Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Hantaviruses

Clasifications:
Family: Hantaviridae
Subfamily:Mammantavirinae
Kingdom:Orthornavirae
Phylum: Negarnaviricota
Class: Ellioviricetes
Order: Bunyavirales
Genus: Hantavirus

Synonyms: Orthohantavirus

Other Name: Orthohantavirus

Description:
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is an infectious disease characterized by flu-like symptoms that can progress rapidly to potentially life-threatening breathing problems.

Several types of hantaviruses can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. They are carried by several types of rodents, particularly the deer mouse. You become infected primarily by breathing air infected with hantaviruses that are shed in rodent urine and droppings.

Because treatment options are limited, the best protection against hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is to avoid rodents and their habitats.

Hantaviruses normally cause infection in rodents, but do not cause disease in them. Humans may become infected with hantaviruses through contact with rodent urine, saliva, or feces. Some strains cause potentially fatal diseases in humans, such as hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), also known as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), while others have not been associated with known human disease. HPS (HCPS) is a “rare respiratory illness associated with the inhalation of aerosolized rodent excreta (urine and feces) contaminated by hantavirus particles.”

Human infections of hantaviruses have almost entirely been linked to human contact with rodent excrement; however, in 2005 and 2019, human-to-human transmission of the Andes virus was reported in South America.

Hantavirus is named for the Hantan River area in South Korea, where an early outbreak was observed, and was isolated in 1976 by Ho Wang Lee.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Symptoms:
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome advances through two distinct stages. In the first stage, one may experience flu-like signs and symptoms that may include:

*Fever and chills
*Headaches and muscle aches
*Vomiting, diarrhea or abdominal pain

In its early stages, hantavirus infection is difficult to distinguish from influenza, pneumonia or other viral conditions. After four to 10 days, more-serious signs and symptoms begin. They typically include:

*A cough that produces secretions
*Shortness of breath
*Fluid accumulating within the lungs
*Low blood pressure
*Reduced heart efficiency

Causes:
Each type of hantavirus has a preferred rodent carrier. The deer mouse is the primary carrier of the virus responsible for most cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America. Other hantavirus carriers include the white-tailed mouse, cotton rat and rice rat.

Inhalation: Main route of transmission
Hantaviruses are transmitted to people primarily through the aerosolization of viruses shed in infected rodents’ droppings, urine or saliva. Aerosolization occurs when a virus is kicked up into the air, making it easy for you to inhale. For example, a broom used to clean up mouse droppings in an attic may nudge into the air tiny particles of feces containing hantaviruses, which you can then easily inhale.

After you inhale hantaviruses, they reach your lungs and begin to invade tiny blood vessels called capillaries, eventually causing them to leak. Your lungs then flood with fluid, which can trigger any of the respiratory problems associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

Person-to-person transmission:
People who become infected with the North American strain of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome aren’t contagious to other people. However, certain outbreaks in South America have shown evidence of being transmitted from person to person, which illustrates variation across strains in different regions.

Diagnosis:
Hantaviruses are transmitted by rodents, humans become infected by inhaling aerosols of excreta and urine.

Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Europe and Asia and with cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas.

The clinical course of HPS can be basically divided into three periods: a febrile prodrome, a cardiopulmonary stage and the convalescence. There is 14–17 days incubation period after exposure, which is followed by the prodrome phase, which usually lasts for 3–6 days with myalgia,
malaise and fever of abrupt onset in the absence of cough and coryza. Additional symptoms seen at early stages could include mainly gastrointestinal manifestations, headache and chills.

Laboratory abnormalities include increased hematocrit, thrombocytopenia with neutrophilia and relative lymphopenia. The first to appear is thrombocytopenia, which can anticipate the respiratory failure of 1 or 2 days. Leukocytosis is later and more specific for progression to severe cases. There are changes in blood chemistry, increased lactate dehydrogenase and transaminases.

Detection of antigens or virus RNA is essential for early diagnosis in patients with hantavirus. Hantaviruses N-protein is the most abundant and conserved structural protein in infected cells and virions and it is the target commonly selected for the detection of IgG or IgM antibodies. Therefore, hantaviruses N-protein is more suitable for the development of monoclonal antibodies in acute or convalescent patients.

