Tag Archives: World Heritage Site

Pterocarpus santalinus

Botanical Nmae :Pterocarpus santalinus
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily:Faboideae
Tribe: Dalbergieae
Genus: Pterocarpus
Species:P. santalinus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Common Names: Red Sandlewood,Red sanders and Saunderswood

Indian vernacular names:
Bengali: Rakta Chandan; Guj.: Ratanjali; Hindi: Lal Chandan, Ragat Chandan,Rukhto Chandan, Undum; Kannada.: Agslue, Honne; Mal.: Patrangam, Tilaparni; Marathi.: Tambada Chandana; Or.: Raktachandan; Tamil.: Atti, Chensandanam, Semmaram, Sivaffu Chandanam; Telugu:Agaru gandhamu, Errachandanam, Raktachandanam, Rakta ghandhamu.

Habitat : Pterocarpus santalinus is native to southern Eastern Ghats mountain range of South India.

Description:
Pterocarpus santalinus is a light-demanding small tree, growing to 8 metres (26 ft) tall with a trunk 50–150 cm diameter. It is fast-growing when young, reaching 5 metres (16 ft) tall in three years, even on degraded soils. It is not frost tolerant, being killed by temperatures of ?1 °C.

The leaves are alternate, 3–9 cm long, trifoliate with three leaflets.
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The flowers are produced in short racemes. The fruit is a pod 6–9 cm long containing one or two seeds.

This tree is valued for the rich red color of its wood. The wood is not aromatic. The tree is not to be confused with the aromatic Santalum sandalwood trees that grow natively in South India.

Medicinal Uses:
Pterocarpus santalinus is used in traditional herbal medicine as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, tonic, hemorrhage, dysentery, aphrodisiac, anti-hyperglycaemic and diaphoretic.

Used occasionally in India for diabetes; the antidiabetic constituent is pterostilbene which also has insecticidal activity. Employed in pharmacy for coloring tinctures.

Other Uses:
The wood has historically been valued in China, particularly during the Qing Dynasty periods, and is referred to in Chinese as zitan and spelt tzu-t’an by earlier western authors such Gustav Ecke, who introduced classical Chinese hardwood furniture to the west.

Due to its slow growth and rarity, furniture made from zitan is difficult to find and can be expensive. It has been one of the most prized woods for millennia.

In India sandalwood is one main and lucrative market for smugglers, as a high price is paid for this wood in China. Since the exporting of sandalwood is illegal in India, the underground market is growing and there are a number of arrests every year of those trying to smuggle this wood to China.

The other form of zitan is from the species Dalbergia luovelii, Dalbergia maritima, and Dalbergia normandi, all similar species named in trade as bois de rose or violet rosewood which when cut are bright crimson purple changing to dark purple again. It has a fragrant scent when worked.

Shamisen: Red sandalwood has been used for making the bridge and also the neck of the Japanese musical instrument Shamisen.

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Costly & rare articles are made from this red sandle wood….click & see 

Religion & speritulality ...Red sandle wood Prayer Bead Mala Necklace are very costly bids used in Tibetian Budhism….CLICK & SEE 
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pterocarpus_santalinus
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

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Healing Gardens

Hand in Hand with Nature ………
Time spent in nature’s embrace is a soothing reminder of the fact that we also are products of the natural world’s ingenuity. We feel at home in a quiet forest and are comforted by the pounding surf of the seaside. In both the sunny meadow and the shaded waterfall’s grotto, stress and tension we have long retained melts away. Finding opportunities to reconnect with nature to enjoy its healing benefits can be difficult, however. Planting and tending a garden allows us to spend time with Mother Nature in a very personal and hands-on way. We work in tandem with nature while gardening—honoring the seasons, participating in the life cycle of various organisms, experiencing the unique biorhythms of our environments, and transcending all that divides us from the natural world. As we interact with the soil, we are free to be ourselves and reflect upon meditative topics. Fresh air invigorates us, while our visceral connection to the earth grounds us.

Though you may plant a garden to grow food or herbs, or for the pleasure of seeing fresh flowers in bloom, you will likely discover that the time you spend working in your plot feels somehow more significant than many of the seemingly more important tasks you perform each day. Whether your garden can be measured in feet or is a collection of plants in pots, tending it can be a highly spiritual experience. You, by necessity, develop a closer relationship with the soil, seeds, water, and sunlight. Nurturing just a single plant means cultivating a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that permit it to thrive. A true healing garden is simply one where you feel comfortable plunging your hands into the earth, lingering over seedlings and plants to observe their growth. And yes, even caressing and talking to plants. Creating beauty through the creative use of space, and giving yourself over to awe when you realize that you have worked hand in hand with nature to give birth to som! ething, is truly wonderful.

The partnership that is formed when you collaborate with Mother Nature through gardening is wonderful in that it provides you with so many opportunities to be outdoors. You will be reminded of not only your connection to the earth but also of your unique gifts that allow you to give back to the earth.


