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Herbs & Plants

Setaria pumila

Botanical Name: Setaria pumila
Family: Poaceae
Kingdom: Plantaenids
Order: Poales
Genus: Setaria
Species: S. pumila

Synonyms:
Oplismenus helvolus (L.f.) P.Beauv.
Panicum flavescens Moench nom.
Panicum helvolum
Panicum holcoides J.Jacq.
Panicum luteum Gueldenst.
Panicum pallidifuscum Schumach.
Panicum pumilum

Common Names: Yellow foxtail, Yellow bristle-grass,Pigeon grass, Gugli-Kungui and Cattail grass.

Habitat: Setaria pumila is native to Europe, but it is known throughout the world as a common weed. It grows in lawns, sidewalks, roadsides, cultivated fields, and many other places.It is a common grass that occurs in every county of Illinois. It was introduced accidentally into North America from Europe. Habitats include limestone glades, gravelly areas along rivers, vacant lots, lawns, grassy areas along railroads and roadsides, fields, pastures, mined land, and miscellaneous waste areas. This grass prefers highly disturbed areas and rarely invades natural areas to any significant degree.

Description:
Setaria pumila is an annual grass grows 20 centimeters to well over a meter in height, its mostly hairless stems ranging from green to purple-tinged in color. The leaf blades are hairless on the upper surfaces, twisting, and up to 30 centimeters long . The inflorescence is a stiff, cylindrical bundle of spikelets 2 to 15 centimeters long with short, blunt bristles. The panicle may appear yellow or yellow-tinged.

The flowers are attached to branches rather than to the main axis of the inflorescence. There are no branch points between the base of the inflorescence axis and the flowers, or they are not obvious. Spikelet length is 3–3.5 mm. There are no hairs on the surface of the leaf sheath.

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Edible Uses: Seed – cooked and eaten. It can be eaten as a sweet or savoury food in all the ways that rice is used, or ground into a powder and made into porridge, cakes, puddings etc. The seed contains about 11.5% protein, 6% fat, 40.7% carbohydrate, 8.2% fat. A dust from the fungal infection of plants is eaten.

Medicinal Uses:
Freshly prepared root paste is warmed gently and applied for reducing the rheumatic pain by the Lodhas. Grains are boiled
and pounded to paste after mixing with black pepper (Piper nigrum) seeds at a ratio of 3:2 and applied on the bull’s neck sores by the Lodhas.

Other Uses: In some areas this grass plays an important role in stabilising bare soil to protect it from erosion. The culms are twisted together and used as a rope to tie sheaves of grain together.

Cultivation: This adaptable grass is typically found in full sun, moist to slightly dry conditions, and soil containing loam, clay loam, or gravelly material. Most growth and development occurs during the summer. It tolerates occasional mowing, although the surviving plants will be shorter and less erect. This grass can spread aggressively in disturbed areas.

Propagation: Through Seed – sow in situ and only just cover the seed. Germination is usually quick and good.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Setaria_pumila
https://illinoiswildflowers.info/grasses/plants/yl_foxtail.htm
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf
http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Setaria+pumila

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Herbs & Plants

Setaria italica

Botanical Name : Setaria italica
Family: Poaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Genus: Setaria
Species: S. italica

Synonyms:
Alopecurus caudatus Thunb.
Chaetochloa germanica (Mill.) Smyth
Chaetochloa italica (L.) Scribn.
Chamaeraphis italica (L.) Kuntze

Common Names: Foxtail millet, Dwarf setaria, Chinese Millet, Foxtail bristle-grass, Giant setaria, Green foxtail, Italian millet, German millet, and Hungarian millet.

Habitat: Setaria italica was first naturalized in China. The evidence shows the domestication of Foxtail millet in the Middle East and Europe which dates about 4000 years BP. The phylogenetic analyses show the green millet and foxtail millet is associated and the Foxtail millet is naturalized derivative of the green millet. Currently, Foxtail millet is sophisticated in Europe, America, Asia, Africa and Australia.

Description:
Setaria italica is an annual grass with erect and robust culms, grown for human food. It grows upto the height of 60-150 cm. Leaves are 20-40 cm long and 1.5-3 centimeters wide with lanceolate shape. Leaf sheaths are small, glabrous or pubescent and 1-3 mm. Leaf lamina is dense, erect or pendent, lobed and 6-40 × 0.5-5 cm. It has elliptic, ovate or subglobose spikelets of 2-3 mm.

The seedhead is a dense, hairy panicle 5–30 cm (2.0–11.8 in) long.

The small seeds, around 2 millimetres (3?32 in) in diameter, are encased in a thin, papery hull which is easily removed in threshing. Seed color varies greatly between varieties.

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Edible Uses:
Foxtail millets are rich in calories that provide energy and strength to the body to perform activities. It is widely cultivated in India, Africa and China. It is considered as the perfect substitute for the healthy diets.

Medicinal Uses:
Setaria italica has different health bebefits. It has very good neutricinal value. It is an Antioxidant

This helps Proper function of cardiac, reducing Alzheimer’s disease, Cures muscle weakness, It helps proper maintenance of skin & hair .

Freshly prepared root decoction (ca. 10 ml) mixed with a pinch of table salt (ca. 2 gm) is given at
early morning in empty stomach to cure dyspepsia by the Lodhas. Tender stem is given as fodder to increase lactation of the cattle by
the Santals. Fresh root paste (ca. 5 gm) mixed with the root paste of ‘Gandhar’ (Paederia scandens) and ‘Sital’ (Sida cordata) (ca. 3
gm and 2 gm each respectively) is given twice a day to cure blood dysentery by the Oraons.

