Tag Archives: Wood

Abies concolor

Botanical Name: Abies concolor
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Abies
Species: A. concolor
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales

Synonyms : Picea concolor.

Common Names: Colorado Fir, White fir

Habitat :Abies concolor is a fir native to the mountains of western North America(Oregon to California, to Arizona and New Mexico.), occurring at elevations of 900–3,400 m (3,000–11,200 ft).It is found on a wide range of soils, but preferring moist soils with a humid climate and a long winter from 700 metres to 3,400 metres.
Description:
Abies concolor is a medium to large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 25–60 m (82–197 ft) tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 2 m (6.6 ft).
The leaves are needle-like, flattened, 2.5–6 cm long and 2 mm wide by 0.5–1 mm thick, green to glaucous blue-green above, and with two glaucous blue-white bands of stomatal bloom below, and slightly notched to bluntly pointed at the tip. The leaf arrangement is spiral on the shoot, but with each leaf variably twisted at the base so they all lie in either two more-or-less flat ranks on either side of the shoot, or upswept across the top of the shoot but not below the shoot.

The cones are 6–12 cm long and 4–4.5 cm broad, green or purple ripening pale brown, with about 100–150 scales; the scale bracts are short, and hidden in the closed cone. The winged seeds are released when the cones disintegrate at maturity about 6 months after pollination

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It is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind. It is popular as an ornamental landscaping tree and as a Christmas tree. It is sometimes known as concolor fir.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:

Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant but growth is slower in dense shade. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope. Trees succeed on poor dry sites in the wild. Trees are shallow rooted and therefore liable to be wind-blown in exposed sites. Trees grow almost as well in S. Britain as they do in cooler areas of the country. They are at their best in the Perthshire valleys of Scotland and in N.E. England, trees in the south and east of the country tend to be thin in the crown and soon lose their shape. Trees in the west grow better but also lose their shape after a while. New growth is from mid-May to July and trees are virtually never damaged by late frosts or aphis. Most trees of this species that are grown in Britain are in fact the sub-species A. concolor lowiana. (Gordon.)Lemmon. This form tends to grow better in Britain than the type. There are 2 basic forms of this sub-species, those from the north of the range are vigorous in height growth whilst the southern form is vigorous in girth growth. They both have a potential for forestry use in Britain. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus. A very ornamental tree. The crushed leaves have a strong lemony scent. Special Features:Attractive foliage, North American native, Fragrant foliage, There are no flowers or blooms.

Propagation :
Seed – sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 – 8 weeks. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position.
Medicinal Uses:
The pitch from the trunk has been used as an antiseptic poultice for cuts, wounds etc. An infusion of the pitch, or the bark, has been used in the treatment of TB. An infusion of the foliage has been used in a bath for relieving rheumatism. An infusion of the pitch and leaves has been used in the treatment of pulmonary complaints.

Other Uses: .

Landscape Uses:Christmas tree, Firewood, Pest tolerant, Screen, Specimen.
A tan coloured dye can be obtained from the bark. Wood – very light, not strong, coarse grained, soft, not durable. Used mainly for pulp, cases etc. It is sometimes used in framing small houses but is not strong enough to be used in larger buildings. The wood lacks a distinctive odour and so does not impart a flavour to items stored in it. Thus it can be used for making tubs for storing food.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provid.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abies_concolor
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Abies+concolor

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Mysore Thorn (Caesalpinia decapetala )

 

Botanical Name: Caesalpinia decapetala
Family: Leguminosae
Genus : Caesalpinia
Synonyms: Caesalpinia sepiaria – Roxb.
Common names: Arrete-boeuf, bois sappan (French), caniroc, cat’s claw, kraaldoring (Afrikaans), kraaldoring, liane croc chien (English), Mauritius thorn (English), mauritiusdoring (Afrikaans), mubage, Mysore thorn (English), puakelekino (Hawaii), sappan (French-Reunion (La Réunion)), shoofly (English), thorny poinciana, ubobo-encane (Zulu), ufenisi (Zulu), ulozisi (Zulu-South Africa), wait-a-bit (English)


Habitat :
E. Asia – Himalayas to China.Hedges and open bushy places. Swampy localities and ravines to 1800 metres.Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Hedge;

Description:
It  is a tropical tree species originating in India.