Source:
Daily Om

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Indian Mallow

 

Botanical Name: Abutilan Indicum.
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Abutilon
Species: A. indicum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malvales

Synonyms: Sida indica, Sida grandiflora, Abutilon graveolens, Sida rhombifolia

Common Names : Indian Abutilon, Indian Mallow

Vernacular Names:
Kanghi, Kangahi, Kakihiya, Kakahi, Nusht-ul-ghoul, Darakht-e-shaan (Unani); Thuthi (Siddha); Coongoonie (Hindi); Petaree (Bengali); Perin-tutte (Tamil); Nugubenda (Telagu) Thama-khyoke (Burmese); Anda (Cinghalese)
Sanskrit name: Atibalaa
Telugu name: Duvvena Kayalu “duvvena benda”

Nepal: Poti (Majhi); Kangiyo (Nepali)

China: Dong Kui Zi, Mi Lan Cao

Malaysia: Kembang Lohor

English: Country Mallow, Flowering Maples, Chinese Bell-flowers
Atibala, Kankatikaa, Rishyaproktaa, Vaatyaayani, Vaatyapushpi, Valikaa, Bhaaedwai, Uraksha gandhini, Naagbala, Vishvadevaa, Gavedhuka (Ayurvedic);

Habitat : Abutilan Indicum is native to tropic and subtropical regions. Present in sub-himalayan tract and hills upto 1,200 m and in hotter parts of india. It also occurs within parts of the Great Barrier Reef islands of the Coral Sea.

Description:
Abutilan Indicum is an annual shrub that can grow up to 2m high. It is an erect wood plant with velvet-like heart-shaped leaves. The leaves are stalked measuring 2.5-10cm long with 2-7.5cm wide, ovate or orbiculate to cordate, irregularly crenate or dentate, acuminated, minutely hoary tomentose on both surfaces. The flowers are orange-yellow in colour, solitary, axillary and bloom in the evening, with 4 cm diameter, maturing into button-shaped seed pods.The fruiting carpels 15-20 in number, flat-topped, forming a head, measuring 2-2.5cm across, black and hairy. The fruits are hispid, scarcely longer than the calyx and the awns are erect. The seeds are three to five in number, kidney-shaped, dark brown or black in colour, tubercled or with minutely stellate hairs.

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.The plant is covered with an aromatic oily substance.This oil coating is pronounced in well grown plants. Its bark,roots, leaves and seeds are all used in medicine.The plant contains an alkaloids asparagin.

Cultivation and uses:

Velvet leaf has been grown in China since around 2000 BCE for its strong, jute-like fibre. The seeds are eaten in China and Kashmir in India.

Velvet leaf grows primarily in cropland, especially corn fields, and it can also be found on roadsides and in gardens . Velvet leaf prefers rich and cultivated soils, such as those used in agriculture.

After being introduced to North America in the 1700s, velvetleaf has become an invasive species in agricultural regions of the eastern and midwestern United States. It is one of the most detrimental weeds to corn, costing hundreds of millions of dollars per year in control and damage. Velvetleaf is an extremely competitive plant, so much so that it can steal nutrients and water away from crops.

The roots and the bark of the plant increases the secretion and discharge of urin, besides providing to be pulmonary sedative.The herb is laxtative and tonic. It promotes libido and is useful in relieving feverishness and producing a feeling of coolness.

Chemical Constituents:

Gallic acid, asparagine, fructose, galactose, glucose, beta-sitosterone, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, fumaric acid, p-beta-D-glycosyloxybenzoic acid, leucine, histidine, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and galacturonic acid, alantolactone, isoalantolactone, threonine, glutamine, serine, proline, glycine, alanine, cycteine, methionine, isoleucine, valine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, histidine, lysine, arginine.

Medicinal uses:

Used in much the same way as marsh mallow as a demulcent.  The root and bark of Indian mallow are mucilaginous and are used to soothe and protect the mucous membranes of the respiratory and urinary systems.  A decoction of the root is given for chest conditions such as bronchitis.  The mucilaginous effect benefits the skin; an infusion, poultice, or paste made from the powdered root or bark is applied to wounds and used for conditions such as boils and ulcers.  The seeds are laxative and useful in killing threadworms, if the rectum of the affected child be exposed to the smoke of the powdered seeds (Herbs that Heal, H.K Bakhru, 1992)  The plant has an antiseptic effect within the urinary tract and can be used to treat and can be used to treat infections.

Traditional medicine:
In traditional medicine, A. indicum various parts of the plant are used as a demulcent, aphrodisiac, laxative, diuretic, sedative, astringent, expectorant, tonic, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, and analgesic and to treat leprosy, ulcers, headaches, gonorrhea, and bladder infection. The whole plant is uprooted, dried and is powdered. In ancient days, maidens were made to consume a spoonful of this powder with a spoonful of honey, once in a day, for 6 months until the day of marriage, for safe and quick pregnancy.

The plant is very much used in Siddha medicines. The root, bark, flowers, leaves and seeds are all used for medicinal purposes by Tamils.[citation needed] The leaves are used as adjunct to medicines used for pile complaints. The flowers are used to increase semen in men.

Fevers:The leaves should be dried in the shade and powdered for use when required for any kind of fever. A decoction can also be extyracted from the herb.

