Tag Archives: Plant

Allium thunbergii

Botanical Name: Allium thunbergii
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. thunbergii
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms:
*Allium arenarium Thunb.
*Allium bakeri var. morrisonense (Hayata) T.S.Liu & S.S.Ying
*Allium bakeri var. morrisonense (Hayata) Tang S. Liu & S.S. Ying
*Allium cyaneum f. stenodon (Nakai & Kitag.) Kitag.

Common Names: Thunberg’s chive

Habitat : Allium thunbergii is native to Japan (incl Bonin + Ryukyu Islands), Korea, and China (incl. Taiwan). It grows at elevations up to 3000 m. The Flora of China recognizes A. tunbergii and A. stenodon as separate species, but more recent sources combine the two.

Description:
Allium thunbergii produces one or two egg-shaped bulbs up to 20 mm in diameter. Scapes are up to 50 cm tall. Leaves are longer than the scape, hollow, triangular in cross-section. Umbels are crowded with many red or purple flowers. It is in flower from Sep to November.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil. Plants are not hardy in the colder areas of Britain, they tolerate temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Most members of this genus are intolerant of competition from other growing plants. There is at least one named variety, selected for its ornamental value[200]. ‘Ozawa’ is smaller than the type, growing to 30cm. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. Very easy, the plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season and the divisions can be planted straight out into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root.

Young plants and leaves – raw or cooked in soups etc. The raw leaves have a pleasant mild onion flavour and a good fibre-free texture. Bulbs – cooked. They can be pickled in brine, vinegar and syrup. The bulbs are up to 2cm in diameter. Flowers – raw. A pleasant mild onion flavour, they make an attractive garnish in salads etc.
Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
Other Uses:…..Repellent..…..The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles.

Known Hazards : Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in very large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_thunbergii
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+thunbergii

Calceolaria thyrsiflora

Botanical Name: Calceolaria thyrsiflora
Family: Calceolariaceae/Scrophulariaceae
Genus: Calceolaria
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales
Common name: Slipper Flower, Capachito
Habitat: Calceolaria thyrsiflora is native to South AmericaChile. It is grown in Cultivated Beds.

Description:
Calceolaria thyrsiflora is a perennial, very frost-hardy dwarf shrub growing to 0.7 m (2ft 4in). It has high in the Andes produces hundreds of bright golden-yellow flowers over a long period in spring. It thrives in full sun, and also needs very little water and thrives even in the poorest soil provided it has good drainage. It makes a lovely addition to any rock garden, or in a border that require little watering, or even in a container or pot.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
It requires abundant moisture in the summer and a dry winter. Plants can be grown outdoors in the very mildest areas of the country.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. Division in spring.

Medicinal Uses: Used in the treatment of sore throats, gums, lips and tongue.

Other Uses: Very  good  pot growing flower. When it  blooms in the flower garden  it looks  beautiful.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calceolaria
http://www.plant-world-seeds.com/store/view_seed_item/5226
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Calceolaria+thyrsiflora

Inula royleana

Botanical Name : Inula royleana
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Inula
Species: I. racemosa
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales
Habitats; Inula royleana is native to E. Asia – Himalayas from Pakistan to Kashmir. It grows on scrub and grassy clearings in forests, 2100 – 4000 metres. Exposed dry slopes, 3100 – 3600 metres in Kashmir.

Description:
Inula royleana is a perennial plant growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in).
It is in flower from Aug to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, self.The plant is self-fertile.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in a sunny position in ordinary garden soil. Requires a moist well-drained soil in sun or partial shade. Grows well in heavy clay soils. This species is hardy to about -20°c. Plants take some years to become fully established.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. Division in spring or autumn.

Medicinal Uses:
The plant is disinfectant. It is also considered to be poisonous. The root has been used to adulterate the roots of Saussurea lappa. It contains 3% of an alkaloid that produces a fall in blood pressure and stimulates tone and peristaltic movements in the intestines.
Other Uses:
Disinfectant; Insecticide; Parasiticide.

Used as a parasiticide. The plant is insecticidal.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inula_racemosa
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Inula+royleana

Inula britannica chinensis

Botanical Name : Inula britannica chinensis
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Inula
Species: I. britannica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms: Inula japonica (Thunb.)

Common Name : Xuan Fu Hua

Habitat : Inula britannica chinensis is native to E. Asia – China and Japan. It grows on wet places in lowlands, especially by rivers, all over Japan.

