Tag Archives: Seed

Chonemorpha fragrans

Botanical name: Chonemorpha fragrans
Family: Apocynaceae (Oleander family)
Subfamily: Apocynoideae
Tribe: Apocyneae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Synonyms : Vishani, Meshashringi, Ajavalli

Common name
: Frangipani Vine, Wood vine • Hindi: Moorva, Garbhedaro • Tamil: Perumkurumpa • Malayalam: Perunlurumpa • Telugu: Chaga • Kannada: Manjinaru • Khasi: jyemi longwan • Nepali:Ghoryu • Sanskrit: Murva, Morata

:Grows in India, Ceylon to South East Asia, the Philippines and South China.Chonemorpha fragrans is found in dense mountain forests, often clinging to trees.

Chonemorpha fragrans  is a perennial lactiferous climbing shrub grows on bushes and hedges, flowering profusely from May – July. Growing dormant in sub-tropical and tropical climates and usually losing leaves if temperature gets below 60F. The plants have pubescent to almost tomentose branches, leaves and inflorescences. Large, corrugated, ovate leaves to 40 cm long, deep glossly green, opposite, pale and hairy beneath. Very fragrant, funnel-shaped, showy flowers to 8 cm across with long-peduncled and terminal cymes. Corolla cream with yellow center. Disk cupular with many seeds, ovate-shaped, compressed, with scanty endosperm, with a tuft of hairs at one end, dark brown. The plant is widely grown as a fence cover.

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The flowers deceptively resemble the Frangipani. It is one of the powerful climbers of the Indian and Malayan forests, climbing to the tops of the tallest trees. Flowers are pure white with a yellow center, and have a delicious rich fragrance. Even without the leaves, the vine is eye-catching with large shiny leaves with prominent veins.  Flowering May-July.

Medicinal  Uses:
Parts Used :
Roots, Leaves.
Plant pacifies vitiated vata, kapha, skin diseases, diabetes, cough, jaundice, worm infestations, ulcers, wounds, fever and constipation.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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Canna indica


Botanical Name : Canna indica – L.
Family: Cannaceae
Genus: Canna
Species: C. indica
Order: Zingiberales
Synonyms :Canna annaei André.,Canna aurantiaca Roscoe.,Canna barbadica Bouché
Common Name : saka siri, Indian shot, canna, bandera, chancle, coyol, or platanillo, Kardal in Marathi, Sanskrit : vankelee, sarvajaya

Habitats :  Original habitat is obscure, but it is found by the coast and in temperate valleys of the Andes.  They grow in  S. America. W. Indies. Locally naturalized in the warmest parts of S. Europe.

Perennial, growing to 1.5 m (5ft) by 0.6 m (2ft in).
It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in flower from Aug to October, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs).
The seeds are small, globular, black pellets, hard and heavy enough to sink in water.[4] They resemble shotgun pellets giving rise to the plant’s common name of Indian Shot. They are widely used for jewellery. The seeds are also used as the mobile elements of the kayamb, a musical instrument from Réunion, as well as the hosho, a gourd rattle from Zimbabwe, where the seeds are known as “hota” seeds.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It cannot grow in the shade.It requires moist soil.

Requires a deep rich well-drained soil in a sunny position. The plant has large leaves and dislikes windy conditions since this can tear the leaves to shreds. This species is probably hardy in the mildest areas of Britain but even then it should be given a good mulch if left in the ground overwinter. Plants have survived temperatures down to about -5°c overwinter with us. This species is often grown as a summer bedding plant in Britain, especially in sub-tropical bedding schemes. In colder areas of the country the tubers can be harvested in late autumn after the top growth has been killed back by frost and stored over winter. They should be kept in a cool but frost-free place covered in moist soil or leaves[1]. Plants are cultivated for their edible root in the Tropics. Slugs love the young growth in spring and can cause serious damage to plants.

Seed – pre-soak for 24 hours in warm water and sow February/March in a warm greenhouse at 20°c. Plant the seeds 2 – 5cm deep in individual pots. Scarifying the seed can speed germination, especially if the seed has not swollen after being soaked. The seed usually germinates in 3 – 9 weeks. Grow the plants on in a greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division of the root clump as the plant comes into growth in the spring. Each portion must have at least one growing point. Pot up the divisions and grow them on in the greenhouse until they are well established and then plant them out in the summer. Root cuttings.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit;  Root.

Root – cooked. The source of ‘canna starch’, used as an arrowroot. The arrowroot is obtained by rasping the root to a pulp, then washing and straining to get rid of the fibres. The very young tubers are eaten cooked, they are sweet but fibrousy. Roots contain about 25% starch[61]. There is one report that this plant has an edible fruit but this is somewhat dubious, the fruit is a dry capsule containing the very hard seeds.

Medicinal Uses
Demulcent;  Diaphoretic;  Diuretic;  VD;  Women’s complaints.
The plant is used in the treatment of women’s complaints. A decoction of the root with fermented rice is used in the treatment of gonorrhoea and amenorrhoea. The plant is also considered to be demulcent, diaphoretic and diuretic[218].

