Botanical Name: Eugenia stipitata
Species: E. stipitata
Common Names: Araza, Portuguese common names araçá, araçá-boi, Spanish common name arazá
Habitat: Arza is native to Amazon Rainforest vegetation in Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador.
The araza is a shrub or small tree 2.5–15 m, with densely branched habit. The flaking bark has brown to reddish colour. The leaves are simple, opposite, elliptical to slightly oval, 8–19 by 3.5–9.5 cm, apex acuminate, base rounded and often subcordate, margins entire, leaves dull and dark green with 6-10 pairs of impressed lateral veins, pale green, shortly pilose, with scattered hairs below. The inflorescences are in axillary racemes, usually with two to five flowers which are 1 cm wide and pedicillate, have 4 rounded sepals and 5 white, oval petals. Linear bracteoles, calyx 4 rounded, stamens 70 and long, ovary with 3–4 locules, each with 5–8 ovules, style 5–8 mm long. Fruit a globose to oblate or spherical berry, 2–10 x 2–12 cm, which reaches weight up to 750g. Pale green turning to bright yellow when ripe with a thin, velvety skin enclosing a juicy, aromatic, acid, thick pulp enclosing usually 12 seeds. The seeds are recalcitrant as that do not survive drying and freezing during ex-situ conservation.
Cultivation & Propagation:
During the first and in some cases also second or third year it can be intercropped with annual cultures. The tree is proper for agroforestry systems and growth in the shade of taller trees appeared tobe higher than under less intense shade. The propagation is done by seed, which is common in most of the fruits. The seeds have the best germination rate when they are extracted from the completely mature fruits. The success of germination stays in 80% up to 60 days, when the seeds are kept in water.Pruning of young trees are recommended looking for the formation of three four heavy branches. Also, annual pruning and general clean up should be done. Seed beds. The seeds are recalcitrant. After 40 days in cold storage, they lose more than 70 percent of their viability. Consequently, seed beds must be established in the first five days after the seeds have been harvested. The seed beds are kept completely in the shade; the seeds are planted 2 cm apart and only lightly covered, as greater coverings inhibit germination. As a seed bed, partly decomposed softwood is recommended while the use of earth is not advised. Germination is not uniform and may take up to 80 days; in the conditions described, the germination rate may reach around 100 percent. Nurseries. The seedlings are kept in the seed bed until they reach a height of 7 to 10 cm. They are then transplanted into 6 to 8 kg polyethylene bags filled with a mixture of earth and 10 percent manure. The plants stay in the bags for up to one year; six months in the shade and 6 months in partial shade. Planting out. After one year, the plants are planted out on their final site. In San Roque, distances of 3 x 3 m have been adopted, with holes measuring 50 cm deep and 30 to 50 cm in diameter. The soil is mixed with 0.50 kg of manure. It is recommended that weeds be eliminated from the planted area each month and organic material added to the soil. Experimental results on fertilization suggest that organic fertilizer with manure is preferable to chemical fertilizers. In fertilization trials, chemical fertilizers had no influence on fruit formation (between 20 and 40 percent, average 25 percent) or on the total yield, which justifies not recommending its use in the region.
The fresh fruit can be used directly but is best with the addition of sugar because of its high acidity. In Colombia, the economic interest of this fruit has increased since the end of the 20th century, and the fruit is at present sold by growers’ associations and even in supermarkets, while the exports to the UK have just started. The USA is in the process of registering arazá to be sold fresh. It’s better to use its processed form, mostly as juices, nectars and ice creams but also jellies, marmalades, preserves and desserts. Another use of this fruit tree is to rehabilitate exhausted land and also for ornamental purposes.
Medicinal Uses: Some people eat the fruit when unripe in order to eliminate parasites.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
This is a small tree whose size and shape allow it to mix well with many tree crops. Some specimens are bushy, while others have an architecture similar to cacao trees. Although relatively slow growing, it is a suitable species for rehabilitating exhausted land.