Detection of RNA viral by RT-PCR is required to confirm clinical or post-mortem cases.

Viral isolation is difficult and requires biosafety 3 and 4 laboratories (BSL-3/4).

The differential diagnosis of this syndrome in tropical countries include several atypical pneumonia, influenza, heart failure, malaria, dengue, arenavirus, leptospirosis and rikettsia.

Treatment:
Viruses in the genus Hantavirus can cause one of two serious illnesses when transmitted from rodents to humans: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Of the two diseases, HPS is more severe with an approximate 40% mortality across the Americas. The high rate of mortality could be reduced if effective therapeutics could be discovered for treatment of this illness. Herein we review approaches being explored for the discovery of therapeutics for HPS and how they could be employed in treatment and prevention of disease.

Because people don’t have antibodies to the virus, symptomatic infections are the norm, with mortality rates of 38%, according to the CDC. There is no treatment, cure, or vaccine for the virus. However, survival outcomes may be improved by early disease recognition and receipt of medical care, including oxygen therapy for severe respiratory illness.

Prevention:
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) can be be prevented by doing the following:

*Stay away from places where rodents leave droppings.

*Wear rubber gloves and a mask that covers your nose and face during exposure to mouse droppings.

*Use disinfectant to sanitize areas containing mouse droppings so infected dust does not spread in the air.

  • Do Yoga exercise, specially PRANAYAMA daily which will boost up your immunity system.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resourcers:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orthohantavirus
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hantavirus-pulmonary-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20351838
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1586/14787210.2015.1047825
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S016635420700438X

Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Mucormycosis

Other Names: Black fungus. (previously called zygomycosis)

Description:
*Mucormycosis is a rare but serious angio-invasive infection caused by a group of fungi called mucormycetes.

*Spores of these ubiquitous fungi (commonly found in soil, fallen leaves, compost, animal dung and air) can be inhaled and then infect the lungs, sinuses, and extend into the brain and eyes. Less often, infection may develop when the spores enter the body through a cut or an open wound.

*Mucormycosis is not a contagious disease, it cannot be spread from one person to another.

*Mucormycosis mainly affects people who are immunocompromised, or patients already infected with other diseases. High risk groups include people with diabetes (especially diabetic ketoacidosis), solid organ transplantation, neutropenia (low neutrophils, a type of white blood cells), long-term systemic corticosteroid use, and iron overload (hemochromatosis). The risk is high for people living with HIV, and those using immunomodulating drugs, including the anti-fungal voriconazole in some high-risk groups.

*Clinical presentation is classified according to the organ involvement. It can be rhino-orbital cerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or disseminated.

*Mucormycosis is an aggressive, life-threatening infection requiring prompt diagnosis and early treatment. Treatment usually consists of antifungal medications and surgery.

Mucormycetes are present in the environment and they enter the human body either through artificial oxygen support that is given to severe COVID-19 patients or in some cases other environmental factors like use of contaminated water to produce medical oxygen. Use of certain combinations of steroids for treating COVID patients has also emerged to be one prominent reason as to why COVID survivors are complaining of black fungus. Patients with a low-immunity level or have compromising health conditions like diabetes, cancer or HIV, are more prone to the risk of getting caught with this infection.

Currently, this fungal infection has created much havoc nationwide, until much recently this was considered to be rare, but is now showing devastating effects.

Mucormycetes enter the body through nose, mouth or eyes and directly attack the sinus cavities, chest cavities and lungs. If not treated in time, the infection can prove lethal and cause brain damage, ultimately causing demise of the infected. Unhygienic way of delivering oxygen to the patients, provides an entry point to the molds to enter the body. The infection is not contagious and does not spread from one person to another, unlike coronavirus.

CLICK & SEE THYE PICTURES

Symptoms
The symptoms of mucormycosis depend on where in the body the fungus is growing. The most common presentation is a sinus infection (sinusitis) that is accompanied by nasal congestion, nasal discharge, and sinus pain. A fever and headache may also occur.

Type of Mucormycosis:
(1)..Rhinocerebral (sinus and brain) mucormycosis
Symptoms of this type are:

*One-sided facial swelling
*Headache
*Nasal or sinus congestion
*Black lesions on nasal bridge or upper inside of mouth that quickly become more severe
*Fever
*Lethargy, seizures, slurred speech, partial paralysis

(2)…Pulmonary (lung) mucormycosis:
Symptoms of this type are:

*Fever
*Cough
*Chest pain
*Shortness of breath
*Hemoptysis

(3)..Cutaneous (skin) mucormycosis:

Symptoms of this type are:

Skin lesion that resembles blisters or ulcers. The infected area may turn black. Other symptoms include pain, warmth, excessive redness, or swelling around a wound.

(4)Gastrointestinal mucormycosis :

Symptoms of this type are:

*Abdominal pain
*Nausea and vomiting
*Gastrointestinal bleeding

(5)Disseminated mucormycosis:

Symptoms of this type are:

Tends to occur in people who are already sick from other medical conditions, which makes it difficult to identify which symptoms are related to mucormycosis. Patients with disseminated infection in the brain may develop mental status changes or coma.

Causes:
Mucormycosis is a fungal infection caused by fungi in the order Mucorales. In most cases it is due to an invasion of the genera Rhizopus and Mucor, common bread molds. Most fatal infections are caused by Rhizopus oryzae. It is less likely due to Lichtheimia, and rarely due to Apophysomyces. Others include Cunninghamella, Mortierella, and Saksenaea.

The fungal spores are in the environment, can be found on for instance moldy bread and fruit and are breathed in frequently, but cause disease only in some people. In addition to being breathed in to be deposited in the nose, sinuses and lungs, the spores can also enter the skin via blood or directly through a cut or open wound, or grow in the intestine if eaten. Once deposited, the fungus grows branch-like filaments which invade blood vessels, causing clots to form and surrounding tissues to die. Other reported causes include contaminated wound dressings. Mucormycosis has been reported following the use of elastoplast and the use of tongue depressors for holding in place intravenous catheters, Outbreaks have also been linked to hospital bed sheets, negative-pressure rooms, water leaks, poor ventilation, contaminated medical equipment, and building works.

Diagnosis:
*Early recognition, diagnosis and prompt administration of appropriate antifungal treatment and surgical debridement (as needed) are important for improving outcomes for patients with mucormycosis.

*Diagnostic methods include biopsy and fungal staining (KOH mount), which remains the mainstay of laboratory diagnosis. Facilities where fungal culture and susceptibility testing are available can help to confirm the species of mucormycosis. Treatment initiation, however, should not wait for fungal culture results.

*Imaging tests such as a CT scan of lungs, sinuses, or other parts of body, depending on the location of the suspected infection, may also be used to support the diagnosis.

Treatment:
Mucormycosis is difficult to treat. It may sometimes requires both intravenous antifungal therapy and surgical excision, thus necessitating a multidisciplinary team approach in a facility setting.

Liposomal amphotericin B is the drug of choice and needs to be initiated early. Other antifungals like posaconazole, or isavuconazolehave also been described for treatment.

The Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) has released detailed guidelines on managing mucormycosis in COVID-19 in India.

The overall prognosis depends on several factors, including the rapidity of diagnosis and treatment, the site of infection, and the patient’s underlying conditions and degree of immunosuppression. The overall case fatality is approximately 50%, although early diagnosis and treatment lead to better outcomes.

Ayurvedic Treatment: LEECH THERAPY

CLICK & SEE : Covid 19: Patients diagnosed with black fungus opt for leech therapy

Preventions:
Prevention of COVID-associated mucormycosis needs to focus on addressing the underlying risk factors:

  • Aiming for better glycemic control in those with diabetes,

*Apropriate use of systemic corticosteroids and

*Prevention of unnecessary use of antibiotic, antifungal and other immunomodulators.