Other Uses
Dye;  Fibre;  Insecticide;  Paper.

The plant yields a fibre – from the stem? – it is a jute substitute. A fibre obtained from the leaves is used for making paper. The leaves are harvested in late summer after the plant has flowered, they are scraped to remove the outer skin and are then soaked in water for 2 hours prior to cooking. The fibres are cooked for 24 hours with lye and then beaten in a blender. They make a light tan brown paper. A purple dye is obtained from the seed. Smoke from the burning leaves is said to be insecticidal.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.



Canna edulis

Botanical Name :Canna edulis
Family: Cannaceae
Genus: Canna
Species: C. indica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Zingiberales
Syn. : Canna achiras – Gill.,Canna esculenta – Lodd.

Common Names :Arrowroot, Indian Shot, saka siri, Indian shot, canna, bandera, chancle, coyol, or platanillo, Kardal in Marathi, Sanskrit : vankelee, sarvajaya

Habitat :Native of the Caribbean and tropical Americas.By the coast and in temperate valleys of the Andes. Usually found at the edges of moist thickets or in ditches

Canna edulis is a widely  garden plant. It is a small herbaceous perennial plant  growing from 0.5m to 2.5m, depending on the variety. It is hardy to zone 10 and is frost tender. In the northern latitudes, it is in flower from August to October, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite.It is tender to hard frosts, but can be grown practically anywhere if its rhizomes are dug up during winter.

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Cultivation:Canna edulis need full sun to partial shade with a well-drained soil. In the greenhouse, we use a soil mix consisting of 1 part peat moss to 2 parts loam to 2 parts sand or perlite. The soil is kept moist at all times for optimum growth. Plants are fertilized on a weekly basis with a balanced fertilizer. They are very vigorous growers and will out grow most containers very quickly. Division of clumps in containers should be done on a yearly basis. As flowers fade, the stalks should be cut back to the ground.

Plants commonly die back during cold months, only to leaf out and bloom during warmer months. Plants enjoy regular water during the warm months. Plant in full sun, part sun, or shade. They can be grown in pretty much any type of soil. If growing in cold winter areas, dig up the rhizomes and store them in a cool area for the winter, then plant out after frost has past.

Propagation: By seeds, or by rhizomes.Canna edulis are propagated by division and by seed. The hard seed coat needs to be scarified and soaked in water for 24 hours. Seeds germinate in 14-21 days after sowing.

Edible uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves; Root; Seed click to see  
Root – raw or cooked. It is the source of ‘canna starch‘ which is used as an arrowroot. The arrowroot is obtained by rasping the root to a pulp, then washing and straining to get rid of the fibres. This starch is very digestible. The very young tubers can also be eaten cooked, they are sweet but fibrousy. The root can be very large, sometimes as long as a person’s forearm. In Peru the roots are baked for up to 12 hours by which time they become a white, translucent, fibrous and somewhat mucilaginous mass with a sweetish taste. The starch is in very large grains, about three times the size of potato starch grains, and can be seen with the naked eye. This starch is easily separated from the fibre of the root. The roots contain about 25% starch. The dry matter contains about 75 – 80% starch, 6 – 14% sugar, 1 – 3% protein, it is high in potassium, low in calcium and phosphorus. Young shoots – cooked and eaten as a green vegetable. Quite nutritious, containing at least 10% protein. The immature seeds are cooked in fat tortillas.

Ground rhizomes can also be used in baking. Arrowroot was once a vital crop of the Incas.

Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.

Leaves (Fresh weight):-

*0 Calories per 100g
*Water: 0%
*Protein: 10g; Fat: 0g; Carbohydrate: 0g; Fibre: 0g; Ash: 0g;
*Minerals – Calcium: 0mg; Phosphorus: 0mg; Iron: 0mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
*Vitamins – A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0mg; Niacin: 0mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;

Root (Dry weight)

*0 Calories per 100g
*Water: 0%
*Protein: 3g; Fat: 0g; Carbohydrate: 80g; Fibre: 0g; Ash: 0g;
*Minerals – Calcium: 0mg; Phosphorus: 0mg; Iron: 0mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
*Vitamins – A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0mg; Niacin: 0mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;

Medicinal Uses: None known

Other uses:
Grown  as an ornamental for its red flowers.The starch from the roots is sometimes used as a laundry starch or for sizing[


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Calophyllum Inophyllum

Botanical names :
Calophyllum Inophyllum Linn
Family : Clusiaceae /Mangosteen
Subfamily: Kielmeyeroideae
Tribe: Calophylleae
Genus: Calophyllum
Species:C. inophyllum
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Synonyms : Calophyllum Bintagor Roxb
Common names :  Punnappoovu
English :Alexandrian Laurel, Tamanu, Pannay Tree, Sweet Scented Calophyllum.
Borneo Mahagany… Bengali: Punnang… Marathi: Undi… Burmese: Pongnyet… Cutchi: Udi… Hindi: Undi, Surpan, Surpunka, Sultan Champa… Konkani: Undee-phal… Malyalam: Cherupuna, Ponnakum, Sinhalese: Domba, Dombagaha, Teldomba, Sultanchampa… Tamil:Nagam,Nameru, Pinmai,Punnagam, Punnai, Punnagum, Punnaivirai. Pinnay…Telagu: Pumagamu, Ponnvittulu, Ponnachettu…Hawaiian: Kamani

