Category Archives: Ailmemts & Remedies

Clostridium difficile

Description:
Clostridium difficile often called C. difficile or C. diff, is a bacterium that can cause symptoms ranging from diarrhea to life-threatening inflammation of the colon.

C diff is a type of bacteria that causes inflammation and infection of the colon, known as colitis. C diff is also a shortened way of referring to the infection itself. Clostridium difficile colitis is the full name for the colon infection caused by C diff bacterium. This strain of bacteria can cause symptoms in the body ranging from diarrhea to life-threatening cases of C diff colitis or C diff infection

Illness from C. difficile most commonly affects older adults in hospitals or in long-term care facilities and typically occurs after use of antibiotic medications. However, studies show increasing rates of C. difficile infection among people traditionally not considered high risk, such as younger and healthy individuals without a history of antibiotic use or exposure to health care facilities.

Each year in the United States, about a half million people get sick from C. difficile, and in recent years, C. difficile infections have become more frequent, severe and difficult to treat.

C. difficile infections occur in all areas of the world. About 453,000 cases occurred in the United States in 2011, resulting in 29,000 deaths. Rates of disease globally have increased between 2001 and 2016. Women are more often affected than men. The bacterium was discovered in 1935 and found to be disease-causing in 1978. In the United States, healthcare-associated infections increase the cost of care by US$1.5 billion each year.

Symptoms:
Many people have C diff living in their intestines and the bacteria doesn’t cause any problems for them. When kept in check by other good bacteria, C diff can cause no symptoms. However, when something (most often antibiotic usage) throws off the balance of bacteria in the body then this is when a problem can occur and C diff can start growing rapidly.

C. difficile bacteria can release toxins that attack the lining of the colon by not only destroying cells, but also creating patches of inflammatory cells that cause watery diarrhea.

Symptoms of overgrowth C diff can include:

*Watery diarrhea (at least three bowel movements per day for two days or longer)

*Appetite loss

*Nausea

*Fever

*Abdominal pain and/or tenderness

With a C. diff infection, the colon becomes inflamed, which is medically referred to as colitis. Sometimes the colon become even more damaged by the release of toxins from the the overgrowth of the C diff bacteria. If this happens, the colon can develop patches of raw tissue that may bleed or pus, which is called pseudomembranous colitis. There are also a greater number of symptoms and more severe symptoms if a C diff infection escalates to this level. Most of the time, pseudomembranous colitis is caused by C diff.

Symptoms of severe C diff infection can include:

*Watery diarrhea 10 to 15 times a day

*Abdominal cramping and pain, which may be severe

*Swollen abdomen

*Nausea

*Loss of appetite

*Pus or blood in the stool

*Fever

*Rapid heart rate

*Dehydration

*Weight loss

*Increased white blood cell count

*Kidney failure

With severe cases, it’s common for people to become so dehydrated (from all that diarrhea) that they need to go to the hospital.

Causes:
A C diff infection is caused by C diff bacteria. C. difficile bacteria can be found in several common places including human and animal feces as well as soil, air and water. The bacteria can also be found in some foods such as processed meat. The human intestines have somewhere around 100 trillion bacterial cells and up to 2,000 different kinds of bacteria. Much of this bacteria is good because it keeps possibly problematic bacteria in check and guards the body against infection.

So when does C. diff bacteria become problematic and also symptomatic? It’s when C. diff is not kept under control and begins to overgrow. Antibiotics are the most common reason that this can occur since antibiotics not only kill the bacteria they are aiming to kill, but also all the good bacteria as well. Antibiotics that most commonly lead to C diff infections include fluoroquinolones, penicillins, cephalosporins, and clindamycin.

C diff is definitely contagious. Spores from C diff bacteria are passed in the feces and then can spread to food, objects and surfaces when infected individuals do not thoroughly wash their hands after going to the bathroom. If you touch something that has been contaminated with the C diff spores then you may end up unintentionally and unknowingly swallowing the C diff bacteria. Hospitals and long-term care facilities are especially problematic because healthcare workers can unintentionally spread C diff between patients if they do not properly wash their hands after caring for each patient. The other tricky fact about C diff spores is that they can live on objects and surfaces outside of the body for weeks or even months.

Risk Factors:
*Antibiotic use (absolutely the #1 risk factor) especially a broad-spectrum antibiotic or any antibiotic used for an extended period of time

*Hospitalization

*Living in a nursing home or extended-care facility

*Gastrointestinal tract surgery

*Abdominal surgery that requires moving the intestines aside

*Living in a nursing home or extended-care facility

*Colon health issues such as inflammatory bowel syndrome or colorectal cancer

*Having a weakened immune system

*Previous C. diff. infection

*Being 65 years of age or older

Some studies have also shown that stomach acid-reducing drugs, especially proton pump inhibitors or PPIs, may likely play a role in the recurrence of C diff infections.

Diagnosis:

Doctors often suspect C. difficile in anyone with diarrhea who has taken antibiotics within the past two months or when diarrhea develops a few days after hospitalization. In such cases, you’re likely to have one or more of the following tests.

Stool tests:

Toxins produced by C. difficile bacteria can usually be detected in a sample of your stool. Several main types of lab tests exist, and they include:

*Enzyme immunoassay. The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test is faster than other tests but isn’t sensitive enough to detect many infections and has a higher rate of falsely normal tests.

*Polymerase chain reaction. This sensitive molecular test can rapidly detect the C. difficile toxin B gene in a stool sample and is highly accurate.

