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Fruits & Vegetables Herbs & Plants

Jack fruit

Botanical Name : Artocarpus heterophyllus
Family:    Moraceae
Tribe:    Artocarpeae
Genus:    Artocarpus
Species:    A. heterophyllus
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:    Rosales

Common Name : Jackfruit

Other Names: Kanthal (in Bengali)

Habitat :  THE JACKFRUIT is native to the dense forests of the Western Ghats, but it is now common throughout Asia, Africa and the tropical regions of the Americas.

The Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is a species of tree of the mulberry family (Moraceae) and its fruit, native to southwestern India and Sri Lanka, and possibly also east to the Malay Peninsula, though more likely an early human introduction there.

In India It is believed to have originated in the southwestern rain forests of India, in present-day Goa, Kerala, coastal Karnataka, and Maharashtra.

Description:  It is an evergreen tree growing to 10-15 m tall. The leaves are alternately arranged, elliptical, 5-25 cm long and 3-12 cm broad, often lobed on young trees but entire on mature trees. The flowers are produced in dense inflorescences 3-7 cm long and 1-2.5 cm broad; the male and female flowers produced on separate inflorescences, the female inflorescences commonly borne on thick branches or the trunk of the tree (cauliflory).

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PICTURE

PICTURE

The fruit is huge, seldom less than about 25 cm in diameter. Even a relatively thin tree (circa 10 cm) can have huge fruits hanging on it. The fruits can reach 36 kg in weight and up to 90 cm long and 50 cm in diameter. The jackfruit is the largest tree borne fruit in the world.

The jackfruit tree is a widely cultivated and popular food item throughout the tropical regions of the world. Jackfruit is the national fruit of Bangladesh, by name Kanthal  in Bengali language. The Jackfruit tree can produce about 100 to 200 fruits in a year.

The sweet yellow sheaths around the seeds are about 3-5 mm thick and have a taste similar to pineapple but milder and less juicy.

Cultivation and uses
Jackfruit is widely grown in South and Southeast Asia. It is also grown in parts of central and eastern Africa, Brazil, and Suriname. It is the national fruit of Bangladesh and Indonesia.

The jackfruit has played a significant role in the Indian agriculture (and culture) from times immemorial. Archeological findings in India have revealed that jackfruit was cultivated in India 3000 to 6000 years ago. Findings also indicate that Indian Emperor Ashoka the Great (274 – 237 BC) encouraged arbori-horticulture of various fruits including jackfruit. Varahamihira, the famous Indian astronomer, mathemetician, and astrologer wrote a chapter on the treatment of trees in his Brhat Samhita. One of the highlights of his treatise is a specific reference on grafting to be done on trees such as jackfruit. A method of grafting described was what is known today as ‘wedge grafting’. One of the earliest descriptions of the jackfruit is to be found in the 16th century memoirs of the Mughal Emperor Babar, who was not much enamored of it:

“The jackfruit is unbelievably ugly and bad tasting. It looks exactly like sheep intestines turned inside out like stuffed tripe. It has a cloyingly sweet taste. Inside it has seeds like hazelnuts that mostly resemble dates, but these seeds are round, not long. The flesh of these seeds, which is what is eaten, is softer than dates. It is sticky, and for that reason some people grease their hands and mouths before eating it. The fruit is said to grow on the branches, the trunk, and the roots of the tree and looks like stuffed tripe hung all over the tree”.

The jackfruit is something of an acquired taste, but it is very popular in many parts of the world. A unopened ripe fruit can have a unpleasant smell, like rotting onions. The lightbrown to black seeds with white innards are indeed about the size of dates. People often oil their hands with coconut oil, kerosene/parafin before preparing jackfruit, as the rest of the mass of the fruit is a loose white mass that bleeds a milky sticky sap, often used as glue.

Unripe jackfruit  is cooked and  eaten in Bengal..as vegetable curry..the curry is very popular  and tasty.

Commercial availability

A kutiyapi, made of jackfruit wood. The jackfruit bears fruit three years after planting.

In the United States and Europe, the fruit is available in shops that sell exotic products, usually sold canned with a sugar syrup or frozen. It is also obtained fresh from Asian food markets. Sweet jackfruit chips are also often available.