Other Uses: Dry hays are used for cattle food.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foxtail_millet
https://www.healthbenefitstimes.com/foxtail-millet/
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf

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Categories
Herbs & Plants

Sacciolepis interrupta

Botanical Name : Sacciolepis interrupta
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Panicoideae
ingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Supertribe: Panicodae
Tribe: Paniceae
Genus: Sacciolepis

Synonyms:

Common Names: Polla kala, Cupscale grass, Nardual.

Habitat : Sacciolepis interrupta is native to Guinea-Bissau, Chad, Tanzania to Botswana, China (Yunnan) to Tropical Asia.It grows mainly on wet land.It is distributed on tropics of South East Asia and Africa.

Growing Localities: Sivaloda, Swamikkayam, Chalakkudy, Guruvayur, Konni, Ranni, Manjeswar, Taliparamba, Cheruvathur, Thekkadi, Olavakkot, Pulimath, Thakarapramba, Ayiramthengu, Alleppey town, Nedumudy, Pulinkunnu, Vandanam, Nedumkayam, Karimpuzha, Thekara-Mannarghat, Thenma

Description:
Sacciolepis interrupta is an annuals grass. It’s main culms 25-90 cm long, erect, creeping or geniculate, spongy and floating, rooting at the nodes below; nodes glabrous. Leaves 5-30 x 0.3-1.2 cm, lanceolate or linear, base rounded, apex acute or acuminate; sheaths to 16 cm long; ligules ovate, membranous. Panicles 4-25 cm long, spiciform, interrupted. Spikelets 3-5 mm long, ovate-lanceolate. Lower glume 1-1.5 x 1 mm, ovate-oblong. Upper glume 3-5 x 1-2 mm, ovate-lanceolate. Lower floret male or barren. Upper floret bisexual. First lemma similar to the upper glume. Palea 2-3 mm olong, oblong, hyaline. Second lemma 2-3 x 1-1.5 mm, ovate-oblong, subcoriaceous. Palea 2-3 mm long, elliptic, 2-keeled, hyaline. Stamens 3; anthers violet. Stigmas pink. Grains c. 2 mm long, ovoid. It is flowring & fruiting throughout the year.

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Edible Uses: The seeds are used as femene food.

Medicinal Uses: Plant decoction with common salt is given for the treatment of stone in gall-bladder by the Lodhas.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sacciolepis
http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:420088-1
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf
http://keralaplants.in/keralaplantsdetails.aspx?id=Sacciolepis_interrupta

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Saccharum bengalense

Botanical Name: Saccharum bengalense
Family: Poaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Genus: Saccharum
Species: S. bengalense

Synonyms: munj; munja; Saccharum bengalense; Saccharum munja

Common Names: Munj sweetcane, Baruwa sugarcane or Baruwa grass, Ban Kashia.

Habitat: Saccharum bengalense is native to northeastern India, particularly in Assam within the Terai-Duar grasslands in the foothills of the Himalayas.

Description:

Saccharum bengalense is a tall caespitose perennial sugarcane bamboo grass, culms up to 4 m high. The plant is colored pinkish-green. Leaf-blades up to 90 cm long, 3-10 mm wide, flat or markedly channelled, the midrib occupying the greater part of the width, glaucous. Panicle 20-75 cm long, the peduncle glabrous; racemes 2-4(-5) cm long, considerably shorter than the supporting branches, the internodes and pedicels hirsute with hairs up to 7 mm long. Spikelets slightly heteromorphous, 3.8-5.5 mm long, the callus bearded with whitish or greyish hairs up to 2.5 mm long; glumes equal, membranous, lower glume of sessile spikelet hairy on the back, the upper glume glabrous, both glumes of pedicelled spikelet hairy, the hairs at least 4 mm long, often up to 9 mm; lower lemma oblong-elliptic, hairy on the back; upper lemma ovate-lanceolate, ciliate on the margins, acute or very shortly awned, the awn not visible beyond the glumes.

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Uses:
It is a food source for animals such as the Indian rhinoceros and the pygmy hog.

Medicinal Use: The straw of the plants is used as thatching materials for construction of huts by the Rabhas

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saccharum_bengalense
https://www.audioenglish.org/dictionary/saccharum_bengalense.htm
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=250072300
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Itch grass

Botanical Name: Rottboellia exaltata
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Panicoideae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Supertribe: Andropogonodae
Tribe: Andropogoneae
Subtribe: Rottboelliinae
Genus: Rottboellia

Synonyms:
*Cymbachne Retz.
*Robynsiochloa Jacq.-Fél.
*Stegosia Lour.

Common Names: Itch grass, Bara-swali

Habitat : Rottboellia exaltata is native to African, Asian, and Australian. It grows in the warm-climate countries.

Description:
Rottboellia exaltata is an annual grass. The stem rises up to 3 m high, supported below by stilt-roots, the basal sheaths painfully hispid; leaves up to 45 x 2 cm. Racemes 3–15 cm long, glabrous, terminating in a tail of reduced spikelets, gathered into a leafy false panicle. Sessile spikelet oblong-elliptic, pallid; lower glume 3.5–5 mm long. Pedicelled spikelet narrowly ovate, 3–5 mm long, herbaceous, green; pedicel shorter than the internode.

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Medicinal Uses: Root paste is applied on the boils for early suppuration by the Lodhas.

Known Hazards: Itchgrass infestations can result in up to 80 percent crop loss, or even abandonment of agricultural lands. Farmers usually regard itchgrass as a troublesome weed.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rottboellia
https://plants.jstor.org/compilation/Rottboellia.exaltata
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf