Botanical Name: Tussilago farfara
*Farfara radiata Gilib.
*Tussilago alpestris Hegetschw.
*Cineraria farfara (L.) Bernh.
*Tussilago umbertina Borbás
Common Names: Coltsfoot.
Other common names : Tash plant, Ass’s foot, Bull’s foot, Coughwort (Old English), Farfara, Foal’s foot Foalswort, and Horse foot. Sometimes it is confused with Petasites frigidus, or Western coltsfoot.
It has been called bechion, bechichie, or bechie, from the Ancient Greek word for “cough”. Also ungula caballina (“horse hoof”), pes pulli (“foal’s foot”), and chamæleuce.
Habitat: Coltsfoot is native to Europe and parts of western and central Asia. It is widespread across Europe, Asia, and North Africa, from Svalbard to Morocco to China and the Russian Far East. It is also a common plant in North and South America where it has been introduced, most likely by settlers as a medicinal item. The plant is often found in waste and disturbed places and along roadsides and paths. In some areas it is considered an invasive species.
It grows in damp habitats, frequently on alkaline clays, in hedgebanks, roadsides, wasteland, often as a pioneer, and on dunes and shingle in coastal zones
Coltsfoot is a perennial herbaceous plant that spreads by seeds and rhizomes. Tussilago is often found in colonies of dozens of plants. The flowers, which superficially resemble dandelions, bear scale-leaves on the long stems in early spring. The leaves of coltsfoot, which appear after the flowers have set seed, wither and die in the early summer. The flower heads are of yellow florets with an outer row of bracts. The plant is typically 10–30 cm (3.9–11.8 in) in height. The leaves have angular teeth on their margins.
A very easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils when grown in full sun. It prefers a moist neutral to alkaline soil and will also succeed in partial shade. Plants are hardy to about -29°c. Coltsfoot is a very tough plant that is more than capable of looking after itself. When well sited its roots will spread very freely sending up new shoots at some distance from the clump even if growing amongst dense weed competition. This can make it a problem weed in gardens, so either choose your site with care or find some means of restraining it such as by planting in a large tub that is buried in the ground. The rhizomes can lay dormant in the soil for many years, emerging when the soil is disturbed.
Seed – the plant does not usually require help with spreading itself around, but if required the seed can be sown in situ in early spring or autumn. Division of the roots is very easy and succeeds at almost any time in the year. The divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions
Flower buds and young flowers are eaten raw or cooked. A pleasant aniseed flavour, they add a distinctive aromatic flavour to salads. Young leaves – raw or cooked. They can be used in salads, added to soups, or cooked as a vegetable. The leaves have a bitter taste unless they are washed after being boiled. An aromatic tea is made from the fresh or dried leaves and flowers. It has a liquorice-like flavour. The dried and burnt leaves are used as a salt substitute. The slender rootstock is candied in sugar syrup.
Coltsfoot has been consumed as a food product with some confectionery products, such as Coltsfoot Rock.
Medicinal Uses: Coltsfoot has been used in herbal medicine.Tussilago farfara leaves have been used in traditional Austrian medicine internally (as tea or syrup) or externally (directly applied) for treatment of disorders of the respiratory tract, skin, locomotor system, viral infections, flu, colds, fever, rheumatism and gout. An extract of the fresh leaves has also been used to make cough drops and hard candy.
An effective demulcent and expectorant herb, coltsfoot is one of the most popular European remedies for the treatment of a wide range of chest complaints. It is widely available in health food shops. The leaves are commonly used in Europe, though the flowering stems (which contain higher levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids) are preferred in China. They are rich in mucilage and are the main parts used, though the root is also sometimes employed. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids have a toxic effect upon the liver, but are largely destroyed when the plant is boiled to make a decoction. Some caution should be employed in the use of this remedy – the flowers should not be used except under professional supervision, the leaves should not be used for more than 4 – 6 weeks at a time, the herb should not be taken whilst pregnant or breast-feeding and it should not be given to children under the age of six. Modern research has shown that extracts of the whole plant can increase immune resistance. In a Chinese trial 75% of patients suffering from bronchial asthma showed some improvement after treatment with this plant, though the anti-asthmatic effect was short-lived. The leaves are harvested in June and early July, the flowers are harvested when fully open and the root is harvested in the autumn. All can be dried and used as required. The plant is antitussive, astringent, demulcent, emollient, expectorant, stimulant and tonic. It is widely used in the treatment of coughs and respiratory problems and is often candied so that it can be sucked as a sweet. The plant is of particular use in the treatment of chronic emphysema and silicosis, helping to relieve the persistent cough associated with these conditions. Coltsfoot is particularly effective when used in combination with liquorice (Glycyrrhiza species), thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and wild cherry (Prunus serotina). A poultice of the flowers has a soothing effect on a range of skin disorders including eczema, ulcers, sores, bites and inflammations. A bitter, tonic and diaphoretic preparation can be obtained from the root
Coltsfoot is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Gothic and small angle shades. It is also visited by honeybees, providing pollen and nectar.
The plant contains traces of liver-affecting pyrrolizidine alkaloids and is potentially toxic in large doses. These alkaloids have not proved toxic at low dosages in tests and there is no suggestion that this plant should not be used medicinally. Contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.