The wood is used for the production of musical instruments in Indonesia as part of the gamelan and in the Philippines, where its soft wood can be made into the hull of a kutiyapi, a type of Philippine boat lute. It is also used to make the body of the Indian drums mridangam and kanjira. It is also widely used for manufacture of furniture.
Toxicity: Even in India there is some resistance to the jackfruit, attributed to the belief that overindulgence in it causes digestive ailments. Burkill declares that it is the raw, unripe fruit that is astringent and indigestible. The ripe fruit is somewhat laxative; if eaten in excess it will cause diarrhea. Raw jackfruit seeds are indigestible due to the presence of a powerful trypsin inhibitor. This element is destroyed by boiling or baking.

Other Uses

Fruit:

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PICTURE

PICTURE

In some areas, the jackfruit is fed to cattle. The tree is even planted in pastures so that the animals can avail themselves of the fallen fruits. Surplus jackfruit rind is considered a good stock food.

Leaves: Young leaves are readily eaten by cattle and other livestock and are said to be fattening. In India, the leaves are used as food wrappers in cooking, and they are also fastened together for use as plates.

Seeds:

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The seeds, which appeal to all tastes, may be boiled or roasted and eaten, or boiled and preserved in sirup like chestnuts. They have also been successfully canned in brine, in curry, and, like baked beans, in tomato sauce. They are often included in curried dishes. Roasted, dried seeds are ground to make a flour which is blended with wheat flour for baking.

Latex: The latex serves as birdlime, alone or mixed with Ficus sap and oil from Schleichera trijuga Willd. The heated latex is employed as a household cement for mending chinaware and earthenware, and to caulk boats and holes in buckets. The chemical constituents of the latex have been reported by Tanchico and Magpanlay. It is not a substitue for rubber but contains 82.6 to 86.4% resins which may have value in varnishes. Its bacteriolytic activity is equal to that of papaya latex.

LICK TO SEE : How to Remove Jackfruit Sticky Latex Juice

PICTURES

Wood: Jackwood is an important timber in Ceylon and, to a lesser extent, in India; some is exported to Europe. It changes with age from orange or yellow to brown or dark-red; is termite proof, fairly resistant to fungal and bacterial decay, seasons without difficulty, resembles mahogany and is superior to teak for furniture, construction, turnery, masts, oars, implements, brush backs and musical instruments. Palaces were built of jackwood in Bali and Macassar, and the limited supply was once reserved for temples in Indochina. Its strength is 75 to 80% that of teak. Though sharp tools are needed to achieve a smooth surface, it polishes beautifully. Roots of old trees are greatly prized for carving and picture framing. Dried branches are employed to produce fire by friction in religious ceremonies in Malabar.

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From the sawdust of jackwood or chips of the heartwood, boiled with alum, there is derived a rich yellow dye commonly used for dyeing silk and the cotton robes of Buddhist priests. In Indonesia, splinters of the wood are put into the bamboo tubes collecting coconut toddy in order to impart a yellow tone to the sugar. Besides the yellow colorant, morin, the wood contains the colorless cyanomaclurin and a new yellow coloring matter, artocarpin, was reported by workers in Bombay in 1955. Six other flavonoids have been isolated at the National Chemical Laboratory, Poona.

Bark: There is only 3.3% tannin in the bark which is occasionally made into cordage or cloth.

Dishes and preparations
Jackfruit is commonly used in South and Southeast Asian cuisines. It can be eaten unripe (young) or ripe, and cooked or uncooked. The seeds can also be used in certain recipes.

Unripe (young) jackfruit is also eaten whole, cooked as a vegetable. Young jackfruit has a mild flavour and distinctive texture. The cuisines of India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and Vietnam use cooked young jackfruit. In many cultures, jackfruit is boiled and used in curries as a food staple.

The tree is common in hundreds of thousands of Indian homes, and it provides food and shade along vast stretches of our national highways, riverbanks and railways.In India it is eaten as vegetable when green and as delicious fruit when ripen.

It provides shade to cash crops like coffee, betel nut, cardamom and pepper that need it.