*GDH/EIA. Some hospitals use a glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in conjuction with an EIA test. GDH is a very sensitive assay and can accurately rule out the presence of C. difficile in stool samples.

*Cell cytotoxicity assay. A cytotoxicity test looks for the effects of the C. difficile toxin on human cells grown in a culture. This type of test is sensitive, but it is less widely available, more cumbersome to do and requires 24 to 48 hours for test results. Some hospitals use both the EIA test and cell cytotoxicity assay to ensure accurate results.

Testing for C. difficile is unnecessary if you’re not having diarrhea or watery stools, and is not helpful for follow-up treatment.

Colon examination:

In rare instances, to help confirm a diagnosis of C. difficile infection and look for alternatives, your doctor may examine the inside of your colon. This test (flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy) involves inserting a flexible tube with a small camera on one end into your colon to look for areas of inflammation and pseudomembranes.

Imaging tests:

If your doctor is concerned about possible complications of C. difficile, he or she may order an abdominal X-ray or a computerized tomography (CT) scan, which provides images of your colon. The scan can detect the presence of complications such as thickening of the colon wall, expanding of the bowel, or more rarely, a hole (perforation) in the lining of your colon.

Treatment:

The first step in treating C. difficile is to stop taking the antibiotic that triggered the infection, when possible. Depending on the severity of your infection, treatment may include:

Antibiotics. Ironically, the standard treatment for C. difficile is another antibiotic. These antibiotics keep C. difficile from growing, which in turn treats diarrhea and other complications.

For mild to moderate infection, doctors usually prescribe metronidazole (Flagyl), taken by mouth. Metronidazole is not approved by the FDA for C. difficile infection, but has been shown to be effective in mild to moderate infection. Side effects of metronidazole include nausea and a bitter taste in your mouth.

For more severe and recurrent cases, vancomycin (Vancocin), also taken by mouth, may be prescribed.

Another oral antibiotic, fidaxomicin (Dificid), has been approved to treat C. difficile. In one study, the recurrence rate of C. difficile in people who took fidaxomicin was lower than among those who took vancomycin. However, fidaxomicin costs considerably more than metronidazole and vancomycin. Common side effects of vancomycin and fidaxomicin include abdominal pain and nausea.

Another important fact that the CDC points out is that when antibiotics are used to treat a primary C diff infection, the infection ends up coming back in around 20 percent or a fifth of patients. Even worse, for some C diff patients, the infection doesn’t just come back once, but again and again. You can imagine how difficult that must be on a person’s body. When the infection comes back the first time, the same antibiotic is typically used, but if the infection comes back more than once then stronger antibiotics are employed.

Surgery. For people with severe pain, organ failure, toxic megacolon or inflammation of the lining of the abdominal wall, surgery to remove the diseased portion of the colon may be the only option.

Natural Treatments for Mild C Dif:

1. Stop Antibiotics Whenever Possible

2. Load Up On Good Bacteria
Eat some top probiotic foods that buids up good bacria is to consume regularly: cultured dairy products (such as kefir, goat milk yogurt or cultured probiotic yogurt made from raw cow’s milk), raw apple cider vinegar, fermented vegetables (sauerkraut, kimchi, kvass) and probiotic beverages (kombucha and coconut kefir). To get the most out of apple cider vinegar, make sure you buy a raw variety with the “mother” intact, which means it still contains all its beneficial compounds including probiotics.

3. Avoid or Reduce Certain Foods.
As follows:
*Dairy products have been known to cause additional gastrointestinal upset and lactose intolerance has also been known to occur during a C diff infection.

*Greasy, fatty foods and processed foods that are not easy on the digestive system and may lead to more diarrhea.

*Some foods that are definitely healthy but may cause extra bloating, gas and discomfort such as cruciferous veggies (like broccoli and cabbage), onions, beans, nuts, seeds and whole grains.

*Raw fruits and veggies so cook them to reduce the likelihood of bloating effects

*Processed fat-free foods like Olestra, which have been known to cause more bloating and increased bouts of diarrhea.

*Spicy foods which are known to increase symptoms.

*Large quantities of caffeine since caffeine has diuretic effects, can bother the GI tract and lengthen recovery from infection

4. Thorough Hand Washing

5. Shut the Lid:
Another smart habit to get into if you want to prevent reinfection or the spread of C diff is to close the lid of the toilet before you flush.

6. Consume Natural Antibiotics
As follows:
*Manuka honey

*Raw garlic: Garlic inherently has antimicrobial, antiviral and antifungal properties. For general health promotion for adults, the WHO actually recommends incorporatin

*Oil of Oregano

*Fecal Transplant (Surgical)
The CDC website states, ” Transplanting stool from a healthy person to the colon of a patient with repeat C. difficile infections has been shown to successfully treat C. difficile. These “fecal transplants” appear to be the most effective method for helping patients with repeat C. difficile infections. This procedure may not be widely available and its long term safety has not been established.”

On average, fecal transplantation is said to result in a 91 to 93 percent cure rate while some studies have even shown a 100 percent cure rate when fresh fecal microbiota is used.

*Fecal Transplant (Oral)
If you’re suffering from reoccurring C. difficile infections there is a less invasive fecal transplant option. Recently, successful fecal transplants have been performed by encapsulating healthy freeze-dried fecal matter and having patients ingest the capsules. A 2017 study published in The American Journal of Gastroenterology found that just one administration of the capsules to 49 patients with reoccurring C diff resulted in 88 percent of the patients achieving “clinical success”, which was said to be no recurrence of C diff infection over a two month time period.

