Tag Archives: Sweat gland

Body Oder

Definition & Causes:
Body odor, or B.O., bromhidrosis, osmidrosis and ozochrotia, is a perceived unpleasant smell our bodies can give off when bacteria that live on the skin break down sweat into acids – some say it is the smell of bacteria growing on the body, but it really is the result of bacteria breaking down protein into certain acids.

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Body odor usually becomes evident if measures are not taken when a human reaches puberty – 14-16 years of age in females and 15-17 years of age in males. People who are obese, those who regularly eat spicy foods, as well as individuals with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, are more susceptible to having body odor…

People who sweat too much – those with hyperhidrosis – may also be susceptible to body odor, however, often the salt level of their sweat is too high for the bacteria to break down – it depends where the excess sweating is occurring and which type of sweat glands are involved.

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.Body odour is caused by a natural process involving sweat that occurs on the skin’s surface. Sweat is odourless, but if left on the skin the bacteria that normally live there feed on it and break it down. This process releases chemicals that cause the unpleasant smell.

Some areas of the skin, such as the armpits and genitals, are more likely to produce body odour because these glands produce proteins and oily substances that bacteria feed on.

The feet produce their own characteristic odour. We tend to wrap them in socks and shoes, making them hot and humid and allowing fungi, as well as bacteria, to flourish.

According to Medilexicon’s medical dictionary:
Bromhidrosis (or bromidrosis) is a “fetid or foul-smelling perspiration. Apocrine bromhidrosis affects the axillae after puberty, and eccrine bromhidrosis is generalized, with excessive sweating.”

Sweat itself is virtually odorless to humans; it is the rapid multiplication of bacteria in the presence of sweat and what they do (break sweat down into acids) that eventually causes the unpleasant smell. The smell is perceived as unpleasant, many believe, because most of us have been brought up to dislike it. Body odor is most likely to occur in our feet, groin, armpits, genitals, pubic hair and other hair, belly button, anus, behind the ears, and to some (lesser) extent on the rest of our skin.

Body odor can have a nice and specific smell to the individual, and can be used – especially by dogs and other animals – to identify people. Each person’s unique body odor can be influenced by diet, gender, health, and medication.

Two types of acid are commonly present when there is body odor:

*Propionic acid (propanoic acid) is commonly found in sweat – propionibacteria break amino acids down into propionic acid. Propionibacteria live in the ducts of the sebaceous glands of adult and adolescent humans. Some people may identify a vinegar-like smell with propionic acid, because it is similar to acetic acid, which gives vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell.

*Isovaleric acid (3-methyl butanoic acid) is another source of body odor as a result of actions of the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis, which are also present in several strong cheese types.
Body odor can smell pleasant and specific to the individual and can be used to identify people, though this is more often done by dogs and other animals than by humans. An individual’s body odor is also influenced by diet, lifestyle, gender, genetics, health and medication.

Sweating and our sweat glands:-

The average human body has three to four million sweat glands, of which there are two types:

*Eccrine glands a type of simple sweat gland that is located in almost all areas where there is skin. They produce sweat that reaches the skin’s surface via coiled ducts (tubes). When sweat evaporates from the skin the body is cooled. Eccrine glands are responsible for regulating our body’s temperature.

*Apocrine glands – these glands are found in the breasts, genital area, eyelids, armpits and ear. In the breasts they secrete fat droplets into breast milk. In the ear they help form earwax. Apocrine glands in skin and the eyelids are sweat glands.

Genetics:
Body odor is largely influenced by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. These are genetically determined and play an important role in immunity of the organism. The vomeronasal organ contains cells sensitive to MHC molecules in a genotype-specific way. Experiments on animals and volunteers have shown that potential sexual partners tend to be perceived more attractive if their MHC composition is substantially different. This behavior pattern promotes variability of the immune system of individuals in the population, thus making the population more robust against new diseases.

One study suggests that body odor is genetically determined by a gene that also codes the type of earwax one has. East Asians (those of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese descent) have the type of sweat glands that even after hitting puberty still don’t produce the chemicals found in the perspiration of other ancestral groups. East Asians evidently have a greater chance of having the ‘dry’ earwax type and reduced axial sweating and odor. This may be due to adaptation to colder climates.