Habitat : Bitaog (as it is most usually called) is found throughout the Philippines along the seashores. It is native to Tropical Asia and its geographical distribution area also includes Melanesia and Polynesia. It grows near the sea coast throughout India. In French Polynesia, the Tamanu tree is widespread on most of the islands. It grows primarily in the coral sands and on the sea shore, although specimens may be found in valleys. Its seeds sprout easily in muddy and saline soils. The Motu (coral reefs), which surround the volcanic islands, are covered with Tamanu trees; they are very much appreciated for their fragrant flowers and elegant foliage and are thus planted along avenues. Kamani, as it is also known, was brought north to Hawai from the South Pacific islands in early migrations of Polynesian settlers. Also called Alexandrian laurel, true kamaniwas probably introduced by seed, which is how it is propagated. This native of the Pacific and of tropical Africa, grows slowly along sandy shores and in lowland forests. It was cultivated in villages, near houses and also in groves away from villages. When found growing in windy areas, it is sometimes in a picturesque form.

Cultivated for in Manila and large towns use as shade tree on lawns, avenues and boulevards, particularly along the beach.


The tree is a medium-sized to large tree, reaching a height of 20 meters  and has a thick trunk covered with a rough, black and cracked bark. Leaves are leathery, shiny, elliptic to obovate-elliptic, 9-18 cm long, narrowed to a pointed base and somewhat rounded tip. Flowers are fragrant, white, 2 – 2.5 cm diameter, borne on axillary racemes 5 to 10 cm long. Flowers have a sweet, lime-like fragrance. The tree, which flowers twice a year, is said to attain a great age Fruit is round, yellow, smooth, pulpy, 3-4 cm in diameter.

You may click to see the pictures…...(01).…….(1)……(2).(3)…..(4)


The numerous fruits, arranged in clusters, are spherical drupes. Once ripe, their smooth, yellow epidermis discloses a thin layer of pulp, which tastes somewhat of apple. The gray, ligneous and rather soft nut contains a pale yellow kernel, which is odourless when fresh.

Constituents :
*Kernels reported to contain 70-75% bitaog oil.
*Oil is reported to contain a poisonous resin to which its color and oder are due.
*Bark yields 11.9 % tannin; exudes oleoresin when cut.
*Resin reported to contain benzoic acids.
*Seeds contain coumarins: calanolide A and B.
*Study yields inocalophyllins A, B and methylesters from the seeds. source

Medicinal Uses:-
Parts Used :Kernels, bark, leaves.


*Oil is considered vulnerary, cicatrising, rubefacient and irritant.
*Resinn considered sudorific.
*Fruit infusion is considered pectoral.
*Bark is considered astringent, emetic, purgative, demulcent.
*Considered antiinflammatory, antiviral, anticancer, antibacterial.
*Milky juice is irritant and blinding to the eye.

Folkloric :
*Gas pains, indigestion, colic: Crush some kernels and apply on abdomen.
*Infusion or decotion of leaves used for disorders of the eye.
*Balsam (oleoresin) from the bark used as cicatrizant.
*Oleoresin sometimes taken internally for lung ailments.
*Gum resin from the bark applied to wounds and old sores.
*Oil used as external application for indigestion and colic.
*Poultice of leaves or water from pressed leaves used as astringent for hemorrhoids.
*Pounded bark applied to orchitis.
*Infusion of leaves taken for heatstroke.
*Oil used externally as an antiinflammatory, for rheumatism and gout.
*Crushed kernels on affected joints in rheumatism.
*In Hawaii, bark resin used for ulcers.

*In the Netherland Indies, decoction of bark taken internally after childbirth.
*In Java, used for its diuretic properties.
*In Fiji, leaves usedas lotion for sore eyes.
*In Indo-China, pounded bark used used for orchitis; bark also used for dysentery and intestinal colds.
Astringent juice from the bark used as purgative; decoction used for internal hemorrhages.
*In Samoa, leaves used for skin inflammation, leg ulcers and wounds.
*In India, the gum from wounded branches, mixed with strips of bark and leaves, is steeped in water, and the oil that separates and surfaces is used for application to sore eyes. Also, oil is used as external applications for rheumatism and gout.
Oil used for scabies.
*In the Netherland Indies, compound decoction of the bark with other barks, used internally after childbirth, for vaginal discharges, passing of blood and gonorrhea.

*In India, leaves are used for migraines, vertigo, ophthalmia; the seed oil, for gout, leprosy, scabies and dysuria. source.

Other Uses:

*Trees are normally planted along the highways, roads to stop soil erosion.
*The tree is  a popular ornamental plant.
*Wood is hard and strong and has been used in construction or boatbuilding.
*Fragrant flowers used for boquets and wreaths; also, used to decorate women’s hair.
*The thin, rounded seed shells used as containers for “buri” sugar which are sold as confection.
*Oil used as illuminant; for making soap; also used as varnish.
*Oil used in many cosmetic products.
*Considered a biodiesel potential.
*In Samoa, the plant is used for production of arrow poison.

•Anti-tumor / Chemopreventive: Cancer chemopreventive agents, 4-phenylcoumarins from Calophyllum inophyllum: A screening of ten 4-phenylcoumarins isolated from C inophyllum showed some of them might have a potential for cancer chemoprevention.
• Cytotoxicity: Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from Calophyllum inophyllum: Study yielded a new prenylated xanthone, caloxanthone N, with two other known constituents. Study showed compounds with cytotoxicity against chronic myelogenous leukemia cell lines.
• Antimicrobial: Antimicrobial Activity of Fractions and Compounds from Calophyllum brasiliense: Some of the compounds isolated (protocatechuic acid and 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone) showed antimicrobial activity, confirming and justifying the traditional use of the plants to treat infectious processes.
• Inophylline A / Larvicidal: Study of roots yielded a new prenylated pyranoxanthone, Inophyllin A, with triterpenes friedelin and stigmasterol and suggests a potential for a natural larvicide.
• Antitumor: Study of ten 4-phenylcoumarins of Calophyllum inophyllum showed some of them with a potential as cancer chemoprotective agents.
Xanthones: Study of the leaves of C inophyllum isolated a new xanthone named inophyxanthone A and four known compounds: pancixanthone A, gerontoxanthone b, jacareubin and pyranojacareubin.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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Callicarpa macrophylla

Botanical Name : Callicarpa macrophyllaVahl.
Family: Verbenaceae
Genus: Callicarpa
Species: C. macrophylla
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Sanskrit Names :Priyangu, Phalini, Kantha, Lata, Mahila, Cundra, Gandhaphala, Syama, Viswaksena, Kanthapriya, Angana priya.
Hindi Names :Phul priyangu, Gandha Priyangu, Budighasi, Daia, Dahiya

Habitat : E. Asia – Himalayas., grows in Bengal, Assam and sub-Himalayan tracts up to 1800 m. Swampy localities and ravines. Waste places and roadsides to 1800 metres. Mixed forests at elevations of 100- 2000 metres in China.

A deciduous erect Shrub growing to 2.5 m (8ft 2in)high with opposite simple leaves with white tomentose beneath, rose flowers, crowded in axillary peduncled globose cymes, fruits white drupes.
click to see
It is hardy to zone 9. It is in flower from Jun to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)


The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires moist soil.

Requires a sunny position or light dappled shade. Prefers a highly fertile well-drained loamy soil. This species is only likely to be hardy in the very mildest parts of Britain, requiring a warm sunny corner. Requires cross-pollination for good fruit production. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.

Seed – sow February in a greenhouse. Only just cover the seed. Germination usually takes place within 1 – 3 months at 18°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter, planting them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood 10cm long, July/August in a frame. High percentage. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season’s growth with a heel taken in early spring.

Edible Uses :-
Fruit – raw. The white spongy fruit is sweet and succulent when fully ripe.

Medicinal Uses:
Part Used : Flower bud, seed.
Anti rheumatic;  Aromatic;  PoulticeStomachic.

Used in :Sudorific, wound, ulcers, seed powder in gum bleeding, therapeutic smoking

The leaves are heated and applied as a poultice to ease the pain of rheumatic joints. A decoction of the leaves is used in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery. A juice made from the leaves mixed with equal portions of Drymaria diandra and Oxalis corniculata is used in the treatment of gastric troubles. The root is chewed to relieve rashes on the tongue. A paste made from the roots is used to treat fevers. The juice of the root is used to treat indigestion. An oil obtained from the roots is aromatic and stomachic. It is assumed that this is an essential oil. The inner bark is pounded and used as a poultice on cuts and wounds. The fruits are chewed to treat boils on the tongue. The juice of ripe fruits is used in the treatment of indigestion and fevers.

Other Uses
Wood – soft. It is used as a fuel.
The leaves can also be use to make a herbal drink or as decorations.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Butea superba

 Botanical name : Butea superba Roxb.
Family : Papilionaceae; Fabaceae.
Species:    B. superba
Kingdom:    Plantae
Sanskrit  synonyms :Latapalasa
Common Names : Phul, Kesu, Tesu phool
Plant name in different language :
English : Red kwao kruva.
Hindi : Latapalas
Malayalam : Valli plash, Valli chamata

Habitat : Grows in Thailand and  throughout central and southern India .This plant can be found growing in forests in the Northern regions,the Eastern regions and along Kanchanaburi Province, of Thailand.

Description :
A perennial twinning shrub grows over trees and hedges. Leaves trifoliate, with equal sized oblong-ovate leaflets, petiole long and stipulate. Flowers yellowish papilonacious flowers, found in clusters. Fruits compressed pods bearing laterally compressed seeds.

One branch has 3 leaves and the flowers are of a yellowish orange color. This plant grows in the open and the long roots of the plant are buried under the ground, similar to the roots of a yam. The roots of the mature plant are 8 to 9 inches long before they turn into tubers in the shape of elephant tusks. On cutting, the tubers reveal many red fibers and leaks red sap. This type of plant reproduces through seeds and the separation of its roots.