It is as a robust, thorny, evergreen shrub 2-4 m high or climber up to 10 m or higher; often forming dense thickets; the stems are covered with minute golden-hair; the stem thorns are straight to hooked, numerous, and not in regular rows or confined to nodes. The leaves are dark green, paler beneath, not glossy, up to 300 mm long; leaflets up to 8 mm wide. The flowers are pale yellow, in elongated, erect clusters 100-400 mm long. Fruits are brown, woody pods, flattened, unsegmented, smooth, sharply beaked at apex, ± 80 mm long.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES

The medium-sized seeds may be dispersed by rodents and granivorous birds and running water. Trailing branches root where they touch the ground.

It has been introduced to Fiji, French Polynesia, Hawai‘i, New Caledonia, Norfolk Island, Australia, China, Japan, Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Mauritius, Reunion, Rodrigues, and South Africa. Is has become a seriously problematic invasive species in many locations.

In Hawai‘i, where it has the local name p?poki, it forms impenetrable brambles, climbs high up trees, closes off pastures to animals and impedes forest pathways

It is hardy to zone 8. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. It can fix Nitrogen.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil.

Similar Species: Caesalpinia scortechinii, Caesalpinia subtropica

Cultivation:
Requires a sunny position, succeeding in any moderately fertile well-drained soil[200] including limy soils. This species is on the borderline of hardiness in Britain. However, C. japonica, which is considered to be no more than a variety of this species by many botanists, succeeds on a wall at Wisley to the west of London and is said to be hardy to about -10°c. Its natural range is Japan where it grows at heights up to 2000 metres on rocky mountain slopes in the cooler regions of the country. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.

Propagation
Seed – pre-soak for 12 – 24 hours in warm water and sow in a greenhouse in early spring. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter, planting them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Softwood cuttings in sand in a frame.

Medicinal Uses:
Anthelmintic; Antiperiodic; Astringent; Emmenagogue; Febrifuge; Laxative; Purgative.

Anthelmintic, antiperiodic, astringent, febrifuge. The leaves are emmenagogue and laxative.The bitter tasting stems and roots can be used medicinally. They are applied externally to burns. The root is purgative.

Other Uses

Hedge; Tannin; Wood.

The bark is a rich source of tannin. Plants are often grown as field boundaries in Nepal. An excellent hedge plant. However, due to its doubtful hardiness it is not a good candidate for this use in Britain. Wood – moderately hard.

Caesalpinia decapetala is used as a landscaping plant as a hedge or an ornamental in China and elsewhere.  Bark & other parts of the plant are useful in the chemical industry (Hao et al. 2004). The fruits and bark are rich in tannin. With an oil content of 35 percent, the seeds serve as a source of lubricant and soap (Hao et al. 2004).

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Caesalpinia+decapetala
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesalpinia_decapetala
http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?fr=1&si=510

http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/229822/

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Tung Tree(Aleurites fordii)

Botanical Name: Aleurites fordii
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Genus: Vernicia

Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order
: Malpighiales
Species: V. fordii

Synonyms: Vernicia fordii – (Hemsl.)Airy Shaw. Aleurites fordii Hemsl

Common Name: Tung Tree 

 Vernacular Names :   Tung Oil Tree, Tung-oil Tree, Tungoil Tree, China Wood-Oil Tree, Kalo Nut Tree,  (lit. oil tung) being the formal name in Chinese.

Habitat :Native to southern China, Burma, and northern Vietnam;  E. Asia – Central and Western China. . Base of foothills esp. in rocky places, to 1000 metres in W. China. Montane sparse forests at elevations of 200-1500, occasionallyto 2000 metres.