The ripe fruit smells like rotting onions from the outside, but the fruit flesh inside smells like banana or pineapple. Unripe fruit can be sliced and cooked like green plantain.

The sticky smelly latex it exudes when cut is difficult to wash away, so it is wise to rub the knife and palms with oil before getting down to dicing and slicing.

The ripe fruit bulbs are delicious raw or as ice cream, jelly, chutney, syrup and jam.

The pulp, when boiled in milk, yields delicious orange-toned custard, while frying dry, salted bulbs serves up an alternative to potato chips.

The Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), Mysore, is a world leader in devising methods to preserve and candy jackfruit pulp.

They came up with a canning method that lets the fruit retain its beta-carotene content for up to two years.

The pulp yields heady liquor when fermented. The seeds can be curried, eaten roasted, soaked in sweet syrup, or even ground up to yield flour for blending with wheat flour.

According to traditional Chinese medicine, eating the ripe fruit counteracts the harmful effects of alcohol on the body.

The fruit is nearly as calorie-dense as the custard apple. Hundred grams of the edible flesh, including the seeds, contains almost 100 calories, most of it as sugar and starch.

The flesh is rich in beta-carotene and potassium, while the seeds are rich in thiamine and riboflavin-B vitamins.

Eating uncooked, unripe fruit can cause indigestion; the culprit is an enzyme that inhibits the gut’s protein-digesting enzyme, trypsin. Cooking destroys this inhibitor.

The ripe fruit increases gut motility and can cause diarrhoea in those who eat too much of it.

Chemical constituents:
Jackwood contains morin and a crystalline constituent, cyanomaclurin, probably isomeric with catechins.

Medicinal properties:
· Root: antiasthmatic.
· Ripe fruit: demulcent, nutritive, laxative.
· Unripe fruit: astringent.
· Pulp or flesh: surrounding the seed is aromatic, cooling and tonic.

Uses:
Nutrition

High carbohydrate content. The young fruit is also a vegetable. The pulp (lamukot) surrounding the seeds is sweet and aromatic, rich in vitamin C, eaten fresh or cooked or preserved. The seeds are boiled or roasted. The unripe fruit can be pickled.
Folkloric
· Skin diseases, ulcers and wounds: Mix the burnt ashes of leaves (preferably fresh) with coconut oil, and as ointment, apply to affected areas.
· Diarrhea, fever and asthma: A decoction of the root (preferably chopped into small pieces before boiling) of the tree, three to four cups daily.
· Glandular swelling and snake bites: Apply the milky juice of the tree. When mixed with vinegar, it is especially beneficial for glandular swelling and abscesses, promoting absorption and suppuration.
· The ripe fruit is laxative; in large quantities, it produces diarrhea.
· The roasted seeds believed to have aphrodisiac properties.
Others
· Fruit used to flavor and age lambanog believed to increased alcohol potency.
· Tree latex is used as bird lime; and heated makes a good cement for china.

Jack fruit is a common medicinal tree in this part of Chhattisgarh in India. The herb collectors use its bark for cracks in Lips. In form of aqueous paste bark is applied. The herb collectors extract the juice from Ama (Mango) and Kathal (Jack fruit) bark and mix it in equal ratio. In this combination, Chuna (Lime water) pani is added and used internally in treatment of dysentery.

The Chinese consider jackfruit pulp and seeds tonic, cooling and nutritious, and to be “useful in overcoming the influence of alcohol on the system.” The seed starch is given to relieve biliousness and the roasted seeds are regarded as aphrodisiac. The ash of jackfruit leaves, burned with corn and coconut shells, is used alone or mixed with coconut oil to heal ulcers. The dried latex yields artostenone, convertible to artosterone, a compound with marked androgenic action. Mixed with vinegar, the latex promotes healing of abscesses, snakebite and glandular swellings. The root is a remedy for skin diseases and asthma. An extract of the root is taken in cases of fever and diarrhea. The bark is made into poultices. Heated leaves are placed on wounds. The wood has a sedative property; its pith is said to produce abortion.

The Chinese were among the first to recognise the nutrition potential of the seeds, but their views on the aphrodisiacal (?) nature of the seeds are not rooted in reality.

In other cultures, the ash of the leaves is a traditional antiseptic. The latex is a folk cure for snakebites, abscesses and lymph node swelling.

Root decoction is an old cure for fever, diarrhoea, asthma and skin diseases.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:.hinduonnet.com. , en.wikipedia and .hort.purdue.edu and http://www.stuartxchange.org/Langka.html

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Club drug shows promise as healer

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ESCTASY MAY RESTORE PARKISON’S DAMAGE

Only a few years ago, Maryland researchers made national headlines with the news that the drug Ecstasy could cause Parkinson’s diseas.

Now an Ohio researcher has shown how the club drug may actually lead to a way to restore the parts of the brain that deteriorate in Parkinson’s, the neurological disorder that makes hands unsteady, movement stiff, walking difficult, and even erase facial expression.

While the Maryland study was withdrawn when scientists realized they used the wrong drug, other labs were discovering Ecstasy could ease Parkinson’s symptoms in animals.

Jack Lipton, professor of psychiatry at the University of Cincinnati, told a gathering at the Society for Neuroscience meeting in Atlanta last week that Ecstasy’s impact may go beyond a reduction of symptoms. His research found Ecstasy actually increased the survival of neurons in rat fetal brain cells by 70 percent to 300 percent.

Most important for Parkinson’s patients, these long-lived neurons are the same ones that deteriorate in Parkinson’s – those that transmit the neurochemical dopamine. Dopamine is famous for its role in feelings of pleasure, but it also plays an important role in movement.

“We’re really excited about this,” said Mr. Lipton. “Who would have thought you could take a drug that’s abused, and find therapeutic properties?”

No one is advocating Parkinson’s patients find a street supplier, however. Ecstasy may damage neurons that transport seratonin, which regulates mood and sleep. Long-term use can lead to anxiety or depression, and it can cause fatal hyperthermia.

Researchers instead hope that the chemical structure of Ecstasy – known as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA – will serve as a basis for new compounds that produce Ecstasy’s benefits without its deleterious effects.

Mr. Lipton’s discovery of increased dopamine cell survival is an extension of his work in rats. He gave pregnant rats MDMA, then looked at the brains of the offspring 21 days after birth.

He wanted to see what would happen to dopamine neurons, which produce long spindly fibers along which they send out signals to other parts of the brain. His MDMA-exposed rats showed a three-fold to five-fold increase in the number of dopamine nerve fibers, compared to MDMA-free rats.

“I don’t think I’ve ever seen a drug, any drug, produce dopamine fiber innervation in an animal. No one has seen it before. I know because I searched for it,” Mr. Lipton said.

Mr. Lipton’s research “has shown for the first time that an MDMA-like molecule could actually stop the death of dopamine cells. This is very exciting,” said Jonathan Brotchie, a senior scientist at Toronto Western Hospital who works on MDMA-based compounds for Parkinson’s treatment. He is also chief executive officer of Atuka Ltd., a company that develops Parkinson’s drugs.

Ultimately, the development of MDMA for Parkinson’s could come from a number of directions. Mr. Brotchie said he has developed compounds that curb Parkinson’s symptoms in animals, but he believes those compounds work through serotonin neurons, not dopamine neurons.

Last year, researchers at Duke University in Durham, N.C., discovered that Ecstasy could reduce Parkinson’s symptoms in mice. That group proposed neither serotonin action, nor dopamine activity as the reason, but suggested yet another chemical reaction behind the reduced symptoms.

“It’s complicated,” Mr. Brotchie said. “Brain science is harder than rocket science.”

“I think this work shows a great deal of potential,” said Jon Sprague, an Ohio Northern University researcher who works on the toxic effects of Ecstasy. Mr. Sprague, a PhD in pharmacology and toxicology, is dean of the College of Pharmacology at the university in Ada.

The fact that the Cincinnati laboratory has moved from animal experiments to cell culture experiments “really gives you the ability to test the true mechanisms at work,” Mr. Sprague said.

The Cincinnati researcher suggested that MDMA-based compounds could someday improve the prospects of fetal-cell or stem-cell transplants in Parkinson’s patients.

Thus far, few cells survive transplantation, Mr. Lipton said.

“When you take 100,000 cells and place them in the brain, 3 percent of the cells will survive and actually innervate,” Mr. Lipton said. Using MDMA to increase survival of these cells after transplantation, he added, is one possibility.

Creating a drug to treat the disease directly, without a cell transplantation, may be further off, Mr. Lipton said, but still within the realm of possibilities.
(As published in The Toledo Blade)

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Is It OK to Take Expired Medicines?

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Do You Take Expired Medications.Lots of people do. Here’s what you need to know.

Oct. 27, 2006 – Last week Debi Loarie was straightening her medicine cabinet when she noticed a 2003 expiration date on some Sudafed. She decided to check everything in her Highland Park, Ill., home.  “I would say 70 percent of the medicine I had in my cabinet was expired,  she says.  Nobody looks. I had stuff from 2001, 1996. ”   She tossed it all.  Why do you want to take a chance,   she says.  When you  are really sick, and you want to feel better, you need that to work.

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Loarie is not alone in holding onto expired medications. This month a survey of more than 1,000 adults by the pharmacy chain Medicine Shoppe found that 65 percent of Americans said they took expired medication. Unlike Loarie, more than half of them said they took them knowingly.

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So, does the expiration date matter? Experts say it depends on the individual drug and on storage conditions. Over time, medications do lose some of their strength.  Usually, the worst thing that could happen is it won’t be as potent as you expect it to be,  says Dr. Edward Langston, a pharmacist and family physician in Lafayette, Ind., and chair-elect of the American Medical Association Board of Trustees.

But it can be a more serious problem. Some drugs such as the epinephrine used to treat anaphylactic shock by people allergic to bee stings and certain foods   lose effectiveness faster than others.   When you are having a potentially fatal reaction, that’s not the time you want to find out the drug isn’t as potent as it should be, says pharmacist Michael Negrete, vice president of professional affairs for the California Pharmacists Association. Store Epi-Pens at a consistent temperature, and promptly replace expired ones.

Storage is important for all drugs. Medications break down more quickly in unstable environments. Incredibly, the bathroom, where, according to the survey, 49 percent of Americans store their medications, is a poor choice because of fluctuating temperatures and humidity. (The kitchen, where 29 percent keep their drugs, is a problem for the same reasons.) “Drugs degrade more rapidly   in such conditions, says Negrete. It’s also important to remember that medicine often comes in colored vials to keep out light, which can degrade some drugs. A bedroom, where the temperature is consistent and where medications can be kept out of humidity and sunlight is a better option

In general, expiration dates are shorter on injected medications and longer on oral ones. Anything that comes in a solution form has the potential to degrade very rapidly,   says Todd Cecil, vice president of standards development for the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the standard-setting authority for prescription and over-the-counter drugs and dietary supplements.  When items are in solution, theres a lot more ability for changes in a molecule to happen vs. in a solid form.â Some products, like aspirin, may last for years past their expiration dates. As aspirin ages, it may become more acidic, smell like vinegar and upset the stomach more, says Langston.  If it has a peculiar odor about it, there must be some decomposition.

Many drugs are fine long after their expiration date. An FDA study of 122 drug products  including Cipro and amoxicillin (both antiobiotics)   for the U.S. Department of Defense, published in July 2006, found that 88 percent were OK up to five years after their original expiration date. (The drugs that did not always remain stable included the antibiotic penicillin G procaine powder and the antimalarial mefloquine HC1 tablets.) Despite the FDA’s findings, most experts say it’s not worth it for the rest of us to take a chance on expired medications. For one thing, the military stores its medications in their original, unopened containers, under rigorously controlled conditions, not in humid bathroom cabinets. My recommendation is, if it’s expired, it’s expired. You  are not going to get the effects you intended,  says pharmacist Bill Bailey, director of specialized care centers for Medicine Shoppe.   The medicine may not work as you intended or have the effects you intended.   Not surprisingly, drugs are more likely to last longer when they  are sealed.   Once you open a bottle up, you begin to have air in there, humidity, in some cases different temperatures and sunlight,  says Bailey.