Description:
Inula britannica chinensis is a perennial plant growing to 0.6 m (2ft).
The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Cultivation:
Succeeds in a sunny position in any moderately fertile well-drained soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c. This sub-species is the form that is most used medicinally, it is cultivated as a medicinal plant in China.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. If you have sufficient seed, it is worthwhile trying a sowing in situ in the spring or the autumn. Division in spring or autumn.

Edible Uses: Leaves – cooked. An emergency food, it is only used when better foods are not available.
Medicinal Uses:
Xuan Fu Hua is used in Chinese herbalism as a mildly warming expectorant remedy and it is especially suitable where phlegm has accumulated in the chest. It has been used as an adulterant of arnica (Arnica montana). The flowers are more commonly used, but the leaves are also used, generally for less serious conditions. The leaf is discutient and vulnerary. The flowers are alterative, antibacterial, carminative, cholagogue, deobstruent, depurative, diuretic, expectorant, laxative, nervine, stomachic, tonic and vulnerary. They are used internally in the treatment of bronchial complaints with profuse phlegm, nausea and vomiting, hiccups and flatulence. The flowers have an antibacterial action, but this can be destroyed by proteins in the body. The plant is harvested when in flower and can be dried for later use. The root is discutient, resolvent and vulnerary. The plant has been mentioned as a possible treatment for cancer of the oesophagus
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inula_britannica
http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Inula+britannica+chinensis

Fritillaria roylei

Botanical Name:  Fritillaria roylei

Family: Liliaceae
Genus: Fritillaria
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Liliales
Tribe: Lilieae
Genus: Fritillaria

Common name: Himalayan Fritillary • Hindi: Kakoli • Tamil: Kakoli • Malayalam: Kakoli • Telugu: Kakoli • Kannada: Kakoli • Sanskrit: Kakoli, Ksirakakol, Ksirasukla, Payasya
Habitat : Fritillaria roylei is native to E. Asia – Himalayas. It grows on the alpine slopes and in shrubberies, 2700 – 4000 metres, from Pakistan to Uttar Pradesh.

Description:
Fritillaria roylei  is a herbacious plant, 0.5-2 ft tall, commonly found in alpine slopes and shrubberies of the Himalayas, from Pakistan to Uttarakhand, at altitudes of 2700-4000 m. Flowers are yellowish-green to brownish-purple and usually with a chequered pattern in dull purple. Flowers are broadly bell-shaped, hanging looking down, borne singly on the stems, but sometimes in groups of 2-4. Petals are narrow-ovate. 4-5 cm long. Leaves are linear-lancelike, often long-pointed, 5-10 cm, arrange oppositely or in whorls of 2-6 on the stem. Flowering: June-July. . The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

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Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:

This species is easily grown in a cold greenhouse but is difficult to grow outdoors in Britain. In the wild it is under snow for 6 months of the year and is baked by the sun for the rest of the year. Very closely related to and merging into F. cirrhosa in the eastern part of its range[90]. Famous in Chinese medicine, where it is called Pé-mou, it is sold as a medicinal herb in local markets there. Flowers are produced in 3 – 5 years from seed.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring. Protect from frost. Stored seed should be sown as soon as possible and can take a year or more to germinate. Sow the seed quite thinly to avoid the need to prick out the seedlings. Once they have germinated, give them an occasional liquid feed to ensure that they do not suffer mineral deficiency. Once they die down at the end of their second growing season, divide up the small bulbs, planting 2 – 3 to an 8cm deep pot. Grow them on for at least another year in light shade in the greenhouse before planting them out whilst dormant. Division of offsets in August. The larger bulbs can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, but it is best to pot up the smaller bulbs and grow them on in a cold frame for a year before planting them out in the autumn. Bulb scales.

Medicinal Uses:
The bulb is antiasthmatic, antirheumatic, febrifuge, galactogogue, haemostatic, ophthalmic and oxytocic.  It is boiled with orange peel and used in the treatment of TB and asthma.

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Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritillaria

http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Himalayan%20Fritillary.html
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Fritillaria+roylei

Helianthemum nummularium

Botanical Name: Helianthemum nummularium
Family: Cistaceae
Genus: Helianthemum
Species:  Helianthemum   nummularium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malvales

Synonyms: Helianthemum chamaecistus. Mill. Helianthemum vulgare. Gaertn.

Common Names: Common Rockrose, Sun Rose, Rock Rose

Habitat: Helianthemum nummularium is native to most of Europe. It grows on the basic grassland and scrub, to 600 metres.