Prognosis:
After a first treatment with metronidazole or vancomycin, C. difficile recurs in about 20% of people. This increases to 40% and 60% with subsequent recurrences.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://draxe.com/c-diff/
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/c-difficile/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351697
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clostridium_difficile_infection

Chagas Disease

Description:
Chagas disease is an inflammatory, infectious disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is found in the feces of the triatomine (reduviid) bug. It is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protist Trypanosoma cruzi. It is spread mostly by insects known as Triatominae, or “kissing bugs”. Chagas disease is common in South America, Central America and Mexico, the primary home of the triatomine bug. Rare cases of Chagas disease have been found in the southern United States, as well.

Also called American trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease can infect anyone. Left untreated, Chagas disease later can cause serious heart and digestive problems.

Treatment of Chagas disease focuses on killing the parasite in acute infection and managing signs and symptoms in later stages. You can take steps to prevent the infection, too.

Experts estimate that up to eight million people living in Mexico, Central America, and South America — the areas where the infection occurs most often — currently have Chagas disease. In the U.S Chagas disease is not considered to be endemic. This means it’s not regularly found among people living in any certain area. For this reason, in the U.S. “control strategies” to reduce the spread of the disease are the main focus. These can include: preventing transmission from blood transfusions or organ transplants, educating the public on symptoms to look out for, and reducing mother-to-baby transmission of the disease.

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Symptoms:
The human disease occurs in two stages: an acute stage, which occurs shortly after an initial infection, and a chronic stage that develops over many years.

Chagas disease can cause a sudden, brief illness (acute), or it may be a long-lasting (chronic) condition. Symptoms range from mild to severe, although many people don’t experience symptoms until the chronic stage.

Acute phase:

The acute phase of Chagas disease, which lasts for weeks or months, is often symptom-free. When signs and symptoms do occur, they are usually mild and may include:

*Swelling at the infection site

*Fever

*Fatigue

*Rash

*Body aches

*Eyelid swelling

*Headache

*Loss of appetite

*Nausea, diarrhea or vomiting

*Swollen glands

*Enlargement of your liver or spleen

Signs and symptoms that develop during the acute phase usually go away on their own. If left untreated, the infection persists and, in some cases, advances to the chronic phase.

Chronic phase:

Signs and symptoms of the chronic phase of Chagas disease may occur 10 to 20 years after initial infection, or they may never occur. In severe cases, however, Chagas disease signs and symptoms may include:

*Irregular heartbeat

*Congestive heart failure

*Sudden cardiac arrest

*Difficulty swallowing due to enlarged esophagus

*Abdominal pain or constipation due to enlarged colon

In the early stage, symptoms are typically either not present or mild, and may include fever, swollen lymph nodes, headaches, or local swelling at the site of the bite. After 8–12 weeks, individuals enter the chronic phase of disease and in 60–70% it never produces further symptoms. The other 30–40% of people develop further symptoms 10–30 years after the initial infection, including enlargement of the ventricles of the heart in 20–30%, leading to heart failure. An enlarged esophagus or an enlarged colon may also occur in 10% of people.

Causes:
The cause of Chagas disease is the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted from an insect known as the triatomine bug. These insects can become infected by T. cruzi when they ingest blood from an animal already infected with the parasite.

Triatomine bugs live primarily in mud, thatch or adobe huts in Mexico, South America and Central America. They hide in crevices in the walls or roof during the day, then come out at night — often feeding on sleeping humans.

Infected bugs defecate after feeding, leaving behind T. cruzi parasites on the skin. The parasites can then enter your body through your eyes, mouth, a cut or scratch, or the wound from the bug’s bite.

Scratching or rubbing the bite site helps the parasites enter your body. Once in your body, the parasites multiply and spread.

You may also become infected by:

*Eating uncooked food contaminated with feces from T. cruzi-infected bugs

*Being born to a woman infected with T. cruzi

*Having a blood transfusion containing infected blood

*Getting an organ transplant containing viable T. cruzi

*Working in a laboratory where there’s an accidental exposure to the parasite

*Spending time in a forest that contains infected wild animals, such as raccoons and opossums

*From consuming contaminated food or water. It’s possible for bugs carrying the parasite to make their way into food or water. Or they may leave behind feces that is carrying the parasite.

Risk factors:

The following factors may increase your risk of getting Chagas disease:

*Living in impoverished rural areas of Central America, South America and Mexico

*Living in a residence that contains triatomine bugs

*Receiving a blood transfusion or organ transplant from a person who carries the infection

*It’s rare for travelers to the at-risk areas in South America, Central America and Mexico to contract Chagas disease because travelers tend to stay in well-constructed buildings, such as hotels. Triatomine bugs are usually found in structures built with mud or adobe or thatch.

Diagnosis:
The presence of T. cruzi is diagnostic of Chagas disease. It can be detected by microscopic examination of fresh anticoagulated blood, or its buffy coat, for motile parasites; or by preparation of thin and thick blood smears stained with Giemsa, for direct visualization of parasites. Microscopically, T. cruzi can be confused with Trypanosoma rangeli, which is not known to be pathogenic in humans. Isolation of T. cruzi can occur by inoculation into mice, by culture in specialized media (for example, NNN, LIT); and by xenodiagnosis, where uninfected Reduviidae bugs are fed on the patient’s blood, and their gut contents examined for parasites.