Description :
It is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree growing to 20 m tall, with a spreading crown. The bark is smooth and thin, and bleeds latex if cut. The leaves are alternate, simple, 4.5–25 cm long and 3.5–22 cm broad, heart-shaped or with three shallow, maple-like lobes, green above and below, red conspicuous glands at the base of the leaf, and with a 5.5–26 cm long petiole. The flowers are 2.5–3.5 cm diameter, with five pale pink to purple petals with streaks of darker red or purple in the throat; it is monoecious with individual flowers either male or female, but produced together in the inflorescences. The flowers appear before or with the leaves in loose, terminal clusters. The fruit is a hard, woody pear-shaped drupe 4–6 cm long and 3–5 cm diameter, containing four or five large, oily seeds; it is green initially, becoming dull brown when ripe in autumn.
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It is hardy to zone 10 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, in flower in March, and the seeds ripen from September to November. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant is self-fertile.
The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation :
One report says that the plant is very tolerant of soil conditions. It is easily grown in a loamy soil but the plants are unable to withstand much frost. Requires a lime-free soil[200]. The Tung tree is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation of 64 – 173cm, average temperatures ranging from 18.7 – 26.2°C, and a pH of 5.4 – 7.1. Tung trees are very exacting in climatic and soil requirements. They require long, hot summers with abundant moisture, with usually at least 112 cm of rainfall rather evenly distributed through the year. Trees require 350 – 400 hours in winter with temperatures 7.2°C or lower – without this cold requirement, trees tend to produce suckers from the main branches. Vigorous but not succulent growth is the most cold resistant – trees are susceptible to cold injury when in active growth. Production of tung is best where day and night temperatures are uniformly warm. Much variation reduces tree growth and fruit size. Trees grow best if planted on hilltops or slopes, as good air-drainage reduces losses from spring frosts. Contour-planting on high rolling land escapes frost damage. Tung makes its best growth on virgin land. Soils must be well-drained, deep aerated, and have a high moisture-holding capacity to be easily penetrated by the roots. Green manure crops and fertilizers may be needed. Dolomitic lime may be used to correct excessive acidity; pH 6.0 – 6.5 is best; liming is beneficial to most soils in the Tung Belt, the more acid soils requiring greater amounts of lime. Trees are not very cold hardy outdoors in Britain. Another report says that they are fairly hardy. A very ornamental tree, it is cultivated in China for the oil contained in its seed. There are some named varieties.  Seedlings generally vary considerably from parent plants in growth and fruiting characters. Seedlings which have been self-pollinated for several generations give rather uniform plants. Only 1 out of 100 selected ‘mother’ tung trees will produce seedlings sufficiently uniform for commercial planting. Usually seedling trees outgrow budded trees, but budded trees produce larger crops and are more uniform in production, oil content and date of fruit maturity.

Propagation:-
Seed – sow March/April in a warm greenhouse. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least the first winter in a greenhouse. Plant out in early summer and give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors. Tung seed are normally short-lived and must be planted during the season following harvest. Seeds are best hulled before planting, as hulls retard germination. Hulled seed may be planted dry, but soaking in water for 5 – 7 days hastens germination. Stratification, cold treatment or chemical treatment of seeds brings about more rapid and uniform germination. Dry-stored seed should be planted no later than February; stratified seed by mid-March; cold-treated and chemical treated seed by early April. Cuttings of mature wood in a frame. Most successful budding is done in late August, by the simple shield method, requiring piece of budstock bark, including a bud, that will fit into a cut in the rootstock bar. A T-shaped cut is made in bark of rootstock at point 5 – 7.5 cm above ground level, the flaps of bark loosened, shield-bud slipped inside flaps and the flaps tied tightly over the transplanted bud with rubber budding stripe, 12 cm long, 0.6 cm wide, 0.002 thick. After about 7 days, rubber stripe is cut to prevent binding. As newly set buds are susceptible to cold injury, soil is mounded over them for winter. When growth starts in spring, soil is pulled back and each stock cut back to within 3.5 cm of the dormant bud. Later, care consists of keeping all suckers removed and the trees well-cultivated. Spring budding is done only as a last resort if necessary trees are not propagated the previous fall.