Butea Superba has the characteristics of being a crawling vine that wraps itself around large trees. One branch has three leaves. The flowers are of a yellowish orange color, and the plant grows in the open area. The long roots of the plant are buried under the ground, similar to the roots of a yam.
Click to see :History of Butea Superba :

Chemical Constituents: The tuberous roots of Butea superba were found to contain flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides as well as sterol compounds, including ?-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol

Medicinal Uses:
Parts Used : Bark, Leaves, Flowers, Seeds, Gum.
Plant pacifies vitiated vata, kapha, hemorrhage, hemorrhoids, intestinal worms, diabetes, colic, flatulence, inflammation, hypertension, arthritis, sexual weakness, premature ejaculation and skin diseases. Watery sap from stems is used for drinking purposes. Bark is used in tonics and elixirs

The roots and stem of the plant are medicines used for strength and power. In addition, the roots and stem of the plant are considered to help increase male sexual performance. Thus, this plant has come to be known as a miracle herb. Since Butea Superba helps to enhance human health, it was considered to be an essential factor to entity the chemical constituents of this herb.

You may click to see :History of Butea Superba :

*The man behind Butea Superba :

*Research of Butea Superba :
*Effects of Butea Superba :
*Case Studies of Butea Superba  :

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.



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Mustard seeds

 Botanical Name:Brassica alba
Family: Brassicaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales
Synonym:  Sinapis alba
Common Name :Mustard, Sarson

Habitat :Mild white mustard (Sinapis hirta) grows wild in North Africa, the Middle East and Mediterranean Europe and has spread farther by long cultivation; brown or Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), originally from the foothills of the Himalaya, is grown commercially in the UK, Canada, Denmark and the US; black mustard (Brassica nigra) in Argentina, Chile, the US and some European countries. Canada grows 90% of all the mustard seed for the international market. The Canadian province of Saskatchewan produces almost half of the world’s supply of mustard seed.


Both white and brown mustard are grown as spring-sown annual crops whose dry seeds are harvested in early autumn. From very small seedlings, the plants grow rapidly and enter a phase of dense flowering; the blooms have an intense yellow colour. The plants reach their full height of 1.5 to 2 m (5 to 61/2 feet) as their flowers fade and after numerous green seedpods appear on their branches. The pods of brown mustard contain up to 20 seeds each, those of white mustard contain up to 8 seeds. Mustard plants are easy and inexpensive to grow; they flourish on many different types of soil, suffer from unusually few insect pests or plant diseases, and tolerate extremes of weather without serious harm.

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Edible Uses:Mustards are several plant species in the genera Brassica and Sinapis whose small mustard seeds are used as a spice and, by grinding and mixing them with water, vinegar or other liquids, are turned into the condiment known as mustard. The seeds are also pressed to make mustard oil, and the edible leaves can be eaten as mustard greens.

Mustard,  any of several herbs belonging to the mustard family of plants, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), or the condiment made from these plants’ pungent seeds. The leaves and swollen leaf stems of mustard plants are also used, as greens, or potherbs. The principal types are white, or yellow, mustard (Sinapis alba), a plant of Mediterranean origin; and brown, or Indian, mustard (Brassica juncea), which is of Himalayan origin. The latter species has almost entirely replaced the formerly used black mustard (Brassica nigra), which was unsuitable for mechanized cropping and which now occurs mainly as an introduced weed.

The use of mustard seeds as a spice has been known from the earliest recorded times and is described in Indian and Sumerian texts dating back to 3000 bc. Mustard plants are mentioned frequently in Greek and Roman writings and in the Bible. In the New Testament, the tiny mustard seed is a symbol of faith. Mustard seed was used medicinally by Hippocrates, among other ancient physicians. During the 20th century, the use of mustard as a spice or condiment has grown to the extent that it is by far the largest spice by volume in world trade. Mustard is unusual among spices in that it is mainly grown in the temperate regions of the world, principally on the Canadian and American Great Plains, in Hungary and in Britain, and in lesser amounts in other countries. In the main producing countries, the crop production of mustard is fully mechanized.


Mustard seeds, both white and brown, are nearly globular in shape, finely pitted, odourless when whole, and pungent-tasting. White mustard seeds are light yellow in colour and about 2.5 mm (1/10 inch) in diameter; brown mustard seeds are about the same size but are a darker yellow in colour. The seeds of both types contain similar constituents: about 30 to 40 percent vegetable oil, a slightly smaller proportion of protein, and a strong enzyme called myrosin. When dry or when ground into a flour, the seeds are odourless, but when the seed is chewed or when the flour is mixed with water, a chemical reaction between two of the constituents within mustard, an enzyme and a glucoside, produces an oil that is not present as such in the plant. In brown mustard this action yields the volatile oil of mustard, which has a pungent, irritating odour and an acrid taste. In white mustard the result is sinalbin mustard oil, a nonvolatile oil that has very little odour but produces a sensation of heat on the tongue.