Various immunoassays for T. cruzi are available and can be used to distinguish among strains (zymodemes of T.cruzi with divergent pathogenicities). These tests include: detecting complement fixation, indirect hemagglutination, indirect fluorescence assays, radioimmunoassays, and ELISA. Alternatively, diagnosis and strain identification can be made using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Treatment:
There are two approaches to treating Chagas disease: antiparasitic treatment, to kill the parasite; and symptomatic treatment, to manage the symptoms and signs of the infection. Management uniquely involves addressing selective incremental failure of the parasympathetic nervous system. Autonomic disease imparted by Chagas may eventually result in megaesophagus, megacolon and accelerated dilated cardiomyopathy. The mechanisms that explain why Chagas targets the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system and spares the sympathetic autonomic nervous system remain poorly understood.

Medication:
Antiparasitic treatment is most effective early in the course of infection, but is not limited to cases in the acute phase. Drugs of choice include azole or nitro derivatives, such as benznidazole or nifurtimox. Both agents are limited in their capacity to completely eliminate T. cruzi from the body (parasitologic cure), especially in chronically infected patients, and resistance to these drugs has been reported.

Studies suggest antiparasitic treatment leads to parasitological cure in more than 90% of infants but only about 60–85% of adults treated in the first year of acute phase Chagas disease. Children aged six to 12 years with chronic disease have a cure rate of about 60% with benznidazole. While the rate of cure declines the longer an adult has been infected with Chagas, treatment with benznidazole has been shown to slow the onset of heart disease in adults with chronic Chagas infections.

Treatment of chronic infection in women prior to or during pregnancy does not appear to reduce the probability the disease will be passed on to the infant. Likewise, it is unclear whether prophylactic treatment of chronic infection is beneficial in persons who will undergo immunosuppression (for example, organ transplant recipients) or in persons who are already immunosuppressed (for example, those with HIV infection).

Complications:
In the chronic stage, treatment involves managing the clinical manifestations of the disease. For example, pacemakers and medications for irregular heartbeats, such as the anti-arrhythmia drug amiodarone, may be life saving for some patients with chronic cardiac disease, while surgery may be required for megaintestine. The disease cannot be cured in this phase, however. Chronic heart disease caused by Chagas disease is now a common reason for heart transplantation surgery. Until recently, however, Chagas disease was considered a contraindication for the procedure, since the heart damage could recur as the parasite was expected to seize the opportunity provided by the immunosuppression that follows surgery.

Prevention:
There is currently no vaccine against Chagas disease.[29] Prevention is generally focused on decreasing the numbers of the insect that spreads it (Triatoma) and decreasing their contact with humans. This is done by using sprays and paints containing insecticides (synthetic pyrethroids), and improving housing and sanitary conditions in rural areas.[30] For urban dwellers, spending vacations and camping out in the wilderness or sleeping at hostels or mud houses in endemic areas can be dangerous; a mosquito net is recommended. Some measures of vector control include:

A yeast trap can be used for monitoring infestations of certain species of triatomine bugs (Triatoma sordida, Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, and Panstrongylus megistus).

Promising results were gained with the treatment of vector habitats with the fungus Beauveria bassiana.
Targeting the symbionts of Triatominae through paratransgenesis can be done.

A number of potential vaccines are currently being tested. Vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli has produced positive results in animal models. More recently, the potential of DNA vaccines for immunotherapy of acute and chronic Chagas disease is being tested by several research groups.

Blood transfusion was formerly the second-most common mode of transmission for Chagas disease, but the development and implementation of blood bank screening tests has dramatically reduced this risk in the 21st century. Blood donations in all endemic Latin American countries undergo Chagas screening, and testing is expanding in countries, such as France, Spain and the United States, that have significant or growing populations of immigrants from endemic areas. In Spain, donors are evaluated with a questionnaire to identify individuals at risk of Chagas exposure for screening tests.

The US FDA has approved two Chagas tests, including one approved in April 2010, and has published guidelines that recommend testing of all donated blood and tissue products. While these tests are not required in US, an estimated 75–90% of the blood supply is currently tested for Chagas, including all units collected by the American Red Cross, which accounts for 40% of the U.S. blood supply. The Chagas Biovigilance Network reports current incidents of Chagas-positive blood products in the United States, as reported by labs using the screening test approved by the FDA in 2007.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chagas_disease
https://draxe.com/chagas-disease/
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chagas-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20356212

Temporal Arteritis

Description:
Temporal arteritis is inflammation of the arteries in the head and neck. In most cases, the arteries that pass through the temples are affected, hence the name. The condition is also called giant cell arteritis (GCA), Horton disease and cranial arteritis. In some cases, medium and large arteries in the shoulders, arms and other parts of the body are also affected.

The condition causes swelling and damage in the blood vessels, making it hard for blood to pass through to the brain and other parts of the body. This can cause serious health problems, such as blindness and stroke.

Temporal arteritis diagnosis should not be done on your own, since it shares symptoms with many other conditions. You should see a healthcare professional if you have any symptoms of temporal arteritis.

Thankfully, certain tests can help distinguish between this disease and many problems that cause similar symptoms, such as migraines. You can expect a physical exam, blood tests, an ultrasound and a temporal artery biopsy to get a diagnosis. MRIs can also detect temporal arteritis.