IPC measures at the facility level are essential to prevent the environmental spread of this pathogen. These include:

*Sterilization and disinfection of the equipment used by multiple patients (tracheal tubes, ventilators), ventilation systems ( if there is poor ventilation in the hospital that can contribute to dampness and dust);

*Proper wound management (bandage, tape, adhesives, including tapes to secure medical devices such as endotracheal tubes, ostomy devices must be sterilized and changed regularly);

*Proper line management in health facilities

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mucormycosis
https://www.medipulse.in/blog/2021/6/7/mucormycosis-or-black-fungus-infection-causes-and-symptoms
https://www.who.int/india/emergencies/coronavirus-disease-(covid-19)/mucormycosis

;

Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Adenovirus

Description:
Adenoviruses are a group of common viruses that infect the lining of your eyes, airways and lungs, intestines, urinary tract, and nervous system. They’re common causes of fever, coughs, sore throats, diarrhea, and pink eye (conjunctivitis).

Infections happen in children more often than in adults, but anyone can get them. Most kids will have at least one type of adenovirus infection by the time they’re 10.

The infections usually cause only mild symptoms and get better on their own in a few days. But they can be more serious in people with weak immune systems, especially children.

These viruses are common in places with large groups of kids, such as day care centers, schools, and summer camps.

They’re very contagious. They can spread when someone who’s infected coughs or sneezes. Droplets containing the virus fly into the air and land on surfaces.

Your child can catch the virus when they touch the hand of someone who has it or a toy or other object held by someone who has it and then touches their mouth, nose, or eyes. It spreads quickly with children because they’re more likely to put their hands on their face and in their mouths.

Symptoms:
There are several different tyupes of adenovirus.
Each type of adenovirus can affect on person differently:

*Bronchitis: Cough, runny nose, fever, chills.

*Colds and other respiratory infections: Stuffy and runny nose, cough, sore throat, and swollen glands

*Croup: Barking cough, trouble breathing, high-pitched sound when breathing in

*Ear infection: Ear pain, irritability, fever

*Pink eye (conjunctivitis): Red eyes, discharge from your eyes, tearing, feeling like there’s something in your eye

*Pneumonia: Fever, cough, trouble breathing

*Stomach and intestinal infections: Diarrhea, vomiting, headache, fever, stomach cramps

*Swelling of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis and encephalitis): Headache, fever, stiff neck, nausea, and vomiting (this is rare)

*Urinary tract infections: Burning and pain while urinating, frequent need to go, blood in your urine

Causes:
Adenoviruses are very contagious. They can spread when someone who’s infected coughs or sneezes. Droplets containing the virus fly into the air and land on surfaces.

One child can catch the virus when they touch the hand of someone who has it or a toy or other object held by someone who has it and then touches their mouth, nose, or eyes. It spreads quickly with children because they’re more likely to put their hands on their face and in their mouths.

The child can get infected at the time of changing a diaper. One also can get sick from eating food prepared by someone who didn’t wash their hands properly after going to the bathroom. It’s possible to catch the virus in water, like in small lakes or a swimming pool that isn’t well maintained, but this doesn’t happen often.

Diagnosis:
The child spacilist may want to do a physical exam and possibly one or more of these tests to see if a virus or bacteria caused the infection:

*Blood test: A nurse will take a sample of your child’s blood from a vein in their arm.

*Urine test: Your child will pee in a cup the nurse gives you.

*Swab test: A nurse will use a cotton swab to get a sample of mucus from your child’s nose.

*Stool test: You’ll collect a sample of your child’s poop at home and bring it to the doctor’s office.

*Chest X-ray: Your child will lie still while a technician uses a small amount of radiation to take pictures of the inside of their chest. This will give the child specialist a closer look at their heart and lungs.

Treatment:
Kids with a weak immune system may need treatment in the hospital to help them recover.
There are no proven antiviral drugs to treat adenoviral infections, so treatment is largely directed at the symptoms (such as acetaminophen for fever). The antiviral drug cidofovir has helped certain of those patients who had severe cases of illness; the number helped and to what degree, and the particular complications or symptoms it helped with, and when and where this happened, were not given in the source. A doctor may give antibiotic eyedrops for conjunctivitis, while awaiting results of bacterial cultures, and to help prevent secondary bacterial infections. Currently, there is no adenovirus vaccine available to the general public, but a vaccine is available for the United States military for Types 4 and 7.

Prevention:
To help keep the child from getting sick:

*Try to keep the child away from anyone you know is sick.

*Wash child’s hands — and yours — often during the day, and especially before meals. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer if you don’t have soap and water nearby.