Description:
Helianthemum nummularium is an evergreen tralling Shrub growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 1 m (3ft 3in) at a fast rate.
It is plant with loose terminal clusters of bright yellow, saucer-shaped flowers. In the flower centre is a tight cluster of orange stamens, which are sensitive to the touch, and spread outwards to reveal the tall stigma in the middle. The plant is common on chalk downs, and occasional in other grasslands, always on dry, base-rich soil. The wild species has yellow flowers, but garden varieties range from white through yellow to deep red.

Though the individual blooms are short-lived, the plant produces a mass of flowers through the summer. It needs a dry, sunny place, like a south-facing rockery or meadow. As the Latin name Helianthemum suggests, these are sun-flowers. This is a good nectar source for bees and there are several species of small beetle that feed on the foliage. Common rock-rose is also the food plant for the larvae of several species of moth and butterfly.

It flowers from May until July.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects, self.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Alpine garden, Border, Ground cover, Rock garden, Specimen. Requires an open sunny position in a light well-drained soil with a pH between 5.5 and 8. Plants are hardy to at least -10°c. A vigorous plant suitable for the rock garden, crevices in walls or gravel beds. Plants are short-lived, though, soon becoming leggy or sparse, and require fairly frequent replacement. The flowers only open in bright sunshine. Plants resent root disturbance and should be placed in their permanent positions as soon as possible. A polymorphic species, there are some named forms that have been selected for their ornamental value. Plants are generally pest and disease-free. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Special Features:Attractive foliage, Not North American native, Attracts butterflies.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 6 – 8cm with a heel, late summer in a sandy soil in a frame.

Medicinal Uses:
The plant is used in Bach flower remedies – the keywords for prescribing it are ‘Terror’, ‘Panic’ and ‘Extreme fright’. It is also one of the five ingredients in the ‘Rescue remedy’.

Other Uses:
A prostrate growing plant, it can be used as a ground cover.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helianthemum_nummularium
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Helianthemum+nummularium

Iris japonica

Botanical Name: Iris japonica
Family: Iridaceae
Genus: Iris
Subgenus: Limniris
Section: Lophiris
Species: I. japonica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms:

* Evansia chinensis (Curtis) Salisb.
* Evansia fimbriata (Vent.) Decne.
* Evansia japonica (Thunb.) Klatt
* Iris chinensis Curtis
* Iris fimbriata Vent.
* Iris japonica f. japonica (none known)
* Iris japonica f. pallescens P.L.Chiu & Y.T.Zhao
* Iris squalens Thunb. [Illegitimate]
* Moraea fimbriata (Vent.) Loisel.
* Xiphion fimbriatum (Vent.) Alef.
Common Names: Fringed iris, Shaga or Butterfly flow

Habitat : Iris japonica is a native of China and Japan. It grows on woodland hills, grassy and rocky slopes and among rocks by streams.

Description:
Iris japonica is a rhizomatous perennial plant, with pale blue, lavender or white flowers with an orange or yellow crest. It is cultivated as an ornamental plant in temperate regions. It has wiry, stout stems, that can grow up to between 25–80 cm (10–31 in) tall. It has 5-12 short, slender branches, (or pedicels) near top of the plant. The stiff pedicels can reach between 1.5–2.5 cm (1–1 in) long. The flowering stem (and branches) grow higher than the leaves. The stems have 3-5 spathes (leaves of the flower bud), which are lanceolate, and 9.5–2.2 cm (4–1 in) long.

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The flowers are like Iris cristata flowers but paler and fancier. The short lasting flowers open in succession (one after another), for between 2, and 5 weeks. These flowers have a clove pinks aroma.

The flattish, flowers are 4.5–6 cm (2–2 in) in diameter, and come in shades of pale blue, or pale lavender, or lilac, or purple, to white.

It has 2 pairs of petals, 3 large sepals (outer petals), known as the ‘falls’ and 3 inner, smaller petals (or tepals, known as the ‘standards’). The falls are elliptic or obovate, with a spreading limb and blue or purple/violet blotching, spots, (or dots) around a central yellow signal patch around a visible yellow, or orange crest. They are 2.5–3 cm (1–1 in) long and 1.4–2 cm wide. The standards are elliptic or narrowly obovate. They are 2.8–3 cm (1–1 in) long and 1.5-2.1 cm wide. The standards spreading to the same plane as the falls, creating the ‘flat’ look. All the petals are fringed (fimbriated) around the edges.

It has a 1.1–2 cm long perianth tube, 0.8-1.2 cm long stamens, white anthers and 7-10mm ovary. It has 0.5-0.75 long and pale blue style branches. The terminal lobes are fimbriated (fringed).