Edible Uses:-
Edible Parts: Seed.

Seed. There are no more details but the report should be treated with caution since the oil from the seed is said to be poisonous.

Medicinal Actions & Uses
Antibacterial; Antiphlogistic; Emetic; Vermifuge.

The oil from the seed is used externally to treat parasitic skin diseases, burns, scalds and wounds . The poisonous oil is said to penetrate the skin and into the muscles, when applied to surgical wounds it will cause inflammation to subside within 4 – 5 days and will leave no scar tissue after suppressing the infection. The plant is emetic, antiphlogistic and vermifuge. Extracts from the fruit are antibacter.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Other Uses:-
Insecticide; Oil.

The seed contains up to 58% of a superior quick-drying oil that is used in the manufacture of lacquers, varnishes, paints, linoleum, oilcloth, resins, artificial leather, felt-base floor coverings, greases, brake-linings and in clearing and polishing compounds. Tung oil products are used to coat containers for food, beverages, and medicines; for insulating wires and other metallic surfaces, as in radios, radar, telephone and telegraph instruments . During World War II, the Chinese used tung oil for motor fuel. It tended to gum up the engines, so they processed it to make it compatible with gasoline. The mixture worked fine . The oil is very resistant to weathering . The oil is said to have insecticidal properties. The fruit contains between 14 – 20% oil, the kernel 53 – 60% and the nut 30 – 40% . The oil contains 75 – 80% a-elaeo stearic, 15% oleic-, ca 4% palmitic-, and ca 1% stearic-acids. Tannins, phytosterols, and a poisonous saponin are also reported . Trees yield 4.5 – 5 tonnes of fruit per hectare. Tung trees usually begin bearing fruit the third year after planting, and are usually in commercial production by the fourth or fifth year, attaining maximum production in 10 – 12 years. Average life of trees in United States is 30 years. Fruits mature and drop to ground in late September to early November. At this time they contain about 60% moisture. Fruits must be dried to 15% moisture before processing. Fruits should be left on ground 3 – 4 weeks until hulls are dead and dry, and the moisture content has dropped below 30%. Fruits are gathered by hand into baskets or sacks. Fruits do not deteriorate on ground until they germinate in spring.

The tung tree is valued for tung oil, which is derived from the seeds of the tree. Tung oil, also called China wood oil or nut oil, has traditionally been used in lamps in China. In modern times, it is used as an ingredient in paint, varnish, and caulk. It is also used as a wood finish for furniture and other wooden objects. After processing to remove gums in the oil, it can also be used as a motor oil. Marco Polo wrote in the 13th century “The Chinese take some lime and chopped hemp, and these they knead together with a certain wood oil; and when the three are thoroughly amalgamated they hold like any glue, and with this mixture they pay their ships”.

Known Hazards:   The oil from the seed is poisonous. The leaves and seeds contain a toxic saponin. Although poisonous, saponins are poorly absorbed by the human body and so most pass through without harm. Saponins are quite bitter and can be found in many common foods such as some beans. They can be removed by carefully leaching in running water. Thorough cooking, and perhaps changing the cooking water once, will also normally remove most of them. However, it is not advisable to eat large quantities of food that contain saponins. Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in streams, lakes etc in order to stupefy or kill the fish.