Why  you should  be aware of it?
Medical research shows that people with body odour might suffer from severe problems in their personal and social relationships. It might also impact their work life — with colleagues and seniors avoiding them. They might not get full rewards of their hard work which in turn might wreck promotion prospects at work. For kids it might lead to educational under-achievement because of teasing and bullying along with enormous degrees of stress which is blamed for their frequent progression into alcoholism, excessive tobacco or drug use and in some cases to suicide.

Feelings of shame, embarrassment, low self-esteem, isolation, frustration, anxiety and depression are extremely common where body odour is present.

Although sufferers and their families have been shown to gain considerable benefit from sympathetic counseling, and while learning to deal with the stress this condition causes is certainly important – long-term strategies and approaches which deal with underlying causes of increased body odour are probably a lot more important.

It is important to know how to deal with the problem of body odour if you are suffering from it. If someone in your personal, social or professional circle suffers from body odour then there is a need to find out a way to address the issue mindfuly and delicately to avoid future embarassment to the person.

 

Symptoms:
The symptom is an unpleasant smell that may be worse in hot and sweaty conditions. The actual smell varies from person to person. The ‘recipe’ of sweat is individual.

Body odour may be influenced by diet. Certain foods, such as curry, garlic and strong spices, contain chemicals that may be excreted in the skin.

The smell almost always disappears with a shower or bath, but can return rapidly, especially if a person puts on unwashed clothes covered in old sweat and bacteria.

 

Diagnosis:
In the vast majority of cases of body odor it is not necessary to see your doctor. The individual himself/herself may be aware of it, or a good friend or a member of the household may tell them about their body odor. There are some self-care techniques that will usually successfully treat the problem.
Most people can easily recognise body odour. Unfortunately, the person who has it may be so accustomed to their own smell that they don’t notice.

When to see your doctor:
Some medical conditions may change how much a person sweats, while others can alter how we sweat, subsequently changing the way we smell. For example, hyperthyroidism (an over-active thyroid gland) or the menopause can make people sweat much more, while liver disease, kidney disease, or diabetes can change the consistency of sweat so that the person smells differently. You should see your doctor if:

*You start sweating at night

*You start sweating much more than you normally do, without any logical reason

*You have cold sweats

*Sweating disrupts your daily routine

*You body smells differently – if it is a fruity smell it could be due to diabetes, liver or kidney disease often makes the individual have a bleach-like smell.

Treatment:
#.Armpits – a large concentration of apocrine glands exist in the armpits, making that area susceptible to rapid development of body odor.

*Keep the armpits clean – wash them regularly using anti-bacterial soap, and the number of bacteria will be kept low, resulting in less body odor.

*Hair under the armpits slows down the evaporation of sweat, giving the bacteria more time to break it down into smelly substances; shaving the armpits regularly has been found to help body odor control in that area.

*Deodorant or antiperspirant – deodorants make the skin more acidic, making the environment more difficult for bacteria to thrive. An antiperspirant blocks the sweating action of the glands, resulting in less sweating. Some studies, however, have indicated that antiperspirants may be linked to breast cancer or prostate cancer risk; this study suggests that the evidence is inconclusive either way.

*Botulinum toxin – this is a toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum; it is the most poisonous biological substance known. However, very small and controlled doses are today being used in various fields of medicine. A relatively new treatment is available for individuals who sweat excessibely under the arms.

The patient is given approximately 12 injections of botulinum toxin in the armpits – a procedure that should not last more than 45 minutes. The toxin blocks the signals from the brain to the sweat glands, resulting in less sweating in the targeted area. One treatment can last from two to eight months. In countries where free universal healthcare is available, such as the NHS (National Health Service), UK, botulinum toxin therapy for excessive underarm sweating is not usually available and most patients will have to do it privately (pay for this specific treatment).

#.Wash daily with warm water – have a shower or bath at least once a day. Remember that warm water helps kill off bacteria that are present on your skin. If the weather is exceptionally hot, consider bathing more often than once a day.

