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Artemisia filifolia

Botanical Name : Artemisia filifolia
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Artemisia
Species: A. filifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Names: Sand Sage, Sand sagebrush and sandhill sage

Habitat : Artemisia filifolia is native to North America, where it occurs from Nevada east to South Dakota and from there south to Arizona, Chihuahua, and Texas. It grows on sandy soils in deserts and dry plains. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Description:
Artemisia filifolia is a deciduous and branching woody semi-evergreen shrub growing up to 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in) tall.   It has feathery, silver-blue foliage.

The stems are covered narrow, threadlike leaves up to 8 centimetres (3.1 in) long and no more than half a millimeter wide. The leaves are sometimes split into segments. They are solitary or arranged in fascicles. The inflorescence is a panicle of hanging flower heads. Each head contains sterile disc florets and 2 to 3 fertile ray florets. The fruit is a tiny achene. The achenes do not tend to disperse far from the parent plant.
The graceful, windswept form is compact and the whole plant is sweetly pungent. Flowers and fruit are inconspicuous.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
Cultivation:
Easily grown in a well-drained circumneutral or slightly alkaline loamy soil, preferring a warm sunny dry position. Established plants are drought tolerant. Plants are longer lived, more hardy and more aromatic when they are grown in a poor dry soil. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – surface sow from late winter to early summer in a greenhouse in a very free-draining soil, but make sure that the compost does not dry out. The seed usually germinates within 1 – 2 weeks in a warm greenhouse. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Division in spring or autumn.
Medicinal Uses:
Carminative; Miscellany; Stomachic.
The plant is carminative and stomachic. A tea is used in the treatment of indigestion. An infusion of the plant and juniper branches is used in the treatment of indigestion. A strong infusion of the plant is used as a lotion on snakebites. The plant is also used to treat boils. It is a hayfever plant.

Other Uses:
Sand sagebrush seed is sold commercially. It is sometimes used for revegetation efforts on rangeland and coal fields. The Navajo had several uses for the plant. It was used for ritual purposes. Being quite soft, it was used as toilet paper.Good for erosion control.

Known Hazards: Although no reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, skin contact with some members of this genus can cause dermatitis or other allergic reactions in some people.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemisia_filifolia
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Artemisia+filifolia
http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ARFI2

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Amelanchier bartramiana

Botanical Name : Amelanchier bartramiana
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Amelanchier
Species: A. bartramiana
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms : A. oligocarpa. Pyrus bartramiana.

Common Names: Mountain serviceberry, Mountain shadbush, Bartram‘s serviceberry, Mountain juneberry, Bartram juneberry, and the Oblongfruit serviceberry

Habitat :Amelanchier bartramiana is native to N. America – Labrador to Minnesota and south to Pennsylvania. It grows on the Peaty or boggy thickets, sphagnum bogs, bushy and mountain slopes to the sub-alpine zone.

Description:
Amelanchier bartramiana is a deciduous perennial Shrub or a tree growing to 3 m (9ft 10in). The leaves of Amelanchier bartramiana are either brown or green coloured, are egg-shaped and tapered at both ends with fine teeth almost to the base. It has 6–12 teeth while its lateral veins comes 10–16 pairs. Its petioles are 2–10 millimetres (0.079–0.394 in) long while its blades are ovate and elliptic. The flowers have five white petals, appearing singly or in clusters of up to four blossoms. The pomes are red, ripening to dark purple and are pear-shaped.

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The plant is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.
Cultivation:
Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade but thrives in any soil, including chalk, so long as it is not too dry or water-logged. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are hardy to about -30°c. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe. This species hybridises with A. sanguinea, A. humilis, A. stolonifera, A. fernaldii and A. canadensis. Grafting onto seedlings of A. lamarckii or Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing.

Propagation:
Seed – it is best harvested ‘green’, when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring – takes 18 months. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
The fruits are edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. The fruit contains a few small seeds at the centre, it is sweet but rather dry according to one report whilst others have found it to be sweet and juicy. The fruit can be added to pancakes or dried for later use. Fruits are oval or pear shaped unlike other members of this genus that have round fruits. They are 15mm long. The fruit is rich in iron and copper.

Medicinal Uses:
Not yet known.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amelanchier+bartramiana
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelanchier_bartramiana

Hibiscus trionum

Botanical Name : Hibiscus trionum
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Hibiscus
Species:H. trionum
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Malvales

Common Names: Flower-of-an-hour, Bladder hibiscus, Bladder ketmia, Bladder weed, Flower-of-the-hour, Modesty, Puarangi, Shoofly, and Venice mallow

Habitat : Hibiscus trionum is native to the Levant. It has spread throughout southern Europe both as a weed and cultivated as a garden plant. It has been introduced to the United States as an ornamental where it has become naturalized as a weed of cropland and vacant land, particularly on disturbed ground.

