Gossypium herbaceum is a biennial or triennial plant with branching stems 2 to 6 feet high, palmate hairy leaves, lobes lanceolate and acute flowers with yellow petals, and a purple spot in centre, leaves of involucre serrate, capsule when ripe splits open and shows a loose white tuft surrounding the seeds and adhering firmly to outer coating; it requires warm weather to ripen its seeds, which they do not do north of Virginia.
Their flowers are small and yellow with a purple center. When ripe and in warm weather, the flower capsule will burst and expose the cotton surrounding the seeds firmly. The cotton produced by this plant is short, about 2 inches (5.1 cm) long and is firmly attached to the seed, which is covered in hairy down. An acre of cotton can be expected to produce about 300 pounds (140 kg)……..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
The flowering time ends in September, and a month or so earlier the tops are cut off in order to ripen and send the sap back to the capsules. The pods are about the size of a walnut, and are collected by hand as they ripen;the cotton is also separated by hand and packed in bales. In the Levant the seeds are often used as food. An acre may be expected to produce 240 to 300 lb. of cotton.
The herbaceous part of the plant contains much mucilage and has been utilized as a demulcent. Cotton seeds have been used in the Southern States for intermittent fever with great success. The root and stem-bark deteriorates with age, so only newly harvested material should be used. The root-bark of commerce consists of thin flexible bands of quilled pieces covered with a browny yellow periderm, odour not strong, taste slightly acid.
Part Used in medicines: Bark of root and of other cultivated species.
Constituents: A peculiar acid resin, odourless and insoluble in water, absorbing oxygen when exposed, then changes to a red colour. The bark also contains sugar, gum, tannin, fixed oil, chlorophyll.
Orally administered ethyl ether and ethanol extracts of Gossypium herbaceum significantly decreased the blood glucose level. Gossypium herbaceum is not only lowered TC, TG, LDL, VLDL levels but also increased level of cardioprotective lipid HDL Therefore, Gossypium herbaceum has potential role to prevent formation of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The study demonstrated that both above given extracts of Gossypium herbaceum could be useful in management of diabetes associated with abnormalities in lipid profiles.
Mainly used as an abortifacient in place of ergot, being not so powerful but safer; it was used largely in this way by the slaves in the south. It not only increases the contractions of the uterus in labour, but also is useful in the treatment of metrorrhagia, specially when dependent on fibroids; useful also as an ecbolic; of value in sexual lassitude. A preparation of cotton seed increases milk of nursing mothers.
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Cotton is usually used as a textile while making clothing and can be made into yarns and sheets of fabric. In the Levant seeds are often used for food. It is utilized so often because of its comfortable, breathable properties. It has been cultivated for women’s menstrual cycle pains and irregular bleeding, and it also has been used after birth to expel placenta afterbirth and to increase lactation. Cotton has been used for gastrointestinal issues also, such as hemorrhages, nausea, and diarrhea, as well as fevers and headaches, especially in the southern United States. Levant cotton seed extract, gossypol, also has a potential use as a male contraceptive but can cause infertility after discontinuing. In lab rat studies, it has been able to stop pregnancies early.
The crushed seeds give a fixed, semi-drying oil used in making soap, etc.
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