#Clothing – natural fibers allow your skin to breathe, resulting in better evaporation of sweat. Natural-made fibers include wool, silk or cotton.

#Spicy foods – curry, garlic and some other spicy (piquant) foods have the potential to make some people’s sweat more pungent. Some experts believe a diet high in red meat may also raise the risk of developing more rapid body odor.

#Aluminum chloride – this substance is usually the main active ingredient in antiperspirants. If your body does not respond to the home remedies mentioned above, talk to a pharmacist or your doctor about a suitable product containing aluminum chloride. Follow the instructions given to you carefully.

#Treatment for smelly feet (bromodosis) – smelly feet are less of a problem socially than underarm B.O. because the unpleasant odor is usually contained by shoes and socks. However, the smell may become obvious if the person with smelly feet visits a home where shoes are taken off before entering, as is the custom in various countries and homes. The following steps may help control food odor:

*Wash your feet in warm water regularly – this means at least once a day. Remember that warm water is better at killing off bacteria than cold water. Tea-tree oil, when added to water, helps kill off bacteria (do not apply tea-tree oil directly to skin). Make sure you dry your feet thoroughly afterwards, including in between your toes.

*Socks – they must allow the sweat to evaporate. The best socks are those made of a combination of man-made fibers and wool. Wear a clean pair of socks each day.

*Shoes – if you wear trainers or shoes with plastic linings make sure it is not for long. A leather lining is better for sweat evaporation. If you have a problem with sweaty feet, do not wear the same pair of shoes two days in a row – shoes do not completely dry overnight.

*Pumice stone – bacteria thrive on dead skin. If the soles of your feet have patches of dead skin remove them with a pumice stone.

*Deodorants and antiperspirants – ask your pharmacist for special foot deodorants and antiperspirants. If you have athlete’s foot you should not use deodorants or antiperspirants – treat the fungal infection first with appropriate medication.

*Go around barefoot – whenever you can walk around barefoot, or at least slip out of your shoes regularly.

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*Home Remedies for Body Odor
*7 Tips To Manage Body Odour
*Home Remedy for Body Odor & Herbal Care   :

 

 

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/bodyodour2.shtml
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/173478.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_odor

http://www.copperwiki.org/images/c/c7/Odor.jpg

http://www.copperwiki.org/index.php/Body_Odour

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Perickly Heat (Miliaria)

Prickly Heat or Miliaria (miliaria rubra, sweat rash ) is a skin disease marked by small and itchy rashes. Miliaria is a common ailment in hot and humid conditions, such as in the tropics and during the summer season. Although it affects people of all ages, it is especially common in children and infants due to their underdeveloped sweat glands.

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It is a skin rash caused by trapped sweat under the skin. Sweat can become trapped when the narrow ducts through which sweat travels to the surface become clogged. Prickly heat tends to be more common in warmer, more humid climates. The condition usually appears on the torso and thighs.
Pathology
Miliaria (Prickly Heat) occurs when the sweat gland ducts get plugged due to dead skin cells or bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, a common bacterium that occurs on the skin which is also associated with acne. The trapped sweat leads to irritation (prickling), itching and to a rash of very small blisters, usually in a localized area of the skin.

Prickly heat develops when the narrow ducts carrying sweat to the skin surface get clogged. The trapped sweat causes inflammation, which produces irritation (prickling), itching, and a rash of very tiny blisters. Prickly heat also can appear as large, reddened areas of skin.
Prickly heat results when sweat glands are blocked and ruptured, and sweat is trapped below the skin.

Clinical features:
Symptoms of miliaria include small red rashes, called papules, which may itch or more often cause an intense ‘pins-and-needles’ prickling sensation. These rashes may simultaneously occur at a number of areas on a sufferer’s body, the most common including the face, neck, under the breasts and under the scrotum. Other areas include skin folds, areas of the body that may rub against clothing, such as the back, chest, and stomach, etc. A related and sometimes simultaneous condition is folliculitis, where hair follicles become plugged with foreign matter, resulting in inflammation.