*Clean surfaces, like sinks and counters, to get rid of germs.

*Don’t let them swim in pools that aren’t well maintained.

*Keep the child at home when they’re sick to avoid spreading adenoviruses to others. Tell them to cover their nose and mouth whenever they sneeze or cough.

Currently, there is a vaccine for adenovirus type 4 and 7 for US military personnel only. US military personnel are the recipients of this vaccine because they may be at a higher risk of infection. The vaccine contains a live virus, which may be shed in stool and lead to transmission. The vaccine is not approved for use outside of the military, as it has not been tested in studied in the general population or on people with weakened immune systems.

In the past, US military recruits were vaccinated against two serotypes of adenovirus, with a corresponding decrease in illnesses caused by those serotypes. That vaccine is no longer manufactured. The U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command announced on 31 October 2011 that a new adenovirus vaccine, which replaces the older version that has been out of production for over a decade, was shipped to basic training sites on 18 October 2011. More information is available here.

Prevention of adenovirus, as well as other respiratory illnesses, involves frequent hand washing for more than 20 seconds, avoiding touching the eyes, face, and nose with unwashed hands, and avoiding close contact with people with symptomatic adenovirus infection. Those with symptomatic adenovirus infection are additionally advised to cough or sneeze into the arm or elbow instead of the hand, to avoid sharing cups and eating utensils, and to refrain from kissing others. Chlorination of swimming pools can prevent outbreaks of conjunctivitis caused by adenovirus.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenoviridae
https://www.webmd.com/children/adenovirus-infections

Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Anencephaly

Description:
Anencephaly is the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp that occurs during embryonic development. It is a cephalic disorder that results from a neural tube defect that occurs when the rostral (head) end of the neural tube fails to close, usually between the 23rd and 26th day following conception. Strictly speaking, the Greek term translates as “without a brain” (or totally lacking the inside part of the head), but it is accepted that children born with this disorder usually only lack a telencephalon, the largest part of the brain consisting mainly of the cerebral hemispheres, including the neocortex, which is responsible for cognition. The remaining structure is usually covered only by a thin layer of membrane—skin, bone, meninges, etc. are all lacking. The neural tube is a layer of cells that ultimately develops into the brain and spinal cord. Because anencephaly is caused by abnormalities of the neural tube, it is classified as a neural tube defect (NTD). With very few exceptions, infants with this disorder do not survive longer than a few hours or possibly days after their birth.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Symptoms:
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) describes the presentation of this condition as follows: “A baby born with anencephaly is usually blind, deaf, unaware of its surroundings and unable to feel pain. Although some individuals with anencephaly may be born with a main brain stem, the lack of a functioning cerebrum permanently rules out the possibility of ever gaining awareness of their surroundings. Reflex actions such as breathing and responses to sound or touch may occur.”

Due to the presence of the brainstem, children with anencephaly have almost all the primitive reflexes of a newborn, responding to auditory, vestibular and painful stimuli. This means that the child can move, smile, suckle and breathe without the aid of devices.

Causes:
The cause of anencephaly is disputed by medical professionals and researchers.

Folic acid has been shown to be important in neural tube formation since at least 1991, and as a subtype of neural tube defect, folic acid may play a role in anencephaly. Studies have shown that the addition of folic acid to the diet of women of child-bearing age may significantly reduce, although not eliminate, the incidence of neural tube defects. Therefore, it is recommended that all women of child-bearing age consume 0.4 mg of folic acid daily, especially those attempting to conceive or who may possibly conceive, as this can reduce the risk to 0.03%. It is not advisable to wait until pregnancy has begun, since, by the time a woman knows she is pregnant, the critical time for the formation of a neural tube defect has usually already passed. A physician may prescribe even higher dosages of folic acid (5 mg/day) for women having had a previous pregnancy with a neural tube defect.

In general, neural tube defects do not follow direct patterns of heredity, though there is some indirect evidence of inheritance, and recent animal models indicate a possible association with deficiencies of the transcription factor TEAD2. Studies show that a woman who has had one child with a neural tube defect such as anencephaly has about a 3% risk of having another child with a neural tube defect, as opposed to the background rate of 0.1% occurrence in the population at large. Genetic counseling is usually offered to women at a higher risk of having a child with a neural tube defect to discuss available testing.

