Dyslipidemia

Definition:

Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. triglycerides, cholesterol and/or fat phospholipids) in the blood. In developed countries, most dyslipidemias are hyperlipidemias; that is, an elevation of lipids in the blood. This is often due to diet and lifestyle. Prolonged elevation of insulin levels can also lead to dyslipidemia. Likewise, increased levels of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) may cause dyslipidemia.

A disorder of lipoprotein metabolism, including lipoprotein overproduction or deficiency. Dyslipidemias may be manifested by elevation of the total cholesterol, the “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and the triglyceride concentrations, and a decrease in the “good” high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration in the blood.

Dyslipidemia comes under consideration in many situations including diabetes, a common cause of hyperlipidemia. For adults with diabetes, it has been recommended that the levels of LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol, and triglyceride be measured every year. Optimal LDL cholesterol levels for adults with diabetes are less than 100 mg/dL (2.60 mmol/L), optimal HDL cholesterol levels are e4qual to or greater than 40 mg/dL (1.02 mmol/L), and desirable triglyceride levels are less than 150 mg/dL (1.7 mmol/L).

From dys- + lipid (fat) + -emia (in the blood) = essentially, disordered lipids in the blood.

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Symptoms:

*Leg pain, especially when walking or standing
*Chest pain
*Tightness or pressure in the chest and shortness of breath
*Pain, tightness, and pressure in the neck, jaw, shoulders, and back
*Indigestion and heartburn
*Sleep problems and daytime exhaustion
*Dizziness
*Heart palpitations
*Cold sweats
*Vomiting and nausea
*Swelling in the legs, ankles, feet, stomach, and veins of the neck
*Fainting

These symptoms may get worse with activity or stress and get better when a person rests.

Types and causes:
Dyslipidemia can be categorized into two types, based on the cause:

Primary dyslipidemia:

Dyslipidemia can be diagnosed with a blood test.
Genetic factors cause primary dyslipidemia, and it is inherited. Common causes of primary dyslipidemia include:

*Familial combined hyperlipidemia, which develops in teenagers and young adults and can lead to high cholesterol.
*Familial hyperapobetalipoproteinemia, a mutation in a group of LDL lipoproteins called apolipoproteins.
*Familial hypertriglyceridemia, which leads to high triglyceride levels.
*Homozygous familial or polygenic hypercholesterolemia, a mutation in LDL receptors.

Secondary dyslipidemia:

Secondary dyslipidemia is caused by lifestyle factors or medical conditions that interfere with blood lipid levels over time.

Common causes of secondary dyslipidemia include:

*Obesity, especially excess weight around the waist
*Diabetes
*Hypothyroidism
*Alcohol use disorder, also known as alcoholism
*Polycystic ovary syndrome
*Metabolic syndrome
*Excessive consumption of fats, especially saturated and trans fats
*Cushing’s syndrome
*Inflammatory bowel disease, commonly known as IBS
*Severe infections, such as HIV
*An abdominal aortic aneurysm

Treatment :

Treatment for dyslipidemia will usually involve taking medication.
A doctor will usually focus on lowering a person’s levels of triglycerides and LDL. However, treatment can vary, depending on the underlying cause of dyslipidemia and how severe it is.

Doctors may prescribe one or more lipid-modifying medications for people with very high total cholesterol levels of at least 200 milligrams per deciliter of blood.

High cholesterol is usually treated with statins, which interfere with the production of cholesterol in the liver.

If statins fail to lower LDL and triglyceride levels, a doctor may recommend additional medications, including:

*Ezetimibe
*Niacin
*Fibrates
*Bile acid sequestrants
*Evolocumab and alirocumab
*Lomitapide and mipomersen
Some lifestyle changes and supplements can help to encourage healthy blood lipid levels.

Natural treatments include:

*Reducing the consumption of unhealthy fats, such as those found in red meats, full-fat dairy products, refined carbohydrates, chocolate, chips, and fried foods
*Exercising regularly (Specially Yoga with Pranayama)
*Maintaining a healthy body weight, by losing weight if necessary
*Reducing or avoiding alcohol consumption
*Quitting smoking and other use of tobacco products
*Avoiding sitting for long periods of time
*Increasing consumption of healthy polyunsaturated fats, such as those found in nuts, seeds, legumes, fish, whole grains, and olive oil
*Taking omega-3 oil, either as a liquid or in capsules
*Eating plenty of dietary fiber from whole fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
*Getting at least 6– 8 hours of sleep a night
*Drinking plenty of water

Outlook :

People with minor dyslipidemia usually have no symptoms. They can often manage or resolve the condition by making lifestyle adjustments.

People with dyslipidemia should contact a doctor if they experience symptoms relating to the heart or circulation, including:

*Chest pains or tightness
*Dizziness
*Heart palpitations
*Exhaustion
*Swelling of the ankles and feet
*Trouble breathing
*Cold sweats
*Nausea and heartburn
People who have severe dyslipidemia, especially those with other medical conditions, may need to manage their blood lipid levels with medication, in addition to making lifestyle changes.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyslipidemia
https://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33979
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/321844.php

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