Description:
Hibiscus trionum is an annual/perennial plant.It grows to a height of 20–50 centimetres (7.9–19.7 in), sometimes exceeding 80 centimetres (31 in), and has white or yellow flowers with a purple centre. In the deeply pigmented centre of the flower, the surface features striations, which were previously considered to act as a diffraction grating, creating iridescence. Because of the irregularities of the plant cells and surface, the periodicity of the striations is however too irregular to create clear iridescence and thus the iridescence is not visible to man and flower visiting insects. The visual signal of the flower’s of H. trionum to flower visiting insects is thus determined by the white and red pigmentary coloration. The pollinated but unripe seedpods look like oriental paper lanterns, less than an inch across, pale green with purple highlights.

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The flowers of the Hibiscus trionum can set seed via both outcrossing and self-pollination. During the first few hours after anthesis, the style and stigma are erect and receptive to receive pollen from other plants. In the absence of pollen donation, the style bends and makes contact with the anthers of the same flower, inducing self-pollination. Although outcrossing plants seem to perform better than self-pollinating plants, this form of reproductive assurance might have contributed to the success of H. trionum plants in several environments.
Cultivation:
Prefers a well-drained humus rich fertile soil in a sheltered position in full sun   A very ornamental plant[1], it is an annual or short-lived perennial. Not very frost-tolerant, if started off early in a warm greenhouse it can be grown as an annual in Britain, flowering and setting seed in its first year.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a warm greenhouse. Germination is usually fairly rapid. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. If growing them as annuals, plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer and protect them with a frame or cloche until they are growing away well. If hoping to grow them as perennials, then it is better to grow them on in the greenhouse for their first year and to plant them out in early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Overwinter them in a warm greenhouse and plant out after the last expected frosts.
Edible Uses: Young leaves and young shoots – raw or cooked. Root – it is edible but very fibrousy. Mucilaginous, without very much flavour.
Medicinal Uses:
Diuretic; Skin; Stomachic.

The flowers are diuretic. They are used in the treatment of itch and painful skin diseases. The dried leaves are said to be stomachic

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hibiscus_trionum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Hibiscus+trionum

Ceanothus integerrimus

Botanical Name : Ceanothus integerrimus
Family: Rhamnaceae
Genus: Ceanothus
Species: C. integerrimus
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Name : Dear Brush

Habitat : Ceanothus integerrimus is native to Western N. America – Washington to California. It grows on dry slopes and ridges in pine and mixed evergreen forests, 300 – 2000 metres.

Description:
Ceanothus integerrimus is a deciduous shrub from 1–4 metres (3.3–13.1 ft) tall with an open ascending to erect branch habit.   It is a drought-tolerant phanerophyte. Nitrogen-fixing actinomycete bacteria form root nodules on Ceanothus roots. Its stems are round yellow to pale green in color with either small soft to straight stiff sharp hairs parallel to or in contact with the surface of the stem,.

The leaves are glossy, deciduous and 2.5–8 cm long. Leaves grow alternately on stems. The leaf petioles are less than 15 mm in length and the stipules are also deciduous. The leaf blade is lanceolate, elliptical or oblong to widely ovate in shape. Leaves can have one to two ribs from the base; they are also generally thin and have an acute to obtuse tip. Leaf margins are either entire or slightly dentate, more so towards the leaf tip. Leaf surfaces are light green and are ciliate or contain hairs visible only by magnification. The lower leaves are also hairy and lighter in color.

The flowers are white or blue and rarely pink in color. They are produced in raceme clusters of 15 centimeters or less and contain both male and female organs. The fruit is a sticky valved capsule about 4–5 mm in diameter with a slight crest; the seed is ejected from the capsule after splitting.

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It regenerates by seed, shoot formation from the crown and stem, and also by layering when branches come in contact with soil. It has been suggested that some Ceanothus species do not resprout from the root after the crown has burned as a result of fire where most other species are able to regenerate. Pollination of flowers is primarily by bees.

Seed production occurs after about four years of age. High densities of seeds occur in the upper soil of Ceanothus communities. Seeds remain viable up to 24 years or more. Seed dormancy is broken by the removal of the seed coat by fire scarification or physical disturbance. Seeds germinate best at about 1 inch soil depth in shady areas in the spring following fire scarification.