An infant with anencephaly and acrania
It is known that people taking certain anticonvulsants and people with insulin-dependent diabetes have a higher risk of having a child with a neural tube defect.

Relation to genetic ciliopathy:
Until recently, medical literature did not indicate a connection among many genetic disorders, both genetic syndromes and genetic diseases, that are now being found to be related. As a result of new genetic research, some of these are, in fact, highly related in their root cause despite the widely varying set of medical symptoms that are clinically visible in the disorders. Anencephaly is one such disease, part of an emerging class of diseases called ciliopathies. The underlying cause may be a dysfunctional molecular mechanism in the primary cilia structures of the cell, organelles present in many cellular types throughout the human body. The cilia defects adversely affect “numerous critical developmental signaling pathways” essential to cellular development and, thus, offer a plausible hypothesis for the often multi-symptom nature of a large set of syndromes and diseases. Known ciliopathies include primary ciliary dyskinesia, Bardet–Biedl syndrome, polycystic kidney and liver disease, nephronophthisis, Alström syndrome, Meckel–Gruber syndrome, and some forms of retinal degeneration.

Research:
Some genetic research has been conducted to determine the causes of anencephaly. It has been found that cartilage homeoprotein (CART1) is selectively expressed in chondrocytes (cartilage cells). The CART1 gene to chromosome 12q21.3–q22 has been mapped. Also, it has been found that mice homozygous for deficiency in the Cart1 gene manifested acrania and meroanencephaly, and prenatal treatment with folic acid will suppress acrania and meroanencephaly in the Cart1-deficient mutants

Diagnosis:
Anencephaly can often be diagnosed before birth through an ultrasound examination. The maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP screening) and detailed fetal ultrasound can be useful for screening for neural tube defects such as spina bifida or anencephaly.

Meroanencephaly:
Meroanencephaly is a rare form of anencephaly characterized by malformed cranial bones, a median cranial defect, and a cranial protrusion called area cerebrovasculosa. Area cerebrovasculosa is a section of abnormal, spongy, vascular tissue admixed with glial tissue ranging from simply a membrane to a large mass of connective tissue, hemorrhagic vascular channels, glial nodules, and disorganized choroid plexuses.

Holoprosencephaly:
The most common type of anencephaly, where the brain has entirely failed to form, except for the brain stem. Infants rarely survive more than one day after birth with holoanencephaly.

Craniorachischisis:
The most severe type of anencephaly where area cerebrovasculosa and area medullovasculosa fill both cranial defects and the spinal column. Craniorachischisis is characterized by anencephaly accompanied by bony defects in the spine and the exposure of neural tissue as the vault of the skull fails to form. Craniorachischisis occurs in about 1 of every 1000 live births, but various physical and chemical tests can detect neural tube closure during early pregnancy.

Treatment:
There is no cure or standard treatment for anencephaly.

Prognosis:
Prognosis is extremely poor, as many anencephalic fetuses do not survive birth and infants that are not stillborn will usually die within a few hours or days after birth from cardiorespiratory arrest.

In almost all cases, anencephalic infants are not aggressively resuscitated because there is no chance of the infants ever achieving a conscious existence. Instead, the usual clinical practice is to offer hydration, nutrition, and comfort measures and to “let nature take its course”. Artificial ventilation, surgery (to fix any co-existing congenital defects), and drug therapy (such as antibiotics) are usually regarded as futile efforts. Some clinicians and medical ethicists view even the provision of nutrition and hydration as medically futile

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anencephaly
https://www.medicinenet.com/anencephaly/article.htm

Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Anal cancer

Description:
Anal cancer is an uncommon type of cancer that occurs in the anal canal. The anal canal is a short tube at the end of our rectum through which stool leaves your body. It affects the very end of the large bowel.

Anal cancer can cause signs and symptoms such as rectal bleeding and anal pain.

