Fruits & Vegetables


Botanical Name: Carissa spinarum
Family: Apocynaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Genus: Carissa
Species: C. spinarum

*Carissa abyssinica R.Br.
*Carissa africana A.DC.
*Carissa axillaris Roxb.
*Carissa brownii F.Muell.
*Carissa campenonii (Drake) Palacky

Common Names: Conkerberry, Bush plum. In India, it is also called wild karanda /wild karavanda
Burmese: Hkan Ping;
Chinese: Ci Huang Guo;
German: Karandang, Karanda Wachsbaum;
Andhra Pradesh: Vaka, kalivi, kalli;
Gujarat: Karmarda;
Maharashtra: karavada, karanda, karwant;
Karnataka: Karekayi, garji, kavali;
Himachal Pradesh: karondhu, garna, kharnu;
Tamil Nadu: Kalakkay, kalachedi, Sirukilaa, Chirukila
Bengali: Bainchi, Karenja, Karamcha, Kurumia,
Hindi: Garinga, Kantakregi, Gotho, Karaunda, Karonda, Karaunta, Karondi, Karrona, Karonti, Karumcha, Korada, Karunda, Timukhia, Timukha, Jungli Karonda ;
Kannada: Dodda Kalaa, Doddakavale, Dodda Kavali, Doddakavali, Garacha, Garchinakai, , Garji, GarajaHarikalivi, Heggarichige, Heggaricige, Hirikalavi, Heggarjige, Hirikavali, Kalavige, Kalaagida, Kalivi, Kalla, Kamrdepuli, Kamarika, Karanda, Karande Pli, Karande, Karavadi, Karekayi, Karekai, Kareki, Karevati, Karice, Kari, Kariche, Karichi, Karicinakayi, Karichina Kaayi, Karinda, Kauligida, Karndepuli, Kavale, Kavali Gida, Kavali, Kawliballi, Korindamalekalaavu,
Malayalam: Kalavu, Karanta, Karakka, Karekai, Kilai, Keelay, Kulay, Klavu, Perumklavu,
Marathi: Boranda, Haradundi, Boronda, Karanda, Karandi, Karavanda, Karaunda, Karavanad Karavandi, Karwand-Karanja, Oriya: Sushena,
Sanskrit: Avighna, Avinga, Avighnah, Bolekarambuka, Bahudala, Dimdima, Guchhi, Dridhakantaka, Jalipushpa, Kantaki, Kanachuka, Karamarda, Karamla, Karamardaka, Karinkara, Karamlaka, Krishna-Pakphula, Krishnaphala, Krishnapakaphala, Krisnapakaphala, Kshiraphala, Ksiraphala, Kshiri, Pakakrishna, Panimarda, Pakaphala, Phalakrishna, Susena, Supushpa, Vanekshudra, Vanalaya, Vasha,
Tamil: Aintarikam, Alarukam, Aintarikamaram, Alarukamaram, Cenkala, Cirukala, Cirapalam, Kala, Kalakkay, Kalakka, Perumkla, Perungala, Kalaka, Kalaaha, Kalar, Kalarva, Kila, Karavintai, Kilakkai, Kilakki, Kilatti, Kilamaram, Kilay, Kirusnapalai, Kirusnapakapalam, Periyakala, Kiruttinapakapalam, Perunikila, Perukala, Perunkila, Perungila-Maram, Perunkala, Perungkala, Perunkala Ver,
Yokatumacceti, Yokatumam,
Telugu: Kalay, Kali, Kalikai, Kali-Kai, Kaliva, Kalivi, Kalive, Kalli, Kallia, Kalumi, Kavila, Kaluva, Oka, Pedda Kalive, Okalive, Peddakalavi, Peddakalive, Peddavaka, Peddakalivi, Peddavaaka Kaaya, Peddavakakaya, Vakalive, Vaka, Vakalivi, Vakudu, Vakalvi, Waaka, Waka, Wyaka, Wakay, Vaaklive, Vaaka Chettu, Yaakudu;
Indonesia: Karandan, Karendang;
Malaysia: Kerenda, Berenda, Kerandang;
Philippines: Caramba, Caraunda, Caranda, Perunkila;
Pakistan: Karanda, Gerna, Karanda, Kakranda;
Portuguese: Carandeira;
Spanish: Caranda;
Bangkok: Nam Phrom, Namdaeng,
Southern Peninsula: Manaao Ho,
Chiang Mai: Naam Khee Haet;
Timor: Senggaritan;
Vietnam: Cay Siro

