpits and genitals, are more likely to produce body odour because these glands produce proteins and oily substances that bacteria feed on.

The feet produce their own characteristic odour. We tend to wrap them in socks and shoes, making them hot and humid and allowing fungi, as well as bacteria, to flourish.

According to Medilexicon’s medical dictionary:
Bromhidrosis (or bromidrosis) is a “fetid or foul-smelling perspiration. Apocrine bromhidrosis affects the axillae after puberty, and eccrine bromhidrosis is generalized, with excessive sweating.”

Sweat itself is virtually odorless to humans; it is the rapid multiplication of bacteria in the presence of sweat and what they do (break sweat down into acids) that eventually causes the unpleasant smell. The smell is perceived as unpleasant, many believe, because most of us have been brought up to dislike it. Body odor is most likely to occur in our feet, groin, armpits, genitals, pubic hair and other hair, belly button, anus, behind the ears, and to some (lesser) extent on the rest of our skin.

Body odor can have a nice and specific smell to the individual, and can be used – especially by dogs and other animals – to identify people. Each person’s unique body odor can be influenced by diet, gender, health, and medication.

Two types of acid are commonly present when there is body odor:

*Propionic acid (propanoic acid) is commonly found in sweat – propionibacteria break amino acids down into propionic acid. Propionibacteria live in the ducts of the sebaceous glands of adult and adolescent humans. Some people may identify a vinegar-like smell with propionic acid, because it is similar to acetic acid, which gives vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell.

*Isovaleric acid (3-methyl butanoic acid) is another source of body odor as a result of actions of the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis, which are also present in several strong cheese types.
Body odor can smell pleasant and specific to the individual and can be used to identify people, though this is more often done by dogs and other animals than by humans. An individual’s body odor is also influenced by diet, lifestyle, gender, genetics, health and medication.

Sweating and our sweat glands:-

The average human body has three to four million sweat glands, of which there are two types:

*Eccrine glands a type of simple sweat gland that is located in almost all areas where there is skin. They produce sweat that reaches the skin’s surface via coiled ducts (tubes). When sweat evaporates from the skin the body is cooled. Eccrine glands are responsible for regulating our body’s temperature.

*Apocrine glands – these glands are found in the breasts, genital area, eyelids, armpits and ear. In the breasts they secrete fat droplets into breast milk. In the ear they help form earwax. Apocrine glands in skin and the eyelids are sweat glands.

Genetics:
Body odor is largely influenced by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. These are genetically determined and play an important role in immunity of the organism. The vomeronasal organ contains cells sensitive to MHC molecules in a genotype-specific way. Experiments on animals and volunteers have shown that potential sexual partners tend to be perceived more attractive if their MHC composition is substantially different. This behavior pattern promotes variability of the immune system of individuals in the population, thus making the population more robust against new diseases.

One study suggests that body odor is genetically determined by a gene that also codes the type of earwax one has. East Asians (those of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese descent) have the type of sweat glands that even after hitting puberty still don’t produce the chemicals found in the perspiration of other ancestral groups. East Asians evidently have a greater chance of having the ‘dry’ earwax type and reduced axial sweating and odor. This may be due to adaptation to colder climates.

Why  you should  be aware of it?
Medical research shows that people with body odour might suffer from severe problems in their personal and social relationships. It might also impact their work life — with colleagues and seniors avoiding them. They might not get full rewards of their hard work which in turn might wreck promotion prospects at work. For kids it might lead to educational under-achievement because of teasing and bullying along with enormous degrees of stress which is blamed for their frequent progression into alcoholism, excessive tobacco or drug use and in some cases to suicide.

Feelings of shame, embarrassment, low self-esteem, isolation, frustration, anxiety and depression are extremely common where body odour is present.

Although sufferers and their families have been shown to gain considerable benefit from sympathetic counseling, and while learning to deal with the stress this condition causes is certainly important – long-term strategies and approaches which deal with underlying causes of increased body odour are probably a lot more important.

It is important to know how to deal with the problem of body odour if you are suffering from it. If someone in your personal, social or professional circle suffers from body odour then there is a need to find out a way to address the issue mindfuly and delicately to avoid future embarassment to the person.

 

Symptoms:
The symptom is an unpleasant smell that may be worse in hot and sweaty conditions. The actual smell varies from person to person. The ‘recipe’ of sweat is individual.

Body odour may be influenced by diet. Certain foods, such as curry, garlic and strong spices, contain chemicals that may be excreted in the skin.

The smell almost always disappears with a shower or bath, but can return rapidly, especially if a person puts on unwashed clothes covered in old sweat and bacteria.

