Asian carps

Several species of heavy-bodied cyprinid fishes are collectively known in the United States as Asian carp. Cyprinids from the Indian subcontinent—for example, catla (Catla catla) and mrigal (Cirrhinus cirrhosus)—are not included in this classification and are known collectively as “Indian carp”. The Asian carp is considered an invasive species in the United States.

Asian carp (bighead, black, grass, and silver carp) were imported to the United States in the 1970s as a method to control nuisance algal blooms in wastewater treatment plants and aquaculture ponds as well as for human food. Within ten years, the carp escaped confinement and spread to the waters of the Mississippi River basin and other large rivers like the Missouri and Illinois.

Asian carp are in direct competition with native aquatic species for food and habitat. Their rapid population increase is disrupting the ecology and food web of the large rivers of the Midwest. In areas where Asian carp are abundant, they have harmed native fish communities and interfered with commercial and recreational fishing…..CLICK & SEE

Experts are extremely concerned about the consequences of Asian carp invading the Great Lakes, where the carp would negatively affect the $7 billion-a-year fishing industry.

Ten Asian carp have been substantially introduced outside their native ranges:

*Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)
*Common carp (Cyprinus carpio)
*Amur carp (Cyprinus rubrofuscus)
*Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)
*Largescale silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys harmandi)
*Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis)
*Black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus)
*Goldfish (Carassius auratus)
*Crucian carp (Carassius carassius)
*Mud carp (Cirrhinus molitorella)

All the above, except largescale silver carp, have been cultivated in aquaculture in China for over 1,000 years. Largescale silver carp, a more southern species, is native to Vietnam and is cultivated there. Grass, silver, bighead, and black carp are known as the “Four Domesticated Fish” in China and are the most important freshwater fish species for food and traditional Chinese medicine. Bighead and silver carp are the most important fish, worldwide, in terms of total aquaculture production. Common carp, amur carp and crucian carp are also common food fishes in China and elsewhere. Goldfish, though, are cultivated mainly as pet fish. Common carp are native to both Eastern Europe and Western Asia, so they are sometimes called a “Eurasian” carp.

Bighead, silver, and grass carp are known to be well-established in the Mississippi River basin (including tributaries), where they at times reach extremely high numbers, especially in the case of the bighead and silver carp. Bighead, silver, and grass carp have been captured in that watershed from Louisiana to South Dakota, Minnesota, and Ohio. Grass carp are also established in at least one other watershed, in Texas, and may be established elsewhere.

Grass carp have been captured in all of the Great Lakes except Lake Superior, but so far, no evidence indicates a reproducing population. No silver carp or black carp have yet been found in any of the Great Lakes. Common carp are abundant throughout the Great Lakes.

A few bighead and grass carp have been captured in Canada’s portions of the Great Lakes, but no Asian carp (other than common carp) is known to be established in Canada at this time. Concerns exist that the silver carp may spread into Cypress Hills in Alberta and Saskatchewan through Battle Creek (Milk River), the Frenchman River, and other rivers flowing south out of the hills into the Milk River.

In Mexico, grass carp have been established for many years in at least two river systems, where they are considered invasive, but no other Asian carp are known to have been introduced.

As food:
Asian carp have been a popular food fish in Asia for thousands of years. Some recipes are specifically for carp such as Tángcù L?yú [zh] (sweet-and-sour carp) and Koikoku [ja] (thick miso soup with carp). However, many people in North America do not distinguish the various Asian carp species and see them all as undesirable food fish because of their perceived bottom-feeding behavior, while, in fact, only some species are bottom-feeders. Furthermore even the bottom-feeding species such as the common carp, a highly bony species which was introduced to North America from Eurasia in the 17th century, are important food fish outside North America.

The pearly white flesh—complicated by a series of bones—is said to taste like cod or described as tasting like a cross between scallops and crabmeat. They are low in mercury because they do not eat other fish. To make the fish more appealing to American consumers, the fish have been renamed silverfin or Kentucky tuna. Volunteer efforts to increase the popularity further include making and selling carp-based dishes and using the entrails to make fertilizer.