Varieties:
There are four weakly defined varieties of Ceanothus integerrimus. Identification is primarily by leaf morphology and flower color.

*Ceanothus integerrimus var. californicus. Leaves elliptic, lanceolate or oblong to ovate in shape and are three ribbed, from the leaf base. Leaf surfaces have small hairs and the undersides are less hairy than the surface. Flowers generally white or blue.

*Ceanothus integerrimus var. integerrimus.

*Ceanothus integerrimus var. macrothyrsus. Leaf blades oblong or ovate. Leaf bases are three ribbed at the base. Leaf surfaces are pubescent on both the surface and undersides. Flowers are white.

*Ceanothus integerrimus var. puberulus. Leaf blades elliptical or lanceolate and oblong to obovate in shape. Leaf base is three ribbed from the leaf base. Leaves are also pubescent on both sides. Flowers white…….CLICK & SEE

Ceanothus integerrimus hybridizes with Ceanothus tomentosus (Lemmon’s ceanothus) and Ceanothus cordulatus (mountain whitethorn).
Cultivation:
Prefers a warm sunny position but tolerates light shade. Tolerates some lime, but will not succeed on shallow chalk. Requires a well-drained soil. This species is hardy to about -10°c according to some reports whilst another says that it requires a sheltered position or the protection of a wall when grown outdoors in Britain. Plants dislike root disturbance, they should be planted out into their permanent positions whilst still small. Dislikes heavy pruning, it is best not to cut out any wood thicker than a pencil. Any pruning is best carried out in the spring. Fast growing but short lived, it flowers well when young, often in its second year from seed. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Some members of this genus have a symbiotic relationship with certain soil micro-organisms, these form nodules on the roots of the plants and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed should be pre-soaked for 12 hours in warm water and then given 1 – 3 months stratification at 1°c. Germination usually takes place within 1 – 2 months at 20°c. Another report says that the seed is best given boiling water treatment, or heated in 4 times its volume of sand at 90 – 120°c for 4 – 5 minutes and then soaked in warm water for 12 hours before sowing it. It then requires a period of chilling below 5°c for up to 84 days before it will germinate. The seed exhibits considerable longevity, when stored for 15 years in an air-tight dry container at 1 – 5°c it has shown little deterioration in viability. The seed is ejected from its capsule with some force when fully ripe, timing the collection of seed can be difficult because unless collected just prior to dehiscence the seed is difficult to extract and rarely germinates satisfactorily. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, taken at a node,   July/August in a frame[11]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, 7 – 12 cm with a heel, October in a cold frame. The roots are quite brittle and it is best to pot up the callused cuttings in spring, just before the roots break. Good percentage.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Seed.

Seed – raw or cooked. Used as pinole.
Medicinal Uses: The plant has been used by some native North American Indian tribes to treat women who have suffered injury in childbirth.

Other Uses:
Basketry; Dye; Miscellany; Soap.

A green dye is obtained from the flowers. Young flexible shoots can be used for the circular withes of baskets. All parts of the plant are rich in saponins – when crushed and mixed with water they produce a good lather which is an effective and gentle soap. This soap is very good at removing dirt, though it does not remove oils very well. This means that when used on the skin it will not remove the natural body oils, but nor will it remove engine oil etc. The flowers are a very good source, when used as a body soap they leave behind a pleasant perfume on the skin. The developing seed cases are also a very good source of saponins.

C. integerrimus is an important part of forest regeneration after wildfires by providing nitrogen. It does this by creating nitrogen rich patches in the soil. The nitrogen source is created by its root association with nitrogen fixing bacteria.

Deer and specifically mule deer feed on C. integerrimus. Porcupines and quail have also been observed eating the stems and seeds. Nutritionally leaves are a good source of protein and stems and leaves also contain high levels of calcium. However, nutritional quality of leaves is seasonal and appears to be best from fall to early spring.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceanothus_integerrimus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ceanothus+integerrimus

Xanthium spinosum

Botanical Name: Xanthium spinosum
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe: Heliantheae
Genus: Xanthium
Species: X. spinosum
KingdomPlantae
Order: Asterales

Synonym:  Spiny Clot Burr,  X. canadense. Mill.