The journal Arthritis & Rheumatology states that approximately 228,000 people in the United States are affected by temporal arteritis. According to the American College of Rheumatology, people over the age of 50 are more likely than younger people to develop the condition. Women are also more likely than men to have temporal arteritis. It is most prevalent in people of northern European or Scandinavian descent.

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Symptoms:
The symptoms of temporal arteritis can include:

*Double vision
*Sudden, permanent loss of vision in one eye
*A throbbing headache that’s usually in the temples
*Fatigue
*Weakness
*Loss of appetite
*Jaw pain, which sometimes can occur with chewing
*Fever
*Unintentional weight loss
*Shoulder pain, hip pain, and stiffness
*Tenderness in the scalp and temple areas

These symptoms can also occur due to other conditions. One should call the doctor anytime he or she is worried about any symptoms experiencing.

Causes:
The exact cause of temporal arteritis is unknown. It is possibly linked with the body’s immune system health. In rare cases, it has been linked to having certain severe infections or taking high doses of antibiotics.

Risk Factors:
*Being 50 or older
*Being a woman
*Having a low body mass index (BMI)
*Starting menopause before age 43
*Having polymyalgia rheumatica
*Being of northern European or Scandinavian descent
*Having a family history of the condition
*Smoking or being an ex-smoker

Diagnosis:
The doctor will perform a physical exam and look at the patient’s head to determine whether there’s any tenderness. They’ll pay special attention to the arteries in the head. The doctor may also order a blood test. Several blood tests can be useful in diagnosing temporal arteritis, including the following:

*A hemoglobin test measures the amount of hemoglobin, or oxygen-carrying protein, in your blood.

*A hematocrit test measures the percentage of your blood that is made up of red blood cells.

*A liver function test can be done to determine how well the liver is working.

*An erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) test measures how quickly your red blood cells collect at the bottom of a test tube over one hour. A high ESR result means that there’s inflammation in your body.

*A C-reactive protein test measures the level of a protein, made by your liver, that’s released into your bloodstream after tissue injury. A high result indicates that there’s inflammation in your body.

Although these tests can be helpful, blood tests alone aren’t enough for a diagnosis. Usually, the doctor will perform a biopsy of the artery that they suspect is affected to make a definitive diagnosis. This can be done as an outpatient procedure using local anesthesia. An ultrasound may provide an additional clue about whether or not the patient have temporal arteritis. CT and MRI scans are often not helpful.

Treatment:
Temporal arteritis cannot be cured. Therefore, the goal of treatment is to minimize tissue damage that can occur due to inadequate blood flow caused by the condition.

If temporal arteritis is suspected, treatment should begin immediately, even if test results haven’t yet confirmed the diagnosis. If this diagnosis is suspected and the results are pending, your doctor may prescribe oral corticosteroids. Corticosteroids can increase your risk of developing certain medical conditions, such as:

*Osteoporosis

*High blood pressure

*Muscle weakness

*Glaucoma

*Cataracts

Natural Remedies for Temporal Arteritis Symptoms:

Temporal arteritis treatment can improve blood vessel health. However, medications can create their own problems. Thankfully, there are natural ways you may be able to improve your overall health, manage symptoms and fight drug side effects if you have temporal arteritis.

1. Exercise daily and eat well.

2.Start slowly with exercise.

3.Do aerobic exercise.

4.Do Yoga & meditation with breathing exercise

5.Follow a heart–friendly diet.

6.Limit alcohol intake.

7.Totally stop smoking

Prognosis:
Patient’s outlook for temporal arteritis will depend on how quickly you’re diagnosed and able to start treatment. Untreated temporal arteritis can cause serious damage to the blood vessels in the body. The doctor should be informed if the patient notices new symptoms. This will make it more likely that he or she will be diagnosed with a condition when it’s in the early stages.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://www.healthline.com/health/temporal-arteritis
https://draxe.com/temporal-arteritis-how-to-manage-with-6-natural-remedies/

Bronchiolitis


Description:
Bronchiolitis mostly affects infants and toddlers age 2 and younger and is caused by swollen airways (bronchioles) that collect with mucus and make it hard to breathe. Bronchitis mostly affects older children and adults. It results in swelling in the upper airway — the trachea and upper bronchial tubes. In addition, bronchiolitis normally goes away in a few weeks, whereas bronchitis can become a long-term (chronic) condition and is often caused by lung irritants, such as cigarette smoke. However, both conditions can be caused by a viral infection Bronchiolitis is almost always caused by a virus. Typically, the peak time for bronchiolitis is during the winter months.

Bronchiolitis starts out with symptoms similar to those of a common cold but then progresses to coughing, wheezing and sometimes difficulty breathing. Symptoms of bronchiolitis can last for several days to weeks, even a month.

Most children get better with care at home. A very small percentage of children require hospitalization.

Bronchiolitis itself is not contagious. However, the viruses that can cause bronchiolitis are contagious. The viruses are very common and spread easily through coughs, sneezing, talking or touching shared objects. RSV has at least two strains and infects nearly every child by the age of 2. Other viruses, such as the flu and the common cold, can also lead to bronchiolitis if they cause the bronchioles to swell and fill with mucus.

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Symptoms:
Bronchiolitis symptoms in infants may be difficult to identify. Symptoms include:

*Stuffy or runny nose
*Cough
*Fussiness
*Trouble feeding
*Low-grade fever (often < 101.5 degrees F)
*Irritability

In some cases, these are the only symptoms a child may have of bronchiolitis. In other cases, symptoms get worse.