Cultivars:-
‘Cahl’
A low-heading, very productive tree. The large fruits contain about 20% oil. The plant matures early and is somewhat resistant to cold in the autumn.
‘Folsom’
A low-heading, highly productive tree. The fruits are large, late maturing, turning purplish when mature. They contain 21% oil. This cultivar has the highest resistance to low temperature in autumn[269].
‘Isabel’
A low-heading, highly productive tree. The large fruits mature early and contain about 22% oil[269].
‘La Crosser’
A high-heading, exceptionally productive tree. The fruits are small and late maturing, tending to break segments if not harvested promptly. A very popular variety, the fruit contains 21 – 14% oil.
‘Lampton’
This form outyields all other varieties. A very low-heading tree with large, early maturing fruits that have about 22% oil content.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Aleurites+fordii
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vernicia_fordii

http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/node/31

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Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa)

Botanical Name : Abies lasiocarpa
Family:
Pinaceae
Genus:
Abies
Species:
A. lasiocarpa
Kingdom:
Plantae
Division:
Pinophyta
Class:
Pinopsida
Order:
Pinales

Synonyms : Abies subalpina – Engelm., Pinus lasiocarpa – Hook.
Common Name: German: Korksilbertanne.  Czech: jedle plstnatoplodá

Habitat: Western N. America – Alaska to Arizona and New Mexico.   Often found in poor and rocky soils, it is rarely seen below 600 metres. It grows in forests right up to the timber line where it is no more than a shrub on exposed slopes at high altitudes.

Description:
Abies lasiocarpa  is an evergreen deciduous  medium-sized coniferous  tree growing to 20 metres (66 ft) tall, exceptionally to 40–50 metres (130–160 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 1 m diameter, and a very narrow conic crown. The bark on young trees is smooth, gray, and with resin blisters, becoming rough and fissured or scaly on old trees. The leaves are flat needle-like, 1.5–3 centimetres (0.59–1.18 in) long, glaucous green above with a broad stripe of stomata, and two blue-white stomatal bands below; the fresh leaf scars are reddish. They are arranged spirally on the shoot, but with the leaf bases twisted to be arranged to the sides of and above the shoot, with few or none below the shoot. The cones are erect, 6–12 centimetres (2.4–4.7 in) long, dark blackish-purple with fine yellow-brown pubescence, ripening brown and disintegrating to release the winged seeds in early fall.CLICK & SEE

The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Leaf: Flattened needles, usually about 1 inch long, thickened in the middle, bluish white bloom on all surfaces; tips mostly rounded, but may be notched (or pointed near top of tree); spirally arranged but uniformly upswept; commonly have a manicured appearance.

Flower: Monoecious; male cones bluish and borne beneath the leaves; female cones purple and borne upright near the top of the crown.

Fruit: Cones are 2 to 4 inches long, cylindrical, slender, and borne upright on the twig (frequently in clusters); cone scales are deciduous, falling from the cone as seeds ripen; purple when mature.

Twig: Stiff, orange-brown, and covered with round, flat leaf scars when needles fall. Buds are small, rounded, and covered with pitch; terminal buds usually occur in clusters of three or more.

Bark: When young, grayish green and covered with resin blisters; later turning gray to white, unbroken except near base of large trees. Resin pockets scattered throughout inner bark.

Form: When mature 40 to 100 feet tall and 1 to 2 feet in diameter. Very narrow crown of dense foliage; often spire-like with branches to the ground.

Cultivation:
Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade[81]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope. Occasionally planted for timber in N. Europe but this species does not thrive in Britain. It is a very cold-hardy tree but the milder winters of this country make it susceptible to damage by aphis and late frosts. The sub-species A. lasiocarpa arizonica. (Merriam.)Lemmon. is growing somewhat better here. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus. The crushed foliage has a balsam aroma.

Propagation:-
Seed – sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 – 8 weeks. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position.

Edible Uses:-
Edible Parts: Inner bark; Seed; Seedpod.

Edible Uses: Gum; Tea.

The shoot tips are used as a tea substitute. The cones can be ground into a fine powder, then mixed with fat and used as a confection. It is said to be a delicacy and an aid to the digestion. The resin from the trunk is used as a chewing gum. It is said to treat bad breath. Inner bark. No more information is given, but inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used with cereal flours when making bread etc. Seeds. No more information is given, but the seeds are very small and fiddly to use. Seeds of this genus are generally oily with a resinous flavour and can be eaten raw or cooked.