The following are the most common symptoms of prickly heat. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently:

*itching
*irritation (prickling)
*small blisters
*large, red areas on skin
The symptoms of prickly heart may resemble other dermatologic conditions. Consult a physician for diagnosis.

The symptoms relating to miliaria should not be confused with shingles as they can be very similar. Shingles will restrict itself to one side of the body but also has a rash-like appearance. It is also accompanied by a prickling sensation and pain throughout the region. Those who suspect they have shingles and not miliaria should seek medical advice immediately as the sooner antivirals are taken, the better.

Other types of miliaria:
In a similar mild condition called miliaria crystallina, instead of small rashes, there are tiny blisters that look like beads of perspiration. miliaria profunda, sometimes referred to as Wildfire due to the rapid spread and severe burning sensations, is a severe form of miliaria caused by a complication due to repeated outbreaks of miliaria rubra, the sweat ducts are completely blocked. This inability to sweat may cause the patient to be prone to heat exhaustion. Once triggered, a severe attack of miliaria commonly lasts 5-6 weeks because the plugs which form in the sweat duct openings can only be cast off by the outward growth of the sweat duct cells.

The most severe forms of prickly heat have very similar symptoms to severe burns. The term Wildfire is used because the generation of excess heat and the inability to expel the heat can lead to a cascade effect where the trapped sweat causes blisters to break, the immune system, adrenal system, and patient psychological response to the pain and panic response to the rapidly spreading rash causes additional biological activities and heat and the entire system cascades (or breaks down). The rash can be visually seen to progress rapidly similar to scenes from various horror movies, accompanied by the associated pain which will become quite severe.

Prevention:
Prickly heat can be prevented by avoiding activities that induce sweating, using air conditioning to cool the environment, wearing light clothing and in general, avoiding hot and humid weather. If that is not possible, and especially if air conditioning is unavailable or unaffordable, then taking multiple showers throughout the day (and night as well if needed) to unplug and clean the sweat glands is the best defense against it.


Treatment:

The condition usually clears up when sweating is avoided. Other treatment may include:

  • keeping the skin cool and dry
  • corticosteroid lotions

There is currently little in the way of specific medical treatment, but in most cases the rashes disappear by themselves. Severe infections can last weeks. Early and continuous treatment of minor infections can effect recovery within a matter of days. Staying in an air-conditioned environment to avoid sweating will speed-up the healing process and lessen symptoms. Anti-itch lotions, such as calamine and topical steroid creams can be used to sooth and control the itching. Use caution however as anything which blocks the release of sweat and heat and in particular oil based products block the glands and slow the defoliation process and should be avoided. Antibiotics and topical antiseptics are used to prevent bacterial blooms, reducing the chances of the sweat glands being plugged and causing inflammations. In some cases, vitamin A and C supplements can help shorten the duration and severity of the symptoms. Prickly heat powders, using antibacterial agents and ingredients like menthol and camphor with mild analgesic and cooling properties, can be applied to the affected areas to relieve the itching and discomfort. Healing takes time even when bacteria are reduced as new sweat gland cells need time to regrow as the damaged cells defoliate.

Instead of medicating, it is usually best to simply keep the skin clean by taking multiple showers to keep affected areas clean and sweat free. Stay calm and stay cold. Dunking in cold water is effective. Mild antibacterial soaps may be helpful as well to slow spread and prevent future outbreaks. In most cases, these simple steps alone will make the rashes disappear naturally in a few days. If they persist, it may be advisable to consult a doctor in case a more serious infection is occurring.

In the cases where the rash has caused open blisters to form a doctor should be consulted immediately as the open sores are almost certain to infect and cause secondary problems without preventative measures.

Homeopathy :
To prevent heat rash, take a 30C dose of Sol three times a day for up to three weeks, writes Andrew Lockie, M.D., in his book The Family Guide to Homeopathy. If you do develop a rash, Dr. Lockie recommends trying a 30C dose of Apis as soon as the prickling or itching sensation starts. Take this remedy every two hours for up to ten doses, he says, and repeat this routine daily, if necessary.
Sol and Apis are available in many health food stores. To purchase homeopathic remedies by mail, refer to the resource list on page 637.