As a condiment, mustard is sold in three forms: as seeds, as dry powder that is freshly mixed with water for each serving to obtain the most aroma and flavour, and prepared as a paste with other spices or herbs, vinegar or wine, and starch or flour to tone down the sharpness. The differing flavours of white and brown mustard are used in different condiments; the pungent brown is used in French-type paste mustards, and the white is used in milder American- or German-type pastes, while both types are used in English mustard products. Mustard is widely used as a condiment with various foods, particularly cold meats, sausages, and salad dressings. It is also used as an ingredient in mayonnaises, sauces, and pickles. Mustard plasters were formerly used in medicine for their counterirritant properties in treating chest colds and other ailments.

Click to see : Mustard (condiment),       Mustasa

Medicinal Uses:
Mustard Seed has long been relied upon to improve the digestive system and to promote a healthy appetite. As an irritant, Mustard stimulates the gastric mucous membrane and increases the flow of gastric juices (also having some effect on pancreatic secretions), all of which help to advance good digestion. Herbalists have also used Mustard Seed to relieve obstinate hiccups.

The mucilage content in Mustard Seed may help to calm an upset stomach due to acid indigestion and also produces a laxative action.

Mustard Seed is a stimulant that warms and invigorates the circulatory system.  It helps to dilate blood vessels, encourages blood flow and is also said to aid in the metabolism of fat in the body.

Mustard See is also considered a diaphoretic, an agent that helps to increase perspiration, which can lower fever and cleanse toxins from the body through the skin. This factor is also useful for colds and flu.

One of the oldest uses of Mustard Seed has been as an emetic, a medicine that provokes vomiting. This is especially valuable when used in narcotic poisoning when it is desirable to empty the stomach without the accompanying depletion and depression of the system.

Used externally, Mustard Seeds are famous for their rubefacient properties by dilating the blood vessels and increasing the blood flow toward the surface of the skin, warming and reddening the affected area and encouraging the removal of toxins.  Poultices and Mustard plasters are a tried-and-true remedy to relieve the pain of arthritic joints, rheumatism, sciatica, neuralgia, neck pain, backache, “charley horse” and muscle pain.

Mustard Seed’s topical use also extends to the relief of respiratory infections when used in baths, poultices and mustard plasters.  Mustard Seed helps treat bronchitis, chest congestion, pneumonia, croup and pleurisy.

Other Uses:
Although some varieties of mustard plants were well-established crops in Hellenistic and Roman times, Zohary and Hopf note that: “There are almost no archeological records available for any of these crops.” Wild forms of mustard and its relatives the radish and turnip can be found over west Asia and Europe, suggesting that their domestication took place somewhere in that area. However, Zohary and Hopf conclude: “Suggestions as to the origins of these plants are necessarily based on linguistic considerations.”

There has been recent research into varieties of mustards that have a high oil content for use in the production of biodiesel, a renewable liquid fuel similar to diesel fuel. The biodiesel made from mustard oil has good cold flow properties and cetane ratings. The leftover meal after pressing out the oil has also been found to be an effective pesticide.

An interesting genetic relationship between many species of mustard has been observed, and is described as the Triangle of U.

Brown mustard, which is related to rapeseed, is grown as a source of vegetable oil and is an important crop for this purpose in northern India, Pakistan, China, southern Russia, and Kazakhstan. The oil is used for food or for industrial purposes, with the residual cake used for animal feed.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Blepharis edulis

Botanical Name : Blepharis edulis / Blepharis persica
Family: Acanthaceae
Genus: Blepharis
Species: B. edulis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales
Sanskrit name : Sunishannaka, Uttagana
English Name: Rohida Tree
Hindi Name: Uttanjan

Habitat : It is found in India, Pakistan and Iran.In Thar desert and also in Africa

Description :
Blepharis edulis is a small, grey-pubescent or nearly glabrous perennial herb found in the Thar desert and in Africa...…CLICK & SEE…….………………………………….Click to see the picture

Click to see the picture
The stem is rigid and leaves are four in each node. The flowers are blue, in strobilate inflorescence. The capsules are 2-seeded. Blepharin was identified from the seeds. The seeds are considered aphrodisiac, and are also resolvent and diuretic.

Medicinal Uses:
Part Used: Seeds
The seeds of this plant are used for various medicinal purposes in India.

Click to see :
*Medicinal Uses of Uttanjan(Blepharis edulis )

*Investigation Of Aphrodisiac Potential Of Blepharis
edulis Linn.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Biophytum sensitivum-3

Biophytum sensitivum

Botanical Name : Biophytum sensitivum
Family: Oxalidaceae
Genus: Biophytum
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Order: Oxalidales

Common Names :  life plant, alleluya (French), jhalai (Bengali), alm bhusha,  lajjaalu, lakshmana (Hindi), hara muni, jalapushpa (Kannada),  mukkutti (Malayalam), jharera, lajwanti (Marathi), jhullipuspa,  lajjalu,  panktipatra, pitapushpa, vipareetalajjaalu (Sanskrit), nilaccurunki, tintaanaalee (Tamil), attapatti, chumi, jala puspa,  pulicenta (Telugu), damong-bingkalat (Tag.), damong-huya (Bis.), guyankan (Sub.), hoya-hoya (P. Bis.), makahiang-lalaki (Tag.), lubi-lubi (P. Bis.), mahihiin (Ilk.), makahia (Tag.), niug-niug (Sul.).  Look-a-likes: Biophytum dendroides, which is considerably larger

Habitat :A common weed found in wet lands (mostly plains) of tropical Africa, Asia and India. Normally in the shade of trees and shrubs, in grasslands, open thickets, at low and medium altitudes.