The FDA requires manufacturers to submit expiration dates   based on    real-time stability data   when they apply for new drug approval. These dates are usually about two years after manufacture, says Langston, but drug makers can submit data and petition for a longer date later, using so-called accelerated stability studies and actual real-time stability data. The longest shelf life is five years. Stability testing is usually conducted at 77 degrees, but manufacturers may do accelerated testing at up to 104 degrees. They run that through their computer models and make a reasonable estimate,   says Langston. These tests aren’t intended to be accurate to the day.  It’s a lot of science, and a little bit of art,   says Langston.

To get rid of expired drugs, check with your local pharmacy, city and county to see if they dispose of medications. If not, remove labels with personal information and then put medicine in the trash  in a childproof container. Be careful, particularly with dangerous drugs.   There are people who rummage through old garbage,   says Langston.   There are reasons medications are prescription drugs.

What does the government recommend?   There  is no clear guidance at the federal level,  says Negrete. In fact, government agencies, along with manufacturers and groups like the American Pharmacists Association (APhA), are looking into the disposal issue now.   It is so difficult,   says Rogene Waite, a spokeswoman for the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Anything you can come up with is going to have an opposite side. There  is not going to be any easy answer    The best answer we have right now is: people are working on it, and stay tuned.   The East Bay Municipal Utility District in Oakland, Calif., is working with the Drug Enforcement Administration to set up a pilot project to allow medicine disposal at pharmacies and other locations. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has no regulations about disposal. There’s just the agency encouraging consumers to be environmentally smart,  says EPA spokeswoman Enesta Jones. Currently, the EPA is evaluating proposals   submitted through Sept. 29  for the disposal of unwanted and unused medications

The bottom line: clean out the medicine cabinet. Besides getting rid of drugs that may not be at their full strength, you could get some unexpected benefits. Once she got rid of two dozen old bottles, Loarie realized she had more cabinet space. And she felt so good about her efforts that she decided to tackle the expired food in her kitchen, too.

Click  to read & learn  more..>…..(1).…….…(2)..………...(3).……..(4)......(5)

Sources:The News week

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Therapetic treatment

Aromatherapy

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Aromatherapy is the ancient science of healing, relaxing and energizing by the use of plants and their parts. The roots, barks, flowers, fruits, seeds and nuts play a crucial part in this science. It is one of the more popular branches of alternative medicines. The word aromatherapy is derived from two words aroma which means smell and therapy which stands for healing.

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Little to no significant scientific research has proven any combination of cause/effect solutions from aromatherapy aside from relaxation and clarity of mind, all considered similar to that of a nap or pause in conscious thought. Aromatherapy is also associated with astrological pseudoscience, and bases its medicinal beliefs on the alignment of stars, among many other aspects, to prescribe certain olfactory therapies. In truth, any odour can be considered a therapy by aroma, or aromatherapy.So in my openion, this type of Therapy should always be applied alongwith the modern scientific medication for curing a desies. This might speed up healing effect.
Some of the materials employed include:

Essential oils: Fragrant oils extracted from plants chiefly through distillation (e.g. eucalyptus oil) or expression (grapefruit oil). However, the term is also occasionally used to describe fragrant oils extracted from plant material by any solvent extraction.
Absolutes: Fragrant oils extracted primarily from flowers or delicate plant tissues through solvent or supercritical fluid extraction (e.g. rose absolute). The term is also used to describe oils extracted from fragrant butters, concretes, and enfleurage pommades using ethanol.
Phytoncides: Various volatile organic compounds from plants that kill microbes. Many terpene-based fragrant oils and sulfuric compounds from plants in the genus “Allium” are Phytoncides, though the latter are likely less commonly used in aromatherapy due to their disagreeable smells.
Hydrosols: The aqueous by-products of the distillation process (e.g. rosewater). Hydrosol used are limited to plants such as rose and chamomile since most hydrosols have unpleasant smells.
Infusions: Aqueous extracts of various plant material (e.g. infusion of chamomile)
Carrier oils: Typically oily plant base triacylglycerides that are used to dilute essential oils for use on the skin (e.g. sweet almond oil)

The basis of aromatherapy is the Essential oil Oils extracted from different plants and their barks and flowers.. These oils are the extracts of plants and their parts and form their life force. These oils are extracted by the means of steam distillation, cold expression, or fixed oil or alcohol extraction. They are highly concentrated and should not be used directly. These oils can be blended together and this blend is called synergy. The synergy is more potent than the individual oils combined. To reduce the potency of these oils, you can dilute them by mixing them with carrier oils.