Food Therapy
To get over heat rash more quickly, increase your intake of essential fatty acids,   advises Julian Whitaker, M.D., founder and president of the Whitaker Wellness Center in Newport Beach, California. “Salmon and other cold water fish (such as herring and mackerel) are excellent sources of these fatty acids, as are flaxseed oil and dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach.” Flaxseed oil is available in most health food stores.

Hydrotherapy :
Take an alkaline bath to soak away heat rash, suggests medical pathologist Agatha Thrash, M.D., co-founder and co-director of Uchee Pines Institute, a natural healing center in Seale, Alabama. Add one cup of baking soda to a tub filled with lukewarm water (94 to 98°F; you can use a regular thermometer to check) and soak for 30 to 60 minutes, using a cup to pour the water over any part of the body that isn’t submerged in the bath. Pat dry.

HOME REMEDY FOR PRICKLY HEAT

Ayurvedic Treatment for Prickly Heat

Simple Remedy for Prickly Heat

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prickly_heat
http://www.umm.edu/dermatology-info/prickly.htm
http://www.mothernature.com/Library/Bookshelf/Books/21/126.cfm
http://www.merck.com/mmhe/print/sec18/ch206/ch206b.html

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Hyperhidrosis Or Excessive Sweating

Hyperhidrosis – Hyperhidrosis is a medical condition in which a person sweats excessively and unpredictably. People with hyperhidrosis can sweat even when the temperature is cool, and when they are at rest.Hyperhidrosis affects millions of people around the world  nearly 3% of the population, according to some studies.In simple terms, hyperhidrosis is a medical disorder characterized by excessive sweating. This kind of excessive sweating typically occurs either on your palms (palmar hyperhidrosis), in your underarms (axillary hyperhidrosis), on your face (facial hyperhidrosis), or in your feet (plantar hyperhidrosis).
Hyperhidrosis is a physical condition caused by excessive sweating in the body. Hyperhidrosis is caused due to malfunctioning of the sympathetic nervous system or disorders of the sweat glands. Curesweatyplams provides the best excessive perspiration treatment.

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Sweat Gland – a simple tubular gland of the skin that excretes perspiration, is widely distributed in nearly all parts of the human skin, and consists typically of an epithelial tube extending spirally from a minute pore on the surface of the skin into the dermis or subcutaneous tissues where it ends in a convoluted tuft.

Causes:

Though we in our ignorance often loosely use the term sweat problem for a lot of people who display the symptoms described above, they may actually be suffering from hyperhidrosis, which is a serious medical condition, and which requires proper diagnosis and treatment. Though excessive sweating causes are many the primary causes are still unknown but the secondary causes range from anxiety, obesity and psychological tension. Hyperhidrosis symptoms can be dripping sweat, odor along with sweat, stained clothes due to sweat and inferiority complex due to sweat

Under ordinary conditions, the hypothalamus, which is the part of the brain that regulates sweat-related functions, sends sensory signals to the sweat nerves. These nerves — part of the sympathetic nervous system located in the chest cavity — in turn send the signals to the sweat glands, causing the latter to produce sweat. As a result of hyperhidrosis, the sweat glands disobey these signals, as it were, and produce substantial volumes of sweat that then seek outlets on your underarms, face, palms and feet.

Types Of Hyperhidrosis:

Hyperhidrosis can either be generalized or localized to specific parts of the body. Hands, feet, armpits, and the groin area are among the most active regions of perspiration due to the relatively high concentration of sweat glands. When excessive sweating is localized (e.g. palms, soles, face, underarms, scalp) it is referred to as primary or focal hyperhidrosis. Generalized or secondary hyperhidrosis usually involves the body as a whole and is the result of an underlying condition.

Hyperhidrosis can also be classified depending by onset, either congenital or acquired. Focal hyperhidrosis is found to start during adolescence or even before and seems to be inherited as an autosomal dominant genetic trait. Primary or focal hyperhidrosis must be distinguished from secondary hyperhidrosis, which can start at any point in life. The latter form may be due to a disorder of the thyroid or pituitary glands, diabetes mellitus, tumors, gout, menopause, certain drugs, or mercury poisoning.

Hyperhidrosis may also be divided into palmoplantar (symptomatic sweating of primarily the hands or feet), gustatory hyperhidrosis, generalized and focal hyperhidrosis.

Alternatively, hyperhidrosis may be classified according to the amount of skin affected and its possible causes. In this approach, excessive sweating in an area greater than 100 cm2 (16 in2) (up to generalized sweating of the entire body) is differentiated from sweating that affects only a small area .

Broadly, hyperhidrosis can be categorized into two types: primary and secondary. There are four major areas of the body that are typically more susceptible to primary hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating induced by natural causes) than others .

Primary hyperhidrosis

When your excessive sweating is not caused by any other medical condition, or is not a side effect of any drugs that you may be under, you are suffering from primary hyperhidrosis. You may also find that the condition is described as focal hyperhidrosis. In such cases, the excessive sweating occurs on specific (or focal) parts of the body, the most affected areas being the hands, feet, underarms, and face.

Research has shown that the first signs of primary hyperhidrosis are often detected in childhood or early adolescence. Plenty of sufferers tend to sweat less excessively when at rest or asleep, though that is not always the case. There is also a theory that the sweat problem is hereditary, though there has been no conclusive research on this. Areas of the body most vulnerable to primary hyperhidrosis are :your face, underarm, hands and feet.
Secondary Hyperhidrosis

This type of excessive sweating (also called generalized hyperhidrosis) is caused by a usually unrelated medical condition (e.g. menopause), or is a side effect of a particular drug. In other words, it is everything that primary hyperhidrosis is not. There are two other significant differences: people suffering from secondary hyperhidrosis typically experience sweating on generalized  or larger parts of the body, and they usually experience the excessive sweating even while at rest.

When there is excessive sweating under the arms it is called axillary hyperhidrosis (click & see)  sometimes some people have excessieve sewating on the face then it is called facial hyperhidrosis   (click & see)  and excessieve sweating on the feet is called plantar hyperhidrosis.(click & see)

Treatments:

Given the profound social and professional embarrassment that excessive sweating can cause, there have been several different approaches to the treatment of hyperhidrosis. These include herbal remedies, chemical lotions, oral medication and over-the-counter antiperspirants. However, none of these have cured hyperhidrosis .

Since a couple of decades ago, an extremely delicate form of invasive endoscopic surgery has been performed on patients to restrict the flow of neural transmissions to the sweat glands. Though many patients have reported an alleviation of the problem of excessive sweating, the surgical approach is beset by the appearance of certain side effects that can assume potentially dangerous consequences.

Yet another method of treatment is iontophoresis, a procedure that involves the administering of mild electrical currents to the affected areas to thicken the outer layer of the skin, thus blocking the flow of sweat to the skin’s surface. However, this method is absolutely out of the question for a large group of sufferers, which may include pregnant women, and cardiac and epileptic patients.

Another very recent development involves the use of Botox to treat hyperhidrosis. As of now, however, Botox has received FDA approval only for use in the treatment of underarm or axillary hyperhidrosis. Additionally, the relatively high cost of treatment and the fact that a top-up dose needs to be administered every 6-10 months means that not everyone has access to this treatment.

Some effective home remedies:
1.Saga Tea: For excessive sweating infuse one teaspoon of dried saga in a cup of boiling water for 15 minutes, strain and drink the tea 2-4 times a day.
2.Zinc: Take 30 to 50 mg. of zinc perday.
3. Tea bags: For sweaty hands or feet , boil 5 regular tea bags in a quart of water for 5 minutes, let it cool and soak hands or feet for 20 to 30 minutes at night before bed.
4. Always try to avoid more sugar, alcohol, and hot spicy food.
5.Drink plenty of pure water(6 to 8 glass a day) and this is essential.

 

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Regular Yoga Exercise with PRANAYAMA  under the guideline of  expert  cures the problem totally….click & see

Click & see :   The Many Health Benefits of Sweating

partly extracted from:http://www.hyperhidrosisweb.com/excessive-sweating.html

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