After this, there may be a week or more of difficulty breathing or a whistling noise when the child breathes out (wheezing).

Many infants will also have an ear infection (otitis media).

When to call a Doctor:
*Sluggishness or extreme inactivity
*Refusing to eat or drink
*Dehydration (not enough wet diapers, or having dark urine)
*Trouble breathing:
*Wheezing
*Nostril flaring
*Whistling noises on the exhale
*Seeing the ribcage go in when the baby breathes in
*Breathing very fast or shallow
*Working very hard to breathe
*Pauses in breathing
*Blue or purple lips or fingertips
*Hypothermia (a temperature that is lower than the normal 98 degrees F)

Bronchiolitis in toddlers and bronchiolitis in adults may cause many of the same symptoms, although sunken ribs during breathing and nasal flaring are most likely to occur only in the very young.

Causes:
Bronchiolitis occurs when a virus infects the bronchioles, which are the smallest airways in your lungs. The infection makes the bronchioles swell and become inflamed. Mucus collects in these airways, which makes it difficult for air to flow freely in and out of the lungs.

Most cases of bronchiolitis are caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). RSV is a common virus that infects just about every child by the age of 2. Outbreaks of the RSV infection occur every winter. Bronchiolitis can also be caused by other viruses, including those that cause the flu or the common cold. Infants can be reinfected with RSV because at least two strains exist.

The viruses that cause bronchiolitis are easily spread. You can contract them through droplets in the air when someone who is sick coughs, sneezes or talks. You can also get them by touching shared objects — such as utensils, towels or toys — and then touching your eyes, nose or mouth.

Risk Factors:
*Age younger than 2 years (and younger than 3 months in particular)
*Preterm birth
*Another heart or lung problem
*A weak immune system
*Exposure to cigarette smoke
*Exposure to lots of other kids or people (in a daycare or crowded home)
*Having older siblings who attend school or daycare

Diagnosis:
Tests and X-rays are not usually needed to diagnose bronchiolitis. The doctor can usually identify the problem by observing your child and listening to his or her lungs with a stethoscope. However, it may take more than one or two visits to distinguish the condition from a cold or the flu.

If your child is at risk of severe bronchiolitis, if symptoms are worsening or if another problem is suspected, your doctor may order tests, including:

*Chest X-ray. Your doctor may request a chest X-ray to look for signs of pneumonia.

*Viral testing. Your doctor may collect a sample of mucus from your child to test for the virus causing bronchiolitis. This is done using a swab that’s gently inserted into the nose.

*Blood tests. Occasionally, blood tests might be used to check your child’s white blood cell count. An increase in white blood cells is usually a sign that the body is fighting an infection. A blood test can also determine whether the level of oxygen has decreased in your child’s bloodstream.

Your doctor may also ask you about signs of dehydration, especially if your child has been refusing to drink or eat or has been vomiting. Signs of dehydration include sunken eyes, dry mouth and skin, sluggishness, and little or no urination.

Treatment:
Bronchiolitis typically lasts for two to three weeks. The majority of children with bronchiolitis can be cared for at home with supportive care. It’s important to be alert for changes in breathing difficulty, such as struggling for each breath, being unable to speak or cry because of difficulty breathing, or making grunting noises with each breath.

When bronchiolitis becomes severe, conventional treatment may involve:

*Hospitalization
*Oxygen via a mask or machine
*A nebulizer, to deliver inhaled drugs that open up and reduce inflammation in the tiny airways of the lungs
*Intravenous (IV) fluids to help hydrate
*Suctioning mucus from the mouth or nose
*Monitoring breathing and heart rate with a machine
*Making sure your child’s temperature stays in a healthy range

Oxygen is considered the most effective treatment in young children. Because most bronchiolitis is the result of a virus, antibiotics are not usually prescribed. In some cases, certain drugs may be recommended by health care providers for treatment, including:

*Drugs to treat RSV infection, such as ribavirin or palivizumab
*Antibiotics (if the infection was indeed bacterial or if there is also an ear infection)
*Decongestant sprays
*Corticosteroids, such as prednisone
*Alpha or beta agonists to help relax and open the airways, such as albuterol or racemic epinephrine
*Fever reducers, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, depending on the child’s age. (If you are considering using medication to reduce your child’s fever at home, talk to a healthcare professional due to serious safety concerns.)

Ayurvedic treatment:
According to Ayurveda aggravated Vata (air) blocks the Kapha (water) in the respiratory channels, the movement of the air gets interrupted, and phlegm accumulates in the lung tissue. In order to expel this phlegm, there is a natural reaction of coughing, which results in Bronchitis. This can be attributed to many reasons like inhalation of smoke and dust, physical exertion, intake of foods and drinks that have a drying effect on the body, and the obstruction of the trachea by food particles. Another cause is suppressing the natural urges of the body, such as passing stool and urine, hunger, thirst, sleep, sneezing, breathing, yawning, tears, coughing, etc. All of these causes are investigated before beginning a personalized Bronchitis treatment regimen at Jiva.

Ayurveda calls this disease Kasroga and considers it to be caused by poor digestion. Poor diet, poor digestion and incomplete elimination of wastes lead to formation of ama (mucus) in the lungs. This creates a favorable ground for growth of infecting organisms in the bronchial area. Stress, poor lifestyle, bad circulation, and lack of rejuvenative measures can deteriorate the body’s immune response to invading organisms in the bronchial area.

The Ayurvedic treatment of Bronchitis is aimed at simultaneously correcting lung and stomach functions. Herbs are given to ease troubled breathing and expel phlegm. At the same time, Ayurvedic digestive formulas are prescribed to enhance the digestive fire in order to kill pathogens.

Prevention:
Because the viruses that cause bronchiolitis spread from person to person, one of the best ways to prevent it is to wash your hands frequently — especially before touching your baby when you have a cold or other respiratory illness. Wearing a face mask at this time is appropriate.

If your child has bronchiolitis, keep him or her at home until the illness is past to avoid spreading it to others.

Other commonsense ways to help curb infection include:

*Limit contact with people who have a fever or cold. If your child is a newborn, especially a premature newborn, avoid exposure to people with colds in the first two months of life.

*Clean and disinfect surfaces. Clean and disinfect surfaces and objects that people frequently touch, such as toys and doorknobs. This is especially important if a family member is sick.

*Cover coughs and sneezes. Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue. Then throw away the tissue and wash your hands or use alcohol hand sanitizer.

*Use your own drinking glass. Don’t share glasses with others, especially if someone in your family is ill.

*Wash hands often. Frequently wash your own hands and those of your child. Keep an alcohol-based hand sanitizer handy for yourself and your child when you’re away from home.

*Breast-feed. Respiratory infections are significantly less common in breast-fed babies.
Vaccines and medications

There are no vaccines for the most common causes of bronchiolitis (RSV and rhinovirus). However, an annual flu shot is recommended for everyone older than 6 months.

Infants at high risk of the RSV infection, such as those born very prematurely or with a heart-lung condition or a depressed immune system, may be given the medication palivizumab (Synagis) to decrease the likelihood of RSV infections.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://draxe.com/bronchiolitis/
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bronchiolitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20351565
https://www.jiva.com/diseases/bronchitis/

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Description:
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), occasionally still called dysmorphophobia, is a mental disorder in which you can’t stop thinking about one or more perceived defects or flaws in your appearance — a flaw that, to others, is either minor or not observable. But you may feel so ashamed and anxious that you may avoid many social situations.It occurs both men & women equally.

When you have body dysmorphic disorder, you intensely obsess over your appearance and body image, repeatedly checking the mirror, grooming or seeking reassurance, sometimes for many hours each day. Your perceived flaw and the repetitive behaviors cause you significant distress, and impact your ability to function in your daily life.

BDD is also considered to be a type of social phobia and anxiety disorder, since it revolves around consistent, out-of-control fear in regards to being judged badly by others. Those with BDD greatly try to avoid being criticized, scrutinized, feeling vulnerable, or being embarrassed and humiliated in social situations. Because fear over weight gain or other body changes is the underlying cause of distress associated with BDD, it’s common for people with BDD to withdraw socially, avoid situations that are unfamiliar or feel out of control, and respond very emotionally to any sense of social criticism.

It usually starts during adolescence and affects both men and women. The BDD subtype muscle dysmorphia, perceiving the body as too small, affects mostly males. Besides thinking about it, one repetitively checks and compares the perceived flaw, and can adopt unusual routines to avoid social contact that exposes it. Fearing the stigma of vanity, one usually hides the preoccupation. Commonly unsuspected even by psychiatrists, BDD has been underdiagnosed. Severely impairing quality of life via educational and occupational dysfunction and social isolation, BDD has high rates of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts.

You may seek out numerous cosmetic procedures to try to “fix” your perceived flaw. Afterward, you may feel a temporary satisfaction, but often the anxiety returns and you may resume searching for a way to fix your perceived flaw.

Treatment of body dysmorphic disorder may include cognitive behavioral therapy and medication.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Symptoms:
Common signs and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder include:

*Having intense, recoccuring thoughts and impulses regarding one’s body appearance, or certain features of one’s body or face

*Seeing certain body parts as being disproportionate and inadequate (for example, the stomach or thighs as being big, or muscles being too small in men)

*Overly focusing on any perceived flaw in one’s facial features, skin, height, hair or clothing (for example, having intense anxiety over acne, wrinkles, thinning hair, scars or facial asymmetry)

*Missing work or school and other social situations out of fear others will notice one’s flaws

*Feeling anxious over one’s food choices, exercise routine and surroundings. This can include excessive exercise for weight loss or for muscle gains

*Increased irritability and judgement of others

*Experiencing relationship problems, jealousy, greatly seeking approval from others and needing reassurance

*Social withdrawal and increased time spent alone

*Symptoms of social phobia, or social anxiety, including severe blushing, sweating, shuddering, shyness, trembling or nausea when around others

*Behaviors associated with binge eating and yo-yo dieting, including changes in eating patterns or frequently dieting and even entering into starvation mode

*Symptoms of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) including following strict rituals, feeling scared over changing repetitive behaviors (including eating or exercise behaviors), and feeling distressed over a lack or control or when one’s schedule is changed

*Obsessively checking one self in the mirror, applying makeup, grooming and trying to alter one’s appearance, often with with cosmetic/plastic surgeries

*Symptoms of depression, including fatigue, lack of pleasure, reduced motivation, insomnia or sleeping excessively, and suicidal thoughts
Other physical symptoms of anxiety, including lightheadedness, dizziness, trouble sleeping, digestive problems, shortness of breath and panic attacks, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

Causes:
It’s not known specifically what causes body dysmorphic disorder. Like many other mental illnesses, body dysmorphic disorder may result from a combination of causes, such as:

*Brain differences. Abnormalities in brain structure or neurochemistry may play a role in causing body dysmorphic disorder.