Description: Biophytum is a genus of about 50 species of annual and perennial herbaceous plants
Biophytum sensitivum is truly a remarkable little plant, it looks like a miniature palm but don’t be fooled: it belongs to the wood-sorrel family. The little plant rarely exceeds 20cm (8”) in height and forms an unbranched woody erect stem. All leaves grow from the endpoint and are made of 8 to 17 pairs of leaflets. Each leaflet is up to 1.5 cm (0.5”) long and what makes them really remarkable is their ability to fold together – call it an extreme form of “sleep movement” which is exhibited by a lot of members in this family. When applying pressure, tapping or damaging them they neatly fold together in a few seconds. Tapping the leaf once more makes it droop down, often cascading the effect to adjacent leaves. This plant also displays this behaviour (albeit slower) when the level of light drops at night. This ability is not restricted to the leaves, the peduncle which carries the flowers has the same ability and also drops at night. This mechanism is probably a means against insects which would otherwise damage the plants, but this is peculiar since plants from this family contain poisonous oxalate.

The flowers (1cm ?) are normally yellow, white or orange with a red/orange streak in the center of each of the 5 petals. Not only do they look like miniature Primula flowers, they share a threat with this genus which is quite interesting: heterostyly. Heterostyly in Biophytum sensitivum is responsible for 3 flower morphs. The three morphs (tristylous) each have a stable difference in pistil- and stamen length:

*long-styled: the stigmas emerge above the stamen
*mid-styled: the stigmas sit at a level between two layers of stamina
*short-styled: the stigmas are located at the bottom, above it two levels of stamina

The flowers are many, and crowded at the apices of the numerous peduncles. The sepals are subulate-lanceolate, striate, and about 7 millimeters long. The fruit is a capsule which is shorter than the persistent calyx.

The flowers are many, and crowded at the apices of the numerous peduncles. The sepals are subulate-lanceolate, striate, and about 7 millimeters long. The fruit is a capsule which is shorter than the persistent calyx.

The flowers on the same plant are all of the same morph. This mechanism normally assures self-incompatibility because pollen from a long/mid/short stamen will only set seed if it’s germinating on a matching long/mid/short style. But oddly enough you’ll find that your Biophytum sensitivum can readily set seed without intervention. The reason is that there’s a 4th less-known and rarer morph: the homostyled form. Homostyly is rare in plants that show tristyly, but quite common in Biophytum sensitivum. This fourth morph is a form where the pistils are the same length as the stamen and has been the source of much confusion in the propagation of these plants. These homostyled morphs are true from seed when selfed, and can be recognized by a pure yellow flower which is a bit smaller than the heterostylous plants. This is quite important to know since this species is actually an annual. They can grow much longer than a year in cultivation but they’ll eventually give up, at which time it’s best to have a small batch of seeds. Selfing isn’t really an issue and the homostyled plants will happily set seed without intervention. The plants remain viable for many generations and seeds from commercial sources probably come from homostyled forms which could imply a very narrow genetic diversity.

A few sources mention that this plant can be found as a lithophyte. No photographic evidence backs this up.

Cultivation & Propagation:
The species has been widely adopted by terrarium growers due to its compact but attractive habit. They require an average warm (20-30°C) humid environment and will be at their best when a regular misting is applied. The temperature is allowed to drop to 16°C in winter but try not to go lower as it can lead to death – remember that this species is actually an annual.

They thrive on a rich soil that is slightly acidic in pH. They neither like wet nor dry soil, so add sand to the soil mix and water regularly to keep it damp. Reduce watering in Winter but don’t let it go dry. As a standard medium you can mix 2 parts general purpose garden centre soil, 1 part washed sand or perlite, 2 parts leafmould and 1 part peat. Grow them in a container of 15 cm diameter, don’t repot adults as the root system is quite delicate.

Biophytum sensitivum enjoys a position in bright indirect light. Too much direct sunlight can cause the leaflets to curl and shrivel but you might want to experiment. Too little light will result in dwarfed plants with a small number of leaves. Place them on a North-facing window or in a well-lit terrarium.

Biophytum sensitivum is easily propagated from seed. To get a good seedset read the guidelines regarding heterostyly in the introduction. There’s one more thing you should know: the seeds are catapulted away from the plant. Each seed is enveloped by a stiff and a flexible fleece, this builds up a tension as it dries. When the seed is mature the flexible part detaches and the seed is shot away. To harvest the seeds before they’re flung away wait until the seedpod opens (revealing a star-shaped structure with the brown seeds in 5 rows) and pinch the whole seedpod off by pressing it between thumb and index finger. Now gently rub the seeds so that the fleece comes off.

