Botanical Name: Ceriops decundra
Species: C. decandra
*Bruguiera decandra Griff.
*Ceriops roxburghiana Arn.
Common Names: Jhamti Garan/ Jele Garan,Kadol.
Common name in Tamil : Chiru kandal.
Common name in Telugu : Gatharu.
Habitat : Ceriops decandra grows naturally in India and Bangladesh (including the Sundarbans), Burma, Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia. Its habitat is mangrove swamps and tidal creeks.
Ceriops decandra grows as a shrub or small tree up to 15 metres (50 ft) tall with a trunk diameter of up to 30 cm (12 in). Leaves are simple and entire, opposite, elliptic-oblong or obovate, apex emarginate, base cuneate, 4 – 10 x 2 – 6 cm, coriaceous; petioles 1.5 – 2 cm long, stipules interpetiolar, caducous. Inflorescence stalked axillary condensed cymes. Flowers are small, white, regular, bisexual, 3 – 4 mm long; calyx 5 – 6 lobed, tube adnate to ovary; petals 5 – 6, apex fringed with many ciliae; stamens 10 to 12, inserted between lobes of the disk, filaments slender, anthers oblong; ovary 3-celled, style short, stigma simple. Fruits are 1-celled, 1-seeded; hypocotyle 10 – 12 cm, angular sulcate, warty toward apex, calyx lobes star shaped. The ovoid to conical fruits measure up to 1.8 cm (0.7 in) long. Stem base pyramidal with many stilt-roots.
Bark is pale yellowish grey with flakes. Buttresses with flaky bark.
A plant mainly of high rainfall areas in the tropics.
The plant can grow in saline soils, it has a maximum tolerance of salinity at 67ppt and a salinity of optimal growth at15 ppt.
A slow-growing species, though it can be tolerant of extreme environmental conditions.
Trees tend to flower periodically and synchronously over wide areas, but seasonally under seasonal climates.
Fruiting is often prolific. Seeds germinate and start to develop whilst still on the tree, with individual trees producing several thousands of seedlings at the same time. The seedlings take up to 12 months to develop, with shorter times in wet equatorial regions, and then fall. Subsequent development involves a seedling being stranded and lodged in the mud, followed by the rapid production of adventitious roots which serve to anchor it. Most seedlings are slender and small and cannot survive long periods while floating in the water, and consequently are not as successfully dispersed over long distances as those of other mangrove Rhizophoraceae. However, once ‘planted’ in the shade of other trees their rate of establishment is very high
Propagation: Through seeds.
Edible Uses: Not known.
Medicinal Uses: The bark is astringent. A decoction is used to treat haemorrhages.
The bark yields around 25 – 37% of a high quality tannin. Both bark and leaves are used for tanning in South-East Asia and India. The bark of older trees has higher contents of tannin.
The sap of the bark yields a black dye used in the ‘batik’ industry.
The wood is a pale whitish-yellow when freshly cut, turning orange-brown on exposure to air. It is usually somewhat less heavy than the wood of the related Ceriops tagal, and is moderately resistant to decay, with a life in contact with the ground of about 2 years. The branches are used for tool handles, and bent ones for boat ribs. Some wood of this species has been chipped for pulp.
The wood is used for fuel. When dry, the wood burns with a hotter flame than that of most other mangrove species
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