These oils affect your mood. They enter through our olfactory system and affect the nervous system, thus improving mood and relaxing or energizing us. This helps is alleviating stress and speeding up healing. Most of these oils also have cosmetic properties and can be used in skincare and hair care products. Many of these oils have known anti-viral, antifungal and antiseptic properties. They are also used in household products for cleaning and antiseptic uses. These oils can be inhaled, massaged onto your body, added to the bath or shower or sprayed in the room.

When aromatherapy is used for the treatment or prevention of disease, a precise knowledge of the bioactivity and synergy of the essential oils used, knowledge of the dosage and duration of application, as well as, naturally, a medical diagnosis, are required.

In the Anglo-Saxon world, among alternative practitioners such as herbalists or naturopaths, aromatherapy is regarded as a complementary modality by some and a pseudoscientific belief by most others.

On the continent, especially in France, where it originated, aromatherapy is incorporated into mainstream medicine. There, the use of the anti-septic properties of oils in the control of infections is emphasized over the more “touchy feely” approaches familiar to English speakers. In France some essential oils are regulated as prescription drugs, and thus administered by a physician. In many countries they are included in the national pharmacopeia, but up to the present moment aromatherapy as science has never been recognized as a valid branch of medicine in the United States, Russia, Germany, or Japan.

Essential oils, phytoncides and other natural VOCs work in different ways. At the scent level they activate the limbic system and emotional centers of the brain. When applied to the skin (commonly in form of “massage oils” i.e. 1-10% solutions of EO in carrier oil) they activate thermal receptors, and kill microbes and fungi. Internal application of essential oil preparations (mainly in pharmacological drugs; generally not recommended for home use apart from dilution – 1-5% in fats or mineral oils, or hydrosoles) may stimulate the immune system.

CLICK TO READ MORE ABOUT  AROMATHERAPY
(Help taken from:……http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aromatherapy and http://www.aromatherapies.net/)

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FAMILY, FAITH FOR LONG LIFE

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People with strong family ties and religious faith are much more likely to live beyond their 100th. birthday than the rest of us, says a new research.

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Demographers who studied clusters centenarians in Japan, Italy and America found that most shared five habits in common.

The other factors were drinking wine and eating moderation, not smoking and having a clear division of labour between man and wife so that stress is equally shared.

The population with longest life expectancy are the inhabitants of Japanese island of Okinawa, where men live to an average age 78 and woman to 86.

Okinawans have 20% of heart disease,a quarter of the breast and prostate cancer and third of dementia cases found in the US,
according to Dr.Craig Willcox, of okinawa Centenarian Study.

Most belong to MOAI, mutual support networks that meet to take tea and chat several times a week, providing financial and
emotional support throughout their lives.

The researchers believe that having IKIGAI, which translates roughly as “that which makes one’s life worth living “, is central to the longevity of the okinawans.

Many of the elderly on the island grow their own food live and live by the confucian-inspired adage. “hara hachi bu“-“eat
until your stomach is 80 percent full.”

In villages close to the Gennargentu Mountains in central Sardinia, known as Blue Zone by demographers, 91 of 17,865 people born between 1880 and 1900. lived beyond their 100th. birthday, twice the average Italian rate.

Inhabitants in the region were found to stay active , tending animals or attending to others farm duties for their longer than other societies.

Family bond were also found to be much stronger. Very few people put their parents in retirement homes as it would dishonour their family.

Whereas the ratio of female to mail centenarians in most countries is around four to one.In part of Sardinia is close to
one to one.

The researchers put this down to a strict sexual division of labour, with men seen as being in charge of physical work and
being the bread earner , while the woman are managing the home and finance.

This is believed to reduce the stress faced by the male inhabitants, thereby substantially reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Drinking moderate amount of RED WINE containing high levels of compounds that inhibits the production of ENDORTHELIN-1—-
a substance critical to the development of heart disease —- and eating PECORINO CHEESE — contain omega3 fatty acid—
mostly helps Sardinians to live longer.

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