Be it reciting a jingle heard on the television, running after everything that catches their fancy or bewildering adults with their endless questions, toddlers give us a glimpse of their infectious energy every day. Their energy and curiosity often leave parents astounded. This fascination about the world around them stems from the fact that the brains of young children are more active than adult brains.
Knowing more about brain development can help us make sense of their behavior and provide the best conditions for their growth. Up to 6 years of age, the brain is constantly learning, developing and forming memories. In fact, the brain develops up to 90% of its capacity by age 6¹. With the number of active brain connections, a toddler processes more information than an adult brain.
Brain development in young children:
Overall, a toddler’s brain grows up to 25% of an adult brain size by age 3. We know that different areas of the brain serve different functions. Essential brain functions are active right from birth. After birth, sensory functions such as sight and smell are the first to develop followed by higher cognitive functions such as problem-solving. Language development occurs between the ages of two and four.
There are several parts of the brain that see phenomenal growth during the first few years of life. Synapses are connections between two different nerve cells in the brain. The development of synapses is the fastest among young children. This allows them to learn more than adults in the same amount of time.
The visual cortex, located at the hind side of the brain, aids in visual perception and the growth of this part improves the brain capacity to sense depth and color. The growth of the cerebellum is linked to motor skills that allow a child to crawl and later start walking.
There are quite a few factors that create ideal conditions for brain development. Mentally stimulating activities help exercise the developing brain while adequate nutrition provides the nutrients for its development.
Resources: The Telegraph, Kolkata(India)