Medicinal  Actions & Uses:

Antihalitosis; Antiseptic; Emetic; Foot care; Laxative; Poultice; TB; Tonic.

Antiseptic. The gummy exudate that appears on the bark was soaked in water until soft and then applied to wounds. An infusion of the resin has been used as an emetic to cleanse the insides. The resin has also been chewed to treat bad breath. A decoction of the bark is used as a tonic and in the treatment of colds and flu. A poultice of the leaves has been used to treat chest colds and fevers. An infusion has been taken to treat the coughing up of blood, which can be the first sign of TB, and as a laxative.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Other Uses:-
Baby care; Deodorant; Gum; Hair; Incense; Miscellany; Repellent; Wood.

The fragrant young leaves and twigs are used to repel moths or are burnt as an incense. They were also ground into a powder and used to make a baby powder and perfumes. A gum is obtained from the bark. It is antiseptic and was chewed by the N. American Indians in order to clean the teeth. It was also used to plug holes in canoes. An infusion of the leaves is used as a hair tonic. The leaves can also be placed in the shoes as a foot deodorant. Wood – light, soft, not strong. It is little used except as a fuel and for pulp. The native North American Indians used it for making chairs and insect-proof storage boxes. It was also used as a fuel and was said to burn for a long time.

Scented Plants
Leaves: Crushed
The crushed foliage has a balsam aroma.

Resource:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Abies+lasiocarpa
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ABLAL&photoID=ablal_003_avp.jpg
http://www.about-garden.com/e/en/7-subalpine-fir-abies-lasiocarpa/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abies_lasiocarpa

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Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis)

Botanical Name: Picea sitchensis
Family:
Pinaceae
Kingdom:
Plantae
Division:
Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Genus: Picea
Species: P. sitchensis

Synonyms:
P. menziesii. Abies menziesii. A. sitchensis. Pinus sitchensis.
Common  Names:Sitka Spruce, tideland spruce, coast spruce, and yellow spruce.

Habitat: Picea sitchensis   is native to Western N. America – Alaska to N. California. Moist, sandy, often swampy soils, occasionally on wet rocky slopes in the far north of its  range. Alluvial soils from sea level to 300 metres, usually close to the coast

Description:
An evergreen Tree  growing to almost 100 m (330 ft) tall, and with a trunk diameter at breast height that can exceed 5 m (16 ft).
It is by far the largest species of spruce and the fifth largest conifer in the world (behind giant sequoia, coast redwood, kauri and western redcedar); and the third tallest conifer species (after coast redwood and coast Douglas-fir).

The bark is thin and scaly, flaking off in small circular plates 5–20 cm (2.0–7.9 in) across. The crown is broad conic in young trees, becoming cylindric in older trees; old trees may not have branches lower than 30–40 m (98–131 ft). The shoots are very pale buff-brown, almost white, and glabrous (hairless) but with prominent pulvini. The leaves are stiff, sharp and needle-like, 15–25 mm long, flattened in cross-section, dark glaucous blue-green above with two or three thin lines of stomata, and blue-white below with two dense bands of stomata.

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The cones are pendulous, slender cylindrical, 6–10 cm (2.4–3.9 in) long  and 2 cm broad when closed, opening to 3 cm broad. They have thin, flexible scales 15–20 mm long; the bracts just above the scales are the longest of any spruce, occasionally just exserted and visible on the closed cones. They are green or reddish, maturing pale brown 5–7 months after pollination. The seeds are black, 3 mm long, with a slender, 7–9 mm long pale brown wing.
. It is in leaf all year, in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from September to October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

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Sitka spruce is a long-lived conifer that may reach ages of 400-700 years (Alfaro and Omule, 1990). It was named after Sitka Island off the coast of Alaska. The island is now called Baronof Island. It is the largest spruce in North America and has been known to reach heights of 70 meters and span 2 meters across. The largest Sitka spruce known obtained a height of 93 meters and a span of 5 meters across (Taylor 1990). It is most often associated with western hemlock. This spruce has been introduced and is now grown widely throughout England, Ireland, Scotland, France and other northern European countries. Sitka spruce can easily be identified from other spruces and similar species particularly by its needles. The needles are contrastingly flat, stiff and sharp. Each needle comes from a square, raised, woody peg that remains on the branch after the needle drops. Its cones hang downward from the branches and have thin scales with jagged edges. Its bark is thin and scaly with colors ranging from brown to purplish grey (Preston, 1987; Harlow et al. 1991).

Timber properity:-

Generally straight and even grained (but sometimes spiral grained) with a fine, uniform texture. Light pinkish brown heartwood and creamy white sapwood. Light, soft, low shock resistance, moderate stiffness, good steam bending, good stability in service, and low decay resistance. Moderately low in strength but very high strength to weight ratio.Works well with hand or machine tools. Good turning properties. Nails and screws without pre-drilling and has good holding properties. One of the easiest woods to cut, glue, and finish.

Cultivation :-
Likes abundant moisture at the roots, if grown in drier areas it must be given a deep moist soil. Tolerates poor peaty soils. Succeeds in wet, cold, poor and shallow soils. Trees have succeeded on pure chalk when on a north facing hollow deep in beech woods. Prefers a pH between 4 to 6. Dislikes shade. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution. Very tolerant of exposure, resisting salt laden gales, though trees are not very wind firm in shallow soils. A long-lived tree, with specimens 700 – 800 years old being recorde. It is slow growing for its first two or three years, though it soon becomes an extremely fast growing tree and is very widely planted for timber in Britain and other temperate areas. Even trees 30 metres tall are increasing in height by 1 metre a year. New growth takes place from May to July or August and some very vigorous trees will produce a second flush of growth until September. Although the dormant tree is very cold-hardy, growth can be severely checked if the trees are growing in a frost hollow, because the young shoots are very susceptible to damage by late frosts. In Britain the best stands are produced in the sheltered valleys of W. Scotland. Trees are unsurpassed for rapid volume wood production in cool wet mountain sites on blanket peat in W. Britain. In areas with cool wet summers (1200mm of rain per year) it makes a huge specimen tree.

Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance. In some upland areas, especially over granitic or other base-poor soils, growth rate and health have been seriously affected by aluminium poisoning induced by acid rain. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus. Many trees do not bear female flowers in most years. Subject to damage by the green spruce aphid, trees are also often attacked by a bark beetle and so should be kept away from more valuable plantings. A biological control for the bark beetle is being introduced (1990).

Propagation:-
Seed – stratification will probably improve germination so sow fresh seed in the autumn in a cold frame if possible. Sow stored seed as early in the year as possible in a cold frame. A position in light shade is probably best. Seed should not be allowed to dry out and should be stored in a cool place. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter. They can be planted out into their permanent positions in early summer of the following year, or be placed in an outdoor nursery bed for a year or so to increase in size. They might need protection from spring frosts. Cuttings of semi-ripe terminal shoots, 5 – 8cm long, August in a frame. Protect from frost. Forms roots in the spring. Cuttings of mature terminal shoots, 5 – 10cm long, September/October in a cold frame. Takes 12 months. Cuttings of soft to semi-ripe wood, early summer in a frame. Slow but sure.

Edible Uses:-
Edible Parts: Flowers; Inner bark; Seed; Seedpod.

Edible Uses: Condiment; Gum; Tea.

Young shoots – raw. Young male catkins – raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring. Immature female cones – cooked. The central portion, when roasted, is sweet and syrupy. The cones are 6 – 10cm long. Inner bark – raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread. The inner bark was usually harvested in the spring, though it was also sometimes taken in the summer. An emergency food, it is only used when all else fails. Seed – raw. The seed is about 2 – 4mm long. It is rich in fats and has a pleasant slightly resinous flavour but is too small and fiddly to be worthwhile unless you are desperate. A refreshing tea, rich in vitamin C, can be made from the young shoot tips. A gum obtained from the bark is hardened in cold water and then used for chewing. It should be aged for 3 days or more before using it. The best gum is obtained from the southern side of the tree.