Respiratory Disorders: A decoction of the herb can be given in bronchitis,catarrh and biliousness.

Skin Problems: The drug made from Indian Mallow has a very soothing effect on the skin and the mucous membranes.Its paste can be applied either by itself or mixed with coconut oil on the affected parts in case of abscess, carbuncle,scabies and itches.

Boils and Ulcers: A poultice of the leaves can alsop be applied on boils and ulcers. Its seeds are laxative and very effective in curing piles.

Threadworms: The seeds are useful in killing thread worms, if the rectum of the affected child be exposed to the smoke of the powdered seeds.

Other Uses:Indian mellow is useful in allaying irritation of the skin and in alleviatimng swelling and pain. Its decoction can be used effectively as fomentation on the painful parts of the body.It can also be used as a mouthwash for toothache and soft gums.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
Miracle Of Herbs,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abutilon_theophrasti

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abutilon_indicum

http://www.globinmed.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=83494:abutilon-indicum&Itemid=139

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Indian Barberry

Botanical Name: Berberis asiatica
Family:Berberidaceae
Genus:Berberis
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:Ranunculales

Common Name:Chutro, Rasanjan (Nep); marpyashi (Newa); Daruharidra, Darbi (Sans)

Habitat:Indian Barberry is native to E. Asia – Himalayas (Nepal)
It is normally found in  shrubberies, grassy and rocky slopes up to 2500 metres. Found in heavy shade, on north-facing slopes  and on open hillsides in the drier areas .

Description:
Indian Barberry  is an evergreen Shrub growing to 3.5 m (11ft 6in) at a medium rate. It is a large thorny shrub with yellow wood & whitish or pale Grey branches.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 8 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects, self.The plant is self-fertile.

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The root-bark is light coloured, corky, almost inodorous, with a bitter, mucilaginous taste. It contains much Berberine, and a dark-brown extract is made from it employed in India under the name of ‘Rusot.’ This extract is sometimes prepared from the wood or roots of different species of Barberry. It has the consistency of opium and a bitter, astringent taste.

Cultivation & Propagation:
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame, when it should germinate in late winter or early spring. Seed from over-ripe fruit will take longer to germinate , whilst stored seed may require cold stratification and should be sown in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. The seedlings are subject to damping off, so should be kept well ventilated . When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame. If growth is sufficient, it can be possible to plant them out into their permanent positions in the autumn, but generally it is best to leave them in the cold frame for the winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season’s growth, preferably with a heel, October/November in a frame

Edible Uses:
Fruit  is eaten  raw or dried and used like raisins. This species is said to make the best Indian raisins. Fully ripe fruits are fairly juicy with a pleasantly acid flavor, though there are rather a lot of seeds. The fruit is abundantly produced in Britain. The fruit is about 8mm long.

Medicinal Uses:
Antibacterial;  Cancer;  Laxative;  Odontalgic;  Ophthalmic;  Tonic.

The roots  are used in treating ulcers, urethral discharges, ophthalmia, jaundice, fevers etc. The roots contain 2.1% berberine, the stems 1.3%. The bark and wood are crushed in Nepal then boiled in water, strained and the liquid evaporated until a viscous mass is obtained. This is antibacterial, laxative and tonic. It is taken internally to treat fevers and is used externally to treat conjunctivitis and other inflammations of the eyes. Tender leaf buds are chewed and held against affected teeth for 15 minutes to treat dental caries. The fruit is cooling and laxative. Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Berberis species, has marked antibacterial effects. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity.

Indian berberry has been made official in the Pharmacopoeia of India.It is an amportant indigenous medicine.The bark is useful in restoring the disordered process of neutrition and restores the normal function of the system.It helps open the natural pores of the body, arrest bleeding and induces copious perepiration despite the astrigent properties.The drug also constitute anti-tubercular activities.

Fever: Indian barberry is as valuable as quinine in maleria fevers.It is particularly useful in relieving pyrexia and checking the return of the violent intermittent fevers.The herb’s- bark and the root- bark are given as a decoction. It should be given twice or thrice a day.The decoction is given in doses of 150 grams between paroxysms of fever.

Monorrhagia: Indian barberry arrestes excessieve bleed loss during the monthly period.In skin diseases the decoction of the bark and the root-bark is efficacious as a cleanser for ulcers ans sores, as it helps formation of scar over the wounds.

Stomach Disorders :  Indian barberry is very useful in all kinds of stomach disorders.It is also effective in the treatment of Cholera.It is a popular remedy of diarrhoea and dysentery in Northwern India.It is useful in bleeding piles treatment. It is given with butter. A dilute solution can also be externally applied on the piles.

Eye Problems: The drug is highly beneficial in the treatment of all kinds of eye disorder.
It is mixed with butter and alum or with opium or lime juice and applied externally on the eye lids to cure opthalmia and other eye diseases. Mixed with milk, it can be used effectively as a lotion of Conjunctivitis.

Other Uses: A yellow dye is obtained from the roots and stems. The spiny branches are used to make fencing around fields in Nepal.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
Miracle of Herbs
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Berberis+asiatica
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berberis