After the iris has flowered, between May and June, it produces an ellipsoid-cylindric, non-beaked seed capsule, which is 2.5–3 cm long and 1.2-1.5 cm wide. Inside the capsule, it has dark brown seeds with a small aril.

Cultivation:
Prefers a gritty well-drained soil with plenty of moisture in summer and shelter from early morning sun. Prefers a lime-free soil but succeeds in most good soils. Succeeds in full sun or partial shade, but plants flower better in a hot sunny position. Established plants are drought tolerant. Cultivated for its edible root in Japan. A number of named varieties have been selected for their ornamental value. It is best to lift the plant in October, store in sand in a cool frost-free place over winter and plant out in March. Plants have creeping aerial rhizomes that root at intervals. The flowers are susceptible to damage by late frosts, the plants failing to flower after an exceptionally cold winter. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed should be sown as early in the year as possible in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first year. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division, best done after flowering in July/August. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Root.

Root – the source of an edible starch. Some caution is advised, see the notes below on toxicity.
Medicinal Uses:

The rhizome is used in the treatment of injuries. A decoction of the plant is used in the treatment of bronchitis, internal injuries, rheumatism and swellings.

Other Uses :
Plants can be grown for ground cover when planted about 45cm apart each way.

Known Hazards: Many plants in this genus are thought to be poisonous if ingested, so caution is advised. The roots are especially likely to be toxic. Plants can cause skin irritations and allergies in some people.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_japonica
http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Iris+japonica

Iris pallida

Botanical Name: Iris pallida
Family: Iridaceae
Subfamily: Iridoideae
Tribe: Irideae
Genus: Iris
Subgenus: Iris
Species: I. pallida
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

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Synonyms:

*Iris × australis var. mandraliscae (Tod.) Nyman
*Iris × australis var. tinaei (Tod.) Nyman
*Iris desertorum Balb. [Illegitimate]
*Iris fulgida Berg
*Iris × germanica subsp. pallida (Lam.) O.Bolòs & Vigo
*Iris glauca Salisb.
*Iris gloriosa Reider ex Berg
*Iris hortensis Tausch
*Iris mandraliscae Tod.
*Iris marchesettii Pamp.
*Iris moggridgei Baker
*Iris odoratissima Jacq.
*Iris pallida subsp. mandraliscae (Tod.) K.Richt.
*Iris pallida var. odoratissima (Jacq.) Nyman
*Iris pallida subsp. pallida (unknown)
*Iris pallida var. rosea Prodán
*Iris pallida subsp. sicula (Tod.) K.Richt.
*Iris pallida subsp. tinaei (Tod.) K.Richt.
*Iris pallidecaerulaea Pers.
*Iris picta Spreng. [Illegitimate]
*Iris plicata Lam.
*Iris propendens Lange
*Iris sicula Tod.
*Iris swertii Lam.
*Iris tinaei Tod.

Common Names: Dalmation Iris, Sweet iris, Fragrant Iris, Zebra Iris

Habitat : Iris pallida is native to the Dalmatian coast (Croatia) but widely naturalised elsewhere. It is a member of the subgenus iris, meaning that it is a bearded iris, and grows from a rhizome in rocky places in limestone hillsides and the sides of gorges.
Description:
Iris pallida is a perennial flowering plant growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 1.5 m (5ft) at a medium rate. The leaves are bluish-green in color, and sword-shaped, 40–50 cm (16–20 in) in length, and 2.5–3 cm (0.98–1.18 in) in width. The inflorescence, produced in May/June, is fan-shaped and contains two or three flowers which are usually pale purplish to whitish.

It is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.

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Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Cultivation:
. Requires a sunny position and a well-drained soil containing lime. Easily cultivated in a sunny position in ordinary garden soil. Prefers a pH between 6 and 7.5 or higher. Established plants are drought tolerant. Cultivated, especially in Italy, for the essential oil in its root. The flowers are sweetly scented, reminding some people of orange blossom, others of vanilla and others of civet. A very vigorous species. The rhizome should be planted partly above the soil. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Fragrant foliage, All or parts of this plant are poisonous.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed should be sown as early in the year as possible in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first year. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division, best done after flowering, though it can be done at almost any time. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.
Edible Uses:
Edible Parts:

The root can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a food flavouring. The root may take several years of drying to develop its full fragrance. ‘Orris oil’ is an essential oil derived from the dried root, it is used as a flavouring in soft drinks, sweets, chewing gum etc.
Medicinal Uses:

Cathartic.