*Genes. Some studies show that body dysmorphic disorder is more common in people whose blood relatives also have this condition or obsessive-compulsive disorder.

*Environment. Your environment, life experiences and culture may contribute to body dysmorphic disorder, especially if they involve negative social evaluations about your body or self-image, or even childhood neglect or abuse..

Risk factors:

Certain factors seem to increase the risk of developing or triggering body dysmorphic disorder, including:

*Having blood relatives with body dysmorphic disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder

*Negative life experiences, such as childhood teasing and trauma

*Certain personality traits, such as perfectionism

*Societal pressure or expectations of beauty

*Having another psychiatric disorder, such as anxiety or depression

Diagnosis:
After a medical evaluation to help rule out other medical conditions, the health care provider may make a referral to a mental health professional for further evaluation.

Diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder is typically based on:

*A psychological evaluation that assesses risk factors and thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to negative self-image

*Personal, social, family and medical history

*Symptoms listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association

Treatment:
Treatment for body dysmorphic disorder often includes a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and medications.

Cognitive behavioral therapy:

Cognitive behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder focuses on:

*Helping you learn how negative thoughts, emotional reactions and behaviors maintain problems over time

*Challenging automatic negative thoughts about your body image and learning a more flexible and realistic way of thinking

*Learning alternate ways to handle urges or rituals to help reduce mirror checking or reassurance seeking

*Teaching you other behaviors to improve your mental health

*You and your therapist can talk about your goals for therapy and develop a personalized treatment plan to learn and strengthen coping skills.

Medications:

Although there are no medications specifically approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat body dysmorphic disorder, medications used to treat other mental disorders, such as depression, can be effective.

*Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Because body dysmorphic disorder is thought to be caused in part by problems related to the brain chemical serotonin, SSRIs may be prescribed. SSRIs appear to be more effective for body dysmorphic disorder than other antidepressants and may help control your obsessions and repetitive behaviors.

*Other medications. In some cases, you may benefit from taking other medications in addition to an SSRI, depending on your symptoms.

Natural Treatments for Body Dysmorphic Disorder:

1. Identification of Co-Existing Disorders:
BDD is considered to be a severe disorder, and professional treatment is always recommended. There is plenty that someone struggling with BDD can do on their own to improve recovery and manage symptoms, but seeing a therapist is still encouraged.

2. Become Educated on Early Warning Sides & Symptoms:
Recognizing when healthy eating, self-improvement, and exercise patterns start to turn into obsessions is an important step for anyone with a history of body image issues, plus their family members and close friends. Strict rituals around weight and appearance usually take form gradually, so intercepting them early on when they start to cause anxiety is the best way to prevent them from worsening.

3. Reduce Stress & Try Mindfulness Meditation:
High amounts of stress and anxiety can be trigger for body image issues and body distortion. Meditation and other “mind-body” practices can help increase self-esteem, self-worth and self-compassion, which are important for preventing body image issues and anxiety.

Mindfulness works similarly to CBT in that it helps increase self-awareness and identify underlying thoughts and limiting self-beliefs that might be contributing to BDD. Certain studies have found evidence supporting the effectiveness of mindful eating programs and mindfulness-based interventions for the treatment of various eating disorders, symptoms of body dissatisfaction and social anxiety.

4.Other effective ways to relieve stress and social anxiety include:
*Doing something creative and fun for a period of time each day

*Joining a support group online or in person

*Trying yoga, Tai Chi or other mind-body exercises

*Branching out to try new activities, join a team or volunteer

*Writing in a journal. This can include making a “values list” of traits that are important for well-being beyond appearance

*Spending more time outdoors in nature, including earthing

*Regularly exercising

*Practicing deep breathing

*Practicing prayer and other forms of spirituality that can increase a sense of connectedness and purpose

*Fostering relationships with supportive people (studies find our relationships are one of the things that make us happiest

Stick to a Balanced, Nourishing Diet:
For people with BDD whose symptoms are mostly related to their body weight, it’s crucial to learn to set realistic goals for what it means to eat a healthy diet and maintain a healthy BMI. A nutritionist and/or therapist can help someone with BDD to create a balanced dietary plan that includes enough energy (calories), nutrients and meets their needs overall while considering their unique body shape and size.

Learning “intuitive eating” or mindful eating are two approaches to achieving sustainable healthy eating and body acceptance. Intuitive eaters believe that blame over flaws regarding someone’s appearance shouldn’t be put on person suffering, but instead on the flawed process of achieving perfection portrayed by the media and of dieting.

The goal is to maintain a way of eating that supports a healthier relationship with food and focuses on health holistically, both physically and mentally. Studies show that intuitive eating/mindful eating offer a “realistic alternative to address overweight and obesity than conventional weight-loss treatments”.

Prevention:
There’s no known way to prevent body dysmorphic disorder. However, because body dysmorphic disorder often starts in the early teenage years, identifying the disorder early and starting treatment may be of some benefit.

Long-term maintenance treatment also may help prevent a relapse of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms.

Regular Yoga exercise with mindful meditation and balanced diet is a great way to to prevent body dysmorphic disorder.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_dysmorphic_disorder
https://draxe.com/body-dysmorphic-disorder/
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/body-dysmorphic-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20353938