Medicinal Actions & Uses:

Analgesic; Antirheumatic; Antiseptic; Diuretic; Laxative; Ophthalmic; Pectoral; Poultice; Salve; Stomachic.

Sitka spruce was widely employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who used it especially for its antiseptic and pectoral qualities in the treatment of lung complaints, wounds, sores etc. It is little, if at all, used in modern herbalism. The inner bark is laxative. It has been chewed in the treatment of throat problems, coughs and colds. A decoction of the branch tips and the bark has been used in the treatment of rheumatism, stomach pains, constipation and gonorrhoea. A decoction of the cones has been taken in the treatment of pain. The cones have also been used in steam baths to treat rheumatism. A decoction of the bark has been used as a steam bath in the treatment of back aches. The resin is antiseptic and diuretic. A decoction has been used in the treatment of gonorrhoea. A poultice of the resin has been used as a rub on rheumatic joints. Combined with Indian Hellebore roots (Veratrum viride), it has been used as a poultice on rheumatic joints. The resin has also been used as a dressing or poultice on cuts, broken skin, boils, wounds, infections and suppurating sores. The resin has been chewed as a breath freshener and as a treatment for TB. The gum from new shoots and small branches has been placed in the eyes as a treatment for snow blindness. A decoction of the roots has been used in the treatment of diarrhoea.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Other Uses
Adhesive; Basketry; Fuel; Pitch; String; Varnish; Waterproofing; Wood.

Has many uses including boxes, crates, pallets, general construction, millwork (flooring, siding, paneling, sash, doors), musical instruments (especially sounding boards), furniture (mainly hidden parts), cabinets, aircraft construction, boat building, stadium seats, cooperage, ladder rails, woodenware, novelties, and plywood.

The tough and flexible root is used in basket making and as a string. The roots were burnt over an open fire to remove the bark, then they were dried and split to make hats, ropes etc. The main body material of baskets was made from the roots. These were cut into lengths 75 – 90cm long and 12 – 25mm in diameter. Whilst still full of sap and soft, these were split into broad flat bands and these in turn were sub-divided by knife and teeth until the desired size was obtained – a little larger than coarse thread, about like small twine. The vertical rods were made of hazel (Corylus spp) and the overlay was bear grass (Xerophyllum tenax). The roots were used by several native North American Indian tribes to make tightly woven baskets that would hold water. The limbs and roots can be pounded, shredded and used to make ropes. A pitch is obtained from the tree and is used for caulking boats, waterproofing boxes etc. The rendered pitch has been used as a glue. The pitch can be melted then used as a protective varnish-like coat on wood. Wood – strong according to some reports, not strong according to others. The quality of the wood for aircraft construction is unsurpassed, it is remarkably strong yet light and its resistance – weight ratio is among the highest. The wood is elastic, soft, light, straight grained. Equal in quality to P. abies but more quickly produced, the wood is used for shipbuilding, construction, packing cases, doors, posts etc. The wood is also valued for making musical instruments and is widely used in the pulp industry to make paper. The wood is a good fuel, knotted bits of wood would keep the fire burning all night.

Sitka spruce trees provide good roosting spots for bald eagles and peregrine falcons. Deer, porcupines, elk, bear, rabbits, and hares browse the foliage.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Picea+sitchensis
http://www.netstate.com/states/symb/trees/ak_sitka_spruce.htm
http://www.woodbin.com/ref/wood/spruce_sitka.htm
http://www.woodbin.com/ref/wood/spruce_sitka.htm
https://fp.auburn.edu/sfws/sfnmc/class/ss.html
http://www.statesymbolsusa.org/Alaska/tree_sitka_spruce.html

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