 

Diagnosis:
In the vast majority of cases of body odor it is not necessary to see your doctor. The individual himself/herself may be aware of it, or a good friend or a member of the household may tell them about their body odor. There are some self-care techniques that will usually successfully treat the problem.
Most people can easily recognise body odour. Unfortunately, the person who has it may be so accustomed to their own smell that they don’t notice.

When to see your doctor:
Some medical conditions may change how much a person sweats, while others can alter how we sweat, subsequently changing the way we smell. For example, hyperthyroidism (an over-active thyroid gland) or the menopause can make people sweat much more, while liver disease, kidney disease, or diabetes can change the consistency of sweat so that the person smells differently. You should see your doctor if:

*You start sweating at night

*You start sweating much more than you normally do, without any logical reason

*You have cold sweats

*Sweating disrupts your daily routine

*You body smells differently – if it is a fruity smell it could be due to diabetes, liver or kidney disease often makes the individual have a bleach-like smell.

Treatment:
#.Armpits – a large concentration of apocrine glands exist in the armpits, making that area susceptible to rapid development of body odor.

*Keep the armpits clean – wash them regularly using anti-bacterial soap, and the number of bacteria will be kept low, resulting in less body odor.

*Hair under the armpits slows down the evaporation of sweat, giving the bacteria more time to break it down into smelly substances; shaving the armpits regularly has been found to help body odor control in that area.

*Deodorant or antiperspirant – deodorants make the skin more acidic, making the environment more difficult for bacteria to thrive. An antiperspirant blocks the sweating action of the glands, resulting in less sweating. Some studies, however, have indicated that antiperspirants may be linked to breast cancer or prostate cancer risk; this study suggests that the evidence is inconclusive either way.

*Botulinum toxin – this is a toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum; it is the most poisonous biological substance known. However, very small and controlled doses are today being used in various fields of medicine. A relatively new treatment is available for individuals who sweat excessibely under the arms.

The patient is given approximately 12 injections of botulinum toxin in the armpits – a procedure that should not last more than 45 minutes. The toxin blocks the signals from the brain to the sweat glands, resulting in less sweating in the targeted area. One treatment can last from two to eight months. In countries where free universal healthcare is available, such as the NHS (National Health Service), UK, botulinum toxin therapy for excessive underarm sweating is not usually available and most patients will have to do it privately (pay for this specific treatment).

#.Wash daily with warm water – have a shower or bath at least once a day. Remember that warm water helps kill off bacteria that are present on your skin. If the weather is exceptionally hot, consider bathing more often than once a day.

#Clothing – natural fibers allow your skin to breathe, resulting in better evaporation of sweat. Natural-made fibers include wool, silk or cotton.

#Spicy foods – curry, garlic and some other spicy (piquant) foods have the potential to make some people’s sweat more pungent. Some experts believe a diet high in red meat may also raise the risk of developing more rapid body odor.

#Aluminum chloride – this substance is usually the main active ingredient in antiperspirants. If your body does not respond to the home remedies mentioned above, talk to a pharmacist or your doctor about a suitable product containing aluminum chloride. Follow the instructions given to you carefully.

#Treatment for smelly feet (bromodosis) – smelly feet are less of a problem socially than underarm B.O. because the unpleasant odor is usually contained by shoes and socks. However, the smell may become obvious if the person with smelly feet visits a home where shoes are taken off before entering, as is the custom in various countries and homes. The following steps may help control food odor:

*Wash your feet in warm water regularly – this means at least once a day. Remember that warm water is better at killing off bacteria than cold water. Tea-tree oil, when added to water, helps kill off bacteria (do not apply tea-tree oil directly to skin). Make sure you dry your feet thoroughly afterwards, including in between your toes.

*Socks – they must allow the sweat to evaporate. The best socks are those made of a combination of man-made fibers and wool. Wear a clean pair of socks each day.

*Shoes – if you wear trainers or shoes with plastic linings make sure it is not for long. A leather lining is better for sweat evaporation. If you have a problem with sweaty feet, do not wear the same pair of shoes two days in a row – shoes do not completely dry overnight.

*Pumice stone – bacteria thrive on dead skin. If the soles of your feet have patches of dead skin remove them with a pumice stone.

*Deodorants and antiperspirants – ask your pharmacist for special foot deodorants and antiperspirants. If you have athlete’s foot you should not use deodorants or antiperspirants – treat the fungal infection first with appropriate medication.

*Go around barefoot – whenever you can walk around barefoot, or at least slip out of your shoes regularly.

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You may click to see:
*Home Remedies for Body Odor
*7 Tips To Manage Body Odour
*Home Remedy for Body Odor & Herbal Care   :

 

 

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/bodyodour2.shtml
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/173478.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_odor

http://www.copperwiki.org/images/c/c7/Odor.jpg

http://www.copperwiki.org/index.php/Body_Odour

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Sweat

 

Defination:
Sweating (Perspiration, transpiration, or diaphoresis) is the production of a fluid consisting primarily of water as well as various dissolved solids (chiefly chlorides), that is excreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. Sweat contains the chemicals or odorants 2-methylphenol (o-cresol) and 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), as well as a small amount of urea.
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In humans, sweating is primarily a means of thermoregulation, although it has been proposed that components of male sweat can act as pheromonal cues. There is widespread belief that sweating, for example, in a sauna, helps the body to remove toxins, but the belief is without scientific support. Evaporation of sweat from the skin surface has a cooling effect due to the latent heat of evaporation of water. Hence, in hot weather, or when the individual’s muscles heat up due to exertion, more sweat is produced. Sweating is increased by nervousness and nausea and decreased by cold. Animals with few sweat glands, such as dogs, accomplish similar temperature regulation results by panting, which evaporates water from the moist lining of the oral cavity and pharynx. Primates and horses have armpits that sweat like those of humans. Although sweating is found in a wide variety of mammals, relatively few, such as humans and horses, produce large amounts of sweat in order to cool down..

 

A study has discovered that men, on average, start perspiring much more quickly than women, then twice as much when they are in the middle of exercising.


Mechanism :

A man sweats after exercising.Sweating allows the body to regulate its temperature. Sweating is controlled from a center in the preoptic and anterior regions of the brain’s hypothalamus, where thermosensitive neurons are located. The heat-regulatory function of the hypothalamus is also affected by inputs from temperature receptors in the skin. High skin temperature reduces the hypothalamic set point for sweating and increases the gain of the hypothalamic feedback system in response to variations in core temperature. Overall, however, the sweating response to a rise in hypothalamic (‘core’) temperature is much larger than the response to the same increase in average skin temperature. The process of sweating decreases core temperature, whereas the process of evaporation decreases surface temperature.

There are two situations in which our nerves will stimulate sweat glands, making us sweat: during physical heat and emotional stress. In general, emotionally induced sweating is restricted to palms, soles, armpits, and sometimes the forehead, while physical heat-induced sweating occurs throughout the body.

Sweat is not pure water; it always contains a small amount (0.2–1%) of solute. When a person moves from a cold climate to a hot climate, adaptive changes occur in the sweating mechanisms of the person. This process is referred to as acclimatisation: the maximum rate of sweating increases and its solute composition decreases. The volume of water lost in sweat daily is highly variable, ranging from 100 to 8,000 mL/day. The solute loss can be as much as 350 mmol/day (or 90 mmol/day acclimatised) of sodium under the most extreme conditions. In a cool climate and in the absence of exercise, sodium loss can be very low (less than 5 mmols/day). Sodium concentration in sweat is 30-65 mmol/l, depending on the degree of acclimatisation.

Composition:
Sweat contains mainly water. It also contains minerals, lactate, and urea. Mineral composition varies with the individual, their acclimatisation to heat, exercise and sweating, the particular stress source (exercise, sauna, etc.), the duration of sweating, and the composition of minerals in the body. An indication of the minerals content is sodium 0.9 gram/liter, potassium 0.2 gram/liter, calcium 0.015 gram/liter, magnesium 0.0013 gram/liter. Also many other trace elements are excreted in sweat, again an indication of their concentration is (although measurements can vary fifteenfold) zinc (0.4 mg/l), copper (0.3–0.8 mg/l), iron (1 mg/l), chromium (0.1 mg/l), nickel (0.05 mg/l), lead (0.05 mg/l). Probably many other less-abundant trace minerals leave the body through sweating with correspondingly lower concentrations. Some exogenous organic compounds make their way into sweat as exemplified by an unidentified odiferous “maple syrup” scented compound in several of the species in the mushroom genus Lactarius.   In humans sweat is hypoosmotic relative to plasma

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You may also click and see:
*Diaphoresis
*Hyperhidrosis
*Anhidrosis
*Hyponatremia
*Hyperthermia
*Body odor
*Hidradenitis-Suppurativa
*Pheromones
*Sweat gland
*Sweat therapy
*Eccrine gland
*Apocrine gland

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Sweat

What is Sweat?

Do you Sweat excessively? Here are the solutions

Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perspiration

How Can YOU Control Your Excessive Sweating and Odor?

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The best way to stop excessive sweating is to find the cause. For example, if it only occurs when you are nervous or anxious, stress reduction techniques in combination with the proper use of an antiperspirant may go a long way toward getting this under control. However, if the perspiration affects multiple areas of your body no matter what the situation, you may have a form of excess sweating known as hyperhidrosis. As for the odor, it’s most likely caused by the bacteria on your skin as it comes in contact with the perspiration. But one thing is clear: The symptoms are affecting the quality of your life and it’s time to regain control with a visit to your physician.

…………...CLICK & SEE

Sweating the small stuff:
Sweating is a part of life. Normal sweating is usually caused by one or a combination of the following:

1.Your body is too hot and needs to cool off (from fever due to an illness, hot temperatures, too many layers of clothing)…….CLICK & SEE

2.You’re anxious and stressed…..CLICK & SEE

3.You’re performing strenuous exercise……..CLICK & SEE

 

The pattern of perspiration may be different depending upon the situation. For instance, when you’re nervous, the sweat often appears under the armpits, the hands and even on the forehead. In contrast, when you exercise, the sweat tends to occur throughout the body.

Needless to say, the location, amount, odor and frequency that the sweating occurs are unique to each individual. For some, it’s explainable and hardly noticeable. For others, the potential for embarrassment exists and can change life experiences. This makes it especially important to speak with your physician and provide the answers to the following questions:

*Where does your sweating occur (armpits, groin, whole body, hands, feet, face)?
*At what age did it begin (early to mid teenage years) and does heavy perspiration run in your family?
*How often does it occur (everyday, a few times per week, once a month)?
*When does it occur (during the daytime, wakes you up at night, day and night)?
*How often do you need to change your clothes (shirts, socks, others) due to excessive perspiration (once, twice or several times per day)?
*Do you get skin irritations or infections in the areas where you constantly sweat?
*How often do you need to shower during the day to get rid of the odor?
*Are you afraid to shake hands because of your sweaty palms? If so, how often do you find yourself drying them off due to excess perspiration?
*Are you afraid to wear certain colors because the sweat stains will show through?
*What products have you tried (deodorants, antiperspirants) and did they provide any relief?
*Do certain situations make your sweating worse (spicy foods, when you are anxious or upset, meeting a new person)?
*Have other symptoms occurred since your sweating problem began (fever, cough, joint pains, rash)
*Are you taking any prescription, non-prescription or herbal medications?
*Does your sweating or fear of sweating keep you from certain events or social activities?

Next, It is advised to encourage you to take a look at the information at the International Hyperhidrosis Society to see how you rate on the hyperhidrosis disease severity scale. A result of 3 or 4 means you’re sweating is life-altering and may clue your physician to check for the conditions known as primary focal or secondary generalized hyperhidrosis.

Techniques to decrease perspiration:
If excess perspiration occurs only when you are stressed or nervous, relaxation techniques learned through biofeedback, hypnotherapy, yoga and/or meditation might help to decrease your anxiety induced sweating. Acupuncture may even provide some relief. However, if your sweating is made worse by a multitude of factors including hyperhydrosis, other suggestions to consider include but aren’t limited to the following:

*Avoid or decrease the consumption of caffeinated products

*Bathe daily to limit the amount of bacteria contributing to the sweaty odor

*Eliminate odor-producing foods (onions, garlic, others) from your diet

*Wear loose fitting clothes containing materials such as cotton, wool and silk. These “breathable” fabrics allow for a better flow between your skin and the surrounding air.

*Use antiperspirants daily to stop the sweat and the odor, instead of deodorants, which stop the odor, but not the sweat.
*While these products are commonly applied to the armpits, they are also effective in other areas such as the hands and feet.

*Antiperspirants are available with and without a prescription. Look for the ingredient aluminum chloride hexahydrate, a very effective agent for problem sweating. Preparations containing 10-15 percent aluminum chloride hexahydrate work well for excessive perspiration in the armpits, while those containing 30 percent tend to work better for problem sweating of the hands and feet. Apply the antiperspirant after the area has been dried (use a towel or cool air from a blow dryer) once per night (works better than a morning application as it takes six to eight hours for the antiperspirant to plug the pores and block the flow of sweat) or twice per day (morning and night).

*Consider the use of iontophoresis for extreme and uncontrolled sweating of hands and/or feet. This technique uses very low levels of electric current applied during a 15 to 20 minute session over a period of time (days or weeks). It seems to slow or shut down the flow of perspiration through the sweat glands.

*Injection of botulinum toxin type A (Botox) to the affected areas (armpits, hands, feet and even the face) where sweating is not controlled by other methods. One treatment is very effective at stopping the flow of sweat for a period of four to seven months, sometimes longer.

Fortunately, much can be done to help prevent or minimize the discomfort and embarrassment caused by your drenching underarm sweating.  If you wish you may contact  Mayo Clinic to help you.

You may click to see:->Excessive Sweating – Red Hands

Prickly Heat: When Sweating Hurts
Night Sweats
Can Stress Cause Body Odor?

Sources:MSN Health & Fitness

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