Habitat: Conkerberry is native to throughout much of India, Burma and dry areas of Ceylon.It is widely distributed in tropical regions of Africa, Southern Asia, Australia, and various islands of the Indian Ocean. It is most well known in Australia, where it is also called currant bush or, more ambiguously, native currant or even black currant.

Conkerberry is a much branched, woody and climbing evergreen shrub that grows upto 5 meters high. Branches have sharp thorns which are simple or forked about 5 cm long found in pairs in leaf axils. Leaves are opposite, broadly ovate to oblong about 3-7 × 1.5-4 cm having broadly cuneate to rounded base, short apiculate apex and eight pairs of lateral veins. Leaves are leathery, dark green, glossy on upper surface and dull underside. Inflorescences are three flowered having fragrant flowers on 1.5-2.5 cm long peduncles having minute bracteoles. Calyx is 5-partite, synsepalous with very slender, pointed and hairy segments having basal glands inside. Corolla is 5-lobed, synetalous, salverform. Lobes are oblong lanceolate overlapping to the right, pubescent and corolla tube is cylindrical about 2 cm, white or pale rose. Pistil has an ellipsoid 2-carpelled, syncarpous ovary having 2 locules with axile placentation and 2 ovules in each locule. Flowers are then followed by a drupe which is broadly ovoid or ellipsoid measuring 1.5– 2.5 cm long, white to pinky-white and pink that turns blackish or reddish-purple and is bluntly pointed. It comprises of two to four small, flat and brown seeds in a reddish to purple pulp that tastes sour.


Edible Uses:
*Fruits are consumed raw.
*Use it as a seasoning with curry, pies, puddings and tarts.
*Make pickle, chutney and preserves from unripe fruit.
*It is used in syrups and cold beverages.
*Use the ripe fruits to make wine.
*Dry it and eat like sultana

Nutritional value:
The serving size of 100 grams of Ripe Conkerberry offers 745–753/kg (338–342/lb) calories, 83.17–83.24% moisture, 0.39–0.66% protein, 2.57–4.63% fat, 0.51–0.94% carbohydrate, 7.35–11.58% sugar, 0.62–1.81% fiber and 0.66– 0.78% ash. Additionally 9-11 mg of ascorbic acid content.

Medicinal Uses:
*Use the unripe fruit for anorexia, diarrhea, as appetizer, thermogenic and constipating agent.
*It has a cooling effect and used as antidote for poisons and haemmatemesis.
*Ripe fruits are used for treating fever, sore throats, mouth ulcer, diarrhea, skin disorders, burning sensation.
*Leaf decoction is used for diarrhea, intermittent fever, soreness of mouth, throat, oral inflammation, earache and syphilitic pains.
*Roots are used as an aid for pyrexia, gonorrhea, chronic ulcer and indigestion.
*Boil the roots in decoction for aching bones.
*It is used as a cure for headache, rheumatism, chest complaints, rabies, syphilis, gonorrhea, malaria, herpes, edema, cough, toothache, worm infestation, ulcer, cough, jaundice, typhoid fever.
*It is also used to treat chickenpox.
*Fruits are used to manage dysentery.
*Apply the boiled leaves on gums to provide relief from toothache.

Other Uses: Burning the woods acts as a mosquito repellent.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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