Cathartic. The juice of the fresh root is a strong purge of great efficiency in the treatment of dropsy.

Other Uses:

Landscape Uses:Border, Massing, Rock garden, Specimen.

The root is a source of Orris powder which has the scent of violets. It is obtained by grinding up the dried root. It is much used as a fixative in perfumery and pot-pourri, as an ingredient of toothpastes, breath fresheners etc and as a food flavouring. The root can take several years of drying to fully develop its fragrance, when fresh it has an acrid flavour and almost no smell. An essential oil is obtained from the fresh root, this has the same uses as the root. The juice of the root is sometimes used as a cosmetic and also for the removal of freckles from the skin. A black dye is obtained from the root. A blue dye is obtained from the flowers. Plants can be grown for ground cover, the dense mat of roots excluding all weeds
Known Hazards : Many plants in this genus are thought to be poisonous if ingested, so caution is advised. The roots are especially likely to be toxic. Plants can cause skin irritations and allergies in some people.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_pallida
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Iris+pallida

Cinchona micrantha

Botanical Name: Cinchona micrantha
Family: Rubiaceae/ Zygophyllaceae
Subfamily: Cinchonoideae
Tribe: Cinchoneae
Genus: Cinchona
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Synonyms: Cinchona affinis Wedd.

Common Name : Huannco

Habitat : Cinchona micrantha is native to western S. AmericaBolivia, Ecuador, Peru. It grows well in light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil.
Description:
Cinchona micrantha is an evergreen Tree growing to 8 m (26ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a medium rate. it is relatively thin-textured, usually broad leaves, its expansive multiflowered inflorescences, and its small white flowers with the corolla tube 5-7.5 mm long. This species is similar to Cinchona pubescens, which is more widespread and common. In fruit these can be difficult to separate.

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Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers high humidity and a temperature that does not fall below about 15 degree centigrade . Requires a well-drained, moist soil and a position in full sun or partial shade.

Propagation:
Seed – Nodal softwood cuttings. Cuttings of half-ripe wood in a sandy soil.

Medicinal Uses:
Cinchona micrantha has a long history of native use, especially as a treatment for fevers and malaria. Modern research has shown it to be a very effective treatment for fevers, and especially as a treatment and preventative of malaria. The bark contains various alkaloids, particularly quinine and quinidine. The bark is a bitter, astringent, tonic herb that lowers fevers, relaxes spasms, is antimalarial (the alkaloid quinine) and slows the heart (the alkaloid quinidine). The bark is made into various preparations, such as tablets, liquid extracts, tinctures and powders. It is used internally in the treatment of malaria, neuralgia, muscle cramps and cardiac fibrillation. It is an ingredient in various proprietary cold and influenza remedies. It is also used as a gargle to treat sore throats. Large and too constant doses must be avoided, as they produce headache, giddiness and deafness.

Other Uses:
The powdered bark is often used in tooth-powders, owing to its astringency.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinchona
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cinchona+micrantha
http://eol.org/pages/1110446/overview

Ciliosemina pedunculata

Botanical Name: Ciliosemina pedunculata
Family: Rubiaceae
Subfamily: Cinchonoideae
Tribe: Cinchoneae
Genus: Ciliosemina
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Synonyms: Cinchona pedunculata H.Karst. Ladenbergia pedunculata (H.Karst.) K.Schum. Remijia pedunculata (H.Kar

Common Name: Ciliosemina

Habitat : Ciliosemina pedunculata is native to S. America – northern Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. It grows in light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Description: Ciliosemina pedunculata is an evergreen Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft) by 3 m (9ft). These are woody plants taking the form of shrubs or trees. The white flowers are borne in axillary inflorescences. The fruits are stiff capsules containing winged seeds.

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Cultivation: The plant can be grown in light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Propagation: Seeds.

Medicinal Uses:
The bark is a source of quinine. Quinine contains the alkaloids quinine and quinidine. It is a very effective treatment for fevers, and especially as a treatment and preventative of malaria. The bark is a bitter, astringent herb that lowers fevers, relaxes spasms, is antimalarial (the alkaloid quinine) and slows the heart (the alkaloid quinidine). The bark is made into various preparations, such as tablets, liquid extracts, tinctures and powders. It is used internally in the treatment of malaria, neuralgia, muscle cramps and cardiac fibrillation. It is an ingredient in various proprietary cold and influenza remedies. It is also used as a gargle to treat sore throat
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciliosemina
http://www.wikiwand.com/de/R%C3%B6tegew%C3%A4chse
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ciliosemina+pedunculata