Herbs & Plants

Echinochloa frumentacea

Botanical Name: Echinochloa frumentacea
Family: Poaceae

Subfamily: Panicoideae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Genus: Echinochloa
Species: E. frumentacea

*Echinochloa colona var. frumentacea (Link) Ridl.
*Echinochloa crus-galli var. edulis Hitchc. nom. illeg.
*Echinochloa crus-galli var. edulis Honda

Common Names: Indian barnyard millet, Sawa millet, or Billion dollar grass,Japanese Millet, Billion-dollar grass

Habitat: Exact native place is not very clear but it is grown widely in India, Pakistan, and Nepal. It is cultivated on marginal lands where rice and other crops will not grow well. The grains are cooked in water, like rice, or boiled with milk and sugar.

Echinochloa frumentacea is an annual grass, growing to 1.8 m (6ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is in flower from July to September, and the seeds ripen from September to October. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Wind.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.


Prefers a rich moist soil but succeeds in ordinary garden soil. Japanese millet is sometimes cultivated in India and E. Asia for its edible seed, especially in areas where rice will not grow. There are some named varieties. Plants can produce a crop of seeds within 6 weeks of sowing in warmer areas of the world but obtaining a reasonable crop is more problematic in the cooler summers of Britain. The plants need to be started off early in a greenhouse in order to give sufficient growing time. They are also more likely to succeed in the eastern side of the country where the summers are usually warmer and drier.

Through seeds – sow early spring in a greenhouse and only just cover the seed. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer. A sowing in situ in late spring might also succeed but is unlikely to ripen a crop of seed if the summer is cool and wet.

Edible Uses:
Seed – cooked and used as a millet. The seed can be cooked whole or can be ground into a flour. Usually eaten as a porridge. The seed contains about 72.5% starch, 3.12% fat, 11.8% protein, 2.65% ash,

Medicinal Uses:
*Positive effect on the immune System. Echinacea is best known for its beneficial effects on the immune system. …

*May lower blood sugar levels. High blood sugar can raise your risk of serious health problems. This includes type 2 diabetes, heart disease and several other chronic conditions.

*May reduce feelings of anxiety. In recent years, echinacea plants have emerged as a potential aid for anxiety. …

*Anti-inflammatory properties. Inflammation is your body’s natural way of promoting healing and defending itself. Sometimes inflammation can get out of hand and last for longer than necessary and expected.

The plant is useful in the treatment of biliousness and constipation.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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