Herbs & Plants

Pterocarpus Marsupium

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Botanical Name: Pterocarpus Marsupium
Family:    Fabaceae
Tribe:    Dalbergieae
Genus:    Pterocarpus
Species:    P. marsupium
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:    Fabales
Common Name(s): Indian Kino Tree, Malabar Kino Tree and Kino,Benga,Bijiayasal or Venkai
Names – Hindi – Vijaisar kaashtha

Sanskrit Name : Bijaka,Pithasara, Pithashalaka, Bandhukapushpa, Priyaka, Sarjaka, Asana, Vihayasara

English – Indian kinowood
Peetasaar, Sanskrit- Pitasala Asana, Sarfaka
Telugu – Paiddagi Chekka
Marathi – Biyala lakda
Tamil – Vegaimaram chakkal
Trade name – Bijaisaar Kaashtha
Kingdom: Plantae
: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Tribe: Dalbergieae
Genus: Pterocarpus
Species: P. marsupium

Parts Used: Heart Wood, Leaves and Flowers,Bark, gum.

Habitat: The tree is common in central and peninsular India, found at 3000 ft in Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Sub-Himalayan Tract.

The Indian Kino is a medium to large; deciduous tree and can grow up to 30 meters tall. Leaves compound, having 5-7 leaflets, 3 to 5 inch long, oblong or elliptic, margin wavy, flower about 1.5 cm long, yellow in colour.

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The heartwood of this tree is golden yellow. Tree bark yields a reddish gum called kino, the trade name.It turns the water blue as soon as it comes in contact with the water.

Properties:Astringent, alterant (A drug which corrects, or is presumed to correct disordered bodily function), hypoglycemic.
Phytochemicals: Glycosides, flavours, terpenes, phenols.

Medicinal Uses:Parts of the Indian Kino (heart wood, leaves, flowers) have long been used for their medicinal properties in Ayurveda. The heart wood is used as an astringent and in the treatment of inflammation and diabetes.

The bark of this plant is used as an astringent and for toothaches. It is good for elephantiasis, leucoderma, diarrhea, dysentery, rectalgia, cough and grayness of hair.

The strongly astringent kino tightens the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract.  It can treat chronic diarrhea and relieve the irritation caused by intestinal infection and colitis. Although its taste is unpleasant, this herb makes a good mouthwash and gargle.  It is widely used in Asia as a douche for excessive vaginal discharge.  Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the plant produced a significant reduction in the blood sugar level in rabbits. The decoction of bark has significant effect on scrum cholesterol in hyper- cholesterolemic rabbits. Propterols, isolated from the plant, show antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria.  Epicatechin was tested for antidiabetic activity in albino rats; it protected against alloxan-induced diabetes  Kino is almost entirely soluble in alcohol and entirely in ether and partly in water.

(a) In Diabetes

The tree has been regarded as useful in diabetes from ancient time. The water, in which a block of wood of this tree has been soaked overnight is given to diabetic patients.

Water stored overnight in a tumbler made of this wood has shown anti-diabetic properties. People often seen using such tumbler for drinking water.

Decoction of bark 56 to 112 ml once in the morning for 10-15 days is useful in controlling diabetes.

Powdered bark 3 to 6 g or extracted juice 125 mg 2/3 times after meals control diabetes.

Powdered bark 5 g left overnight in a cup of water. Next day, water is decanted and taken on empty stomach in the morning for 10 days checks diabetes. Promising results have been reported with regard to reduction in the sugar levels in blood and urine.

(b) Other Uses

The gum (Kino) which is obtained from incisions in bark is astringent (a substance that shrinks soft tissues and contracts blood vessels thus checking the flow of blood) and used in leucoderma, diarrhoea, pyrosis (heart burn; gastric hyperacidity) and toothache. Bruised leaves are used externally for boils, sores and various skin diseases. It promotes the complexion of the skin. The flowers are used in fevers. The plant is considered to be useful by santhal tribals in burns, syphilis, stomachache, cholera, dysentery and menorrhagia (Excessive or prolonged periods).


Decoction – 50 to 100 ml

Powder – 3 to 6 g

Extracted Juice – 125 mg

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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