Sow the seeds in Spring on a lighter variation of the soil for mature plants: use only half a part of leafmould (or none at all) instead of 2 parts. Place the seeds on top of the soil and cover the container with transparent plastic or glass to increase humidity. Don’t place them in direct sunlight but in a bright position at 25°C. Seedlings can sometimes tumble over because the small roots have difficulty penetrating the soil – gently add a small amount of soil around them. Plant them in individual pots once they grow 2 leaves with 6 leaflets each.

Medicinal Uses:

Biophytum sensitivum has been studied in pharmacy and holds considerable potential in ethnobotany – don’t use it to make your own potions. In the Philippines the seeds (applied in the form of a powder) are used as a vulnerary. The roots in the are administered in cases of gonorrhea and bladder stone. Bruised leaves are applied to contusions. A recent work (unpublished) of Dr. F. Garcia indicates that the plant is a promising cure for diabetes mellitus, he claims that it contains an insulin-like component. Gross reports that an infusion of the leaves is useful as an expectorant. Apparently the plant is used in Brazil as an antiasthmatic, and also against scorpion stings. It is also a reputed medicine for tuberculosis. Crevost and Petelot say that the plant is given in India and Java against asthma. The annual Biophytum sensitivum is a traditional medicine in Nepal.

Ayurveda also see this little herb as a good medicine, used as a tonic, stimulant and in the treatment of stomachache, diabetes and asthma.

Other Uses:
In Kerala the flower of Biophytum sensitivum is used in athapoo, special floral formation that adores courtyards and public places during Onam, the national festival of Kerala.

It is a very good indoor plant

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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Barringtonia acutangula

Botanical Name :Barringtonia acutangula Gaertn
Family: Lecythidaceae
Genus: Barringtonia
Species: B. acutangula
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales
Barringtonia edaphocarpa Gagnep
Barringtonia pedicellata Ridley
Barringtonia spicata Blume

Common Names :
Ingar, Ambuja, Hijjala, Samudraphala, Dhatri phala, Indian Oak

:Native to coastal wetlands in southern Asia and northern Australasia, from Afghanistan east to the Philippines and Queensland.
Barringtonia racemosa is mainly a coastal species that thrives under very humid, moist conditions. It is common along tropical and subtropical coasts in the Indian Ocean, starting at the east coast of South Africa. It is also common in Mozambique, Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Thailand, Laos, southern China, northern Australia, the Ryukyu Islands of Japan and a number of Polynesian islands. It does grow well under dry conditions but it cannot tolerate even mild frost

Barringtonia acutangula is a midium size freshwater mangrove tree  or shrub  grows in alluvium sandy clay  on banks of river & creeks,floodplains. It has a straight, unbranched stem that leads to a rounded crown and is usually 4-8 m tall, but occasionally reaches 15 m. The bark is greyish brown to pink with white blotches and raised dots and lines. The branches are marked with leaf scars.
The leaves are alternate and carried in clusters at the ends of branches, are 180-320 x 55-145 mm, with petioles 5-12 mm long. The midribs are prominent on the lower side of the leaf and the branching veins are visible on both sides.

click to see the pictures…..>.....(1).…....(2).…....(3).…....(4)..…...(5)……..(6).
The flowers are produced on hanging racemes up to 1 m long.It blooms during January -December.  The buds are pinkish red and split open to bring forth masses of delicate stamens in white sprays up to 35 mm wide, which are often tinged with pink. The flowers give off a pungent, putrid yet faintly sweet odour in the morning. The fruit are quadrangular, 65 x 40 mm. Each fruit contains a single seed surrounded by spongy, fibrous flesh that provides the buoyancy that allows the fruit to be carried off with the tide.

Click to see for more pictures:

Conservation status
: Barringtonia racemosa is not threatened in any way.

Medicinal Uses:
Its bark contains potent opioid painkillers.The fruit is spoken of as Samudra-phala and Dh?triphala or “nurse’s fruit,” and is one of the best known domestic remedies. When children suffer from a cold in the chest, the seed is rubbed down on a stone with water and applied over the sternum, and if there is much dyspnoea a few grains with or without the juice of fresh ginger are administered internally and seldom fail to induce vomiting and the expulsion of mucus from the air passages. To reduce the enlarged abdomen of children it is given in doses of from 2 to 3 grains in milk. Rumphius states that the roots are used to kill fish, and this use of the bark is known in most parts of India. The fish are said to be not unwholesome.
Barringtonia racemosa has similar properties, the bark, root and seed being bitter. Ainslie states that in Java and in Ternate the seeds are used for intoxicating fish. The powdered seeds of these plants induce sneezing.

You may click to see :-
*Antibacterial activity of Barringtonia acutangula against selected urinary tract pathogens

* Traditional use of Barringtonia acutangula Gaertn in fish farming

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Leaves and buds of Barringtonia racemosa ... Lá và tràng n? hoa c?a cây L?c V?ng, L?c M?ng ...

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