Most people with anal cancer are treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation. Though combining anal cancer treatments increases the chance of a cure, the combined treatments also increase the risk of side effects.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Symptoms:
Anal cancer signs and symptoms include:

  • Bleeding from the anus or rectum (rectal bleeding)
    *Pain in the area of the anus
    *A mass or growth in the anal canal
    *Anal itching & pain
  • A discharge of mucus from the anus
    *Loss of bowel control (bowel incontinence)

However, some people with anal cancer don’t have any symptoms.

If one develops any of the above symptoms, It is wise to consult the GP. While they’re unlikely to be caused by anal cancer, it’s best to get them checked out.

Causes:
Anal cancer forms when a genetic mutation turns normal, healthy cells into abnormal cells. Healthy cells grow and multiply at a set rate, eventually dying at a set time. Abnormal cells grow and multiply out of control, and they don’t die. The accumulating abnormal cells form a mass (tumor). Cancer cells invade nearby tissues and can separate from an initial tumor to spread elsewhere in the body (metastasize).

Anal cancer is closely related to a sexually transmitted infection called human papillomavirus (HPV). Evidence of HPV is detected in the majority of anal cancers. HPV is thought to be the most common cause of anal cancers

Risk factors:
Several factors have been found to increase the risk of anal cancer, including:

*Older age.: Most cases of anal cancer occur in people age 50 and older.

*Many sexual partners.: People who have many sexual partners over their lifetimes have a greater risk of anal cancer.

*Anal sex.: People who engage in receptive anal sex have an increased risk of anal cancer.

*Smoking.: Smoking cigarettes may increase your risk of anal cancer.

*History of cancer.: Those who have had cervical, vulvar or vaginal cancer have an increased risk of anal cancer.

*Human papillomavirus (HPV).: HPV infection increases your risk of several cancers, including anal cancer and cervical cancer. HPV infection is a sexually transmitted infection that can also cause genital warts.

*Drugs or conditions that suppress your immune system.: People who take drugs to suppress their immune systems (immunosuppressive drugs), including people who have received organ transplants, may have an increased risk of anal cancer. HIV — the virus that causes AIDS — suppresses the immune system and increases the risk of anal cancer.

Complications:
Anal cancer rarely spreads (metastasizes) to distant parts of the body. Only a small percentage of tumors are found to have spread, but those that do are especially difficult to treat. Anal cancer that metastasizes most commonly spreads to the liver and the lungs.

Diagnosis:
To diagnose the following tests may have to be done::

*Sigmoidoscopy – where a thin, flexible tube with a small camera and light is inserted into your bottom to check for any abnormalities

*Roctoscopy – where the inside of your rectum is examined using a hollow tube-like instrument (proctoscope) with a light on the end

*Biopsy – where a small tissue sample is removed from your anus during a sigmoidoscopy or proctoscopy so it can be examined in a laboratory under a microscope.

Treatments:
The main MODERN treatments used for anal cancer are:

*Chemoradiation – a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy

*Surgery – to remove a tumour or a larger section of bowel
In cases where the cancer has spread and can’t be cured, chemotherapy alone may be considered to help relieve symptoms. This is known as palliative care.

Prevention:
There is no sure way to prevent anal cancer. To reduce your risk of anal cancer:

*Practice safer sex. Practicing safe sex may help prevent HPV and HIV, two sexually transmitted viruses that may increase your risk of anal cancer. If you choose to have anal sex, use condoms.

*Get vaccinated against HPV. A vaccine to protect against HPV infection is available. It’s recommended for adolescents, including both boys and girls, but may be given to adults, too.

*Stop smoking. Smoking increases your risk of anal cancer. Don’t start smoking. Stop if you currently smoke & reduce drinking alcohol.

*Exercise regularly, practice Joga (meditatiion or pranayam- breathing exercise daily) :

Prognosis:
The prognosis of anal cancer depends on how advanced the condition is when it’s diagnosed. The earlier it’s diagnosed, the better the outlook.

Compared with many other types of cancer, the outlook for anal cancer is generally better because treatment is often very effective. Around 66 out of 100 people (66%) with anal cancer will live at least five years after diagnosis, and many will live much longer than this. There are about 300 deaths from anal cancer each year in the UK.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/anal-cancer/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20354146
https://www.nhsinform.scot/illnesses-and-conditions/cancer/cancer-types-in-adults/anal-cancer