Common Names:  Spiny cocklebur, Prickly burweed and Bathurst burr, Cocklebur, Rough cocklebur, Canada cocklebur

Habitat: : Xanthium spinosum, a native of South America, has now spread to at least 39 countries throughout the world, occurring between latitudes 43 egrees S and 50 degrees N. It is widely distributed in the mediterranean region and Europe, throughout most of Australia, in some coastal African countries, and in southern parts of South America and the United States. It is seldom found in the tropics. In California, spiny clotbur is common at low elevations throughout the state. It was introduced to the state, probably by way of Europe, sometime before 1870.
The plant grows along roads, in pastures, meadows, roadsides and disturbed areas. It is sometimes common around waterholes and along floodplains, canals, ditches, creek flats, river terraces, and other moist places

Description: 
Xanthium spinosum is an erect, rigid, much-branched annual herb, 0.8 m (2ft 7in) by 0.4 m (1ft 4in)   .( Stems are striate, yellowish or brownish gray, and finely pubescent. The cotyledons are linear-lanceolate in shape, differing in appearance from later developing leaves. True leaves are lanceolate, entire, toothed or lobed, 3-8 cm long, 6-26 mm wide, glabrous or strigose above, and silvery-tomentulose beneath. They are dull gray-green above with a conspicuous white midrib and short petioles (1 cm). Each leaf base is armed at the axil with yellow three-pronged spines 2-5 cm long, often opposite in pairs…..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Flower heads are in axillary clusters or often solitary. Flowers are inconspicuous, greenish, and monoecious; male flowers in almost globular heads in axils of upper most leaves, and female flowers in axils of lower leaves, developing into a bur. The bur is two–celled, oblong, nearly egg-shaped, slightly flattened, 10-13 mm long, 4 mm wide, pale yellowish, more or less striate, glandular, covered with slender, hooked, glabrous spines from more or less thickened bases, with the two apical beaks short and straight. Each bur contains two flattened, thick-coated, dark brown or black seeds, the lower germinating first.

Xanthium is derived from the Greek, xanthos, meaning “yellow” and is thought to refer to a yellow dye obtainable from some species.
Unlike cocklebur (X. strumarium), spiny clotbur has conspicuous narrower leaves tapering at both ends, short petioles, conspicuous three-pronged spines at the leaf base, and egg-shaped burs covered with hooked, thorny prickles.

Xanthic flowers belong to a type which are yellow in colour and can become white or red but never blue. These plants are spread as weeds or cultivated over a great part of the world.

Cultivation: Requires a sunny position, succeeding in most soils. Prefers a poor dry soil. Hardy to about -15°c. Plants often self sow and in some parts of the world have become noxious weeds.

Propagation: Seed – sow spring or autumn in situ. The seed requires plenty of moisture in order to germinate.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.….Leaves and young plants – cooked. They must be thoroughly boiled and then washed. Caution is advised, the plant is probably poisonous. Seed – raw or cooked. It can be used as a piñole. The seed can be ground into a powder and mixed with flour for making bread, cakes etc. The seed contains about 36.7% protein, 38.6% fat, 5.2% ash. It also contains a glycoside and is probably poisonous.

Part Used in medicines: The whole  herb.

Medicinal  Uses:  The leaves and root are anodyne, antirheumatic, appetizer, diaphoretic, diuretic, emollient, laxative and sedative. The plant is considered to be useful in treating long-standing cases of malaria   and is used as an adulterant for Datura stramonium. An infusion of the plant has been used in the treatment of rheumatism, diseased kidneys and tuberculosis. It has also been used as a liniment on the armpits to reduce perspiration. The fruits contain a number of medically active compounds including glycosides and phytosterols. They are anodyne, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, antitussive, cytotxic, hypoglycaemic and stomachic. They are used internally in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, catarrh, rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, constipation, diarrhoea, lumbago, leprosy and pruritis. They are also used externally to treat pruritis. The fruits are harvested when ripe and dried for later use. The root is a bitter tonic and febrifuge. It has historically been used in the treatment of scrofulous tumours. A decoction of the root has been used in the treatment of high fevers and to help a woman expel the afterbirth. A decoction of the seeds has been used in the treatment of bladder complaints. A poultice of the powdered seed has been applied as a salve on open sores.

A valuable and sure specific in the treatment of hydrophobia. An active styptic, local and general. Fluid extract, 1 to 2 drachms. 10 grains of the powdered plant, four times daily.

Other Uses:  …………Dye;  Essential;  Repellent;  Tannin....The dried leaves are a source of tannin. A yellow dye is obtained from the leaves. The seed powder has been used as a blue body paint. The dried plant repels weevils from stored wheat grain. The seed contains an essential oil.

Known Hazards : Poisonous. Most members of this genus are toxic to grazing animals and are usually avoided by them. The seed also contains toxins

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xanthium_spinosum
http://wiki.bugwood.org/Xanthium_spinosum
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cockle81.html

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Xanthium+strumarium