Arrowtooth eel

Bionomical Name: Synaphobranchus kaupii
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Anguilliformes
Family: Synaphobranchidae
Genus: Synaphobranchus
Species: S. kaupii

Synaphobranchus kaupi Johnson, 1862
Nettophichthys retropinnatus Holt, 1891

Common Names:Arrowtooth eel, Kaup’s cut-throat eel, the Gray’s cutthroat, the Longnosed eel, the Northern cutthroat eel, or the Slatjaw cutthroat eel

Habitat:Arrowtooth eel is a marine, deep water-dwelling eel which is known from the Indo-Western Pacific and eastern and western Atlantic Ocean, including the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Cape Verde, the Western Sahara, Nigeria, Namibia, South Africa, Greenland, France, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the United Kingdom, Ireland, the Philippines, Portugal, Spain, the Bahamas, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Japan, Australia, Mauritania, Morocco, and Hawaii. It dwells at a depth range of 120 to 4,800 metres (390 to 15,750 ft), most often between 400 to 2,200 metres (1,300 to 7,200 ft), and inhabits the upper abyssal zone on the continental slope. It is intolerant of the temperatures of higher waters. Males can reach a maximum total length of 100 centimetres (39 in).

Arrowtooth eel may refer to several species of cutthroat eels:

*Shortbelly eel, Dysomma anguillare
*Deepwater arrowtooth eel, Histiobranchus bathybius
*Kaup’s arrowtooth eel, Synaphobranchus kaupii
*Muddy arrowtooth eel, Ilyophis brunneus
*Pignosed arrowtooth eel, Dysomma brevirostre


Edible Uses:
Arrowtooth eel is edible.Different people eat in different ways of cooking.

It is mostly fried, pickled or smoked.
It is used in Japanese and Korean cuisine.

Nutritional value:
159 grams of cooked Eel fish is loaded with 375 calories, 94.3 grams of moisture, 37.6 grams of protein, 23.77 grams of total lipid fat and 2.86 grams of ash. Rich in nutrients, it grants 258.29% of Vitamin A, 191.67% of Vitamin B12, 103.65% of isoleucine, 103.23% of lysine, 95.68 % of tryptophan, 93.69% of threonine, 91.71% of valine, 89.85% of histidine, 82.68 % of leucine, 75.20% of protein, 67.91% of total lipid fat, 62.86% of phosphorus, 44.59% of niacin, 30.09% of zinc, 24.25% of thiamin, 24% of selenium, 12.75% of iron and 11.81% of potassium.

Health benefits of Eel fish:
Mostly it is consumed in Europe, United States, Korea, Japan, New Zealand, China and other countries as well. Aside from its distinct flavor, it offers various health benefits. Eel fish helps to lower cholesterol, blood pressure and chances of arthritis. It enhances the development of brain, good eyesight and functions of nervous system.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.



Antarctic cod

Bionomical Name: Dissostichus mawsoni
Family: Nototheniidae
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Genus: Dissostichus
Species: D. mawsoni

Common Name: Antarctic cod fish, Antarctic toothfish,Toothfish

Habitat: Antarctic cod is native to the Southern Ocean. It is often mistakenly referred to as an Antarctic cod, consistent with the misnaming of other notothenioid Antarctic fish as rock cods.

Fully grown, these fish (and their warmer-water relative, the Patagonian toothfish, D. eleginoides) can grow to more than 1.7 m (5 ft 7 in) in length and 135 kg in weight, twice as large as the next-largest Antarctic fish. Being large, and consistent with the unstructured food webs of the ocean (i.e., big fish eat little fish regardless of identity, even eating their own offspring), the Antarctic toothfish has been characterized as a voracious predator. Furthermore, by being by far the largest midwater fish in the Southern Ocean, it is thought to fill the ecological role that sharks play in other oceans. Aiding in that role, the Antarctic toothfish is one of only five notothenioid species that, as adults, are neutrally buoyant. This buoyancy is attained at 100–120 cm in length and enables them to spend time above the bottom without expending extra energy. Both bottom-dwelling and mid-water prey are, therefore, available to them. Most other notothenioid fish and the majority of all Antarctic fishes, including smaller toothfish, are confined to the bottom. Coloring is black to olive brown, sometimes lighter on the undersides, with a mottled pattern on body and fins. Small fish blend in very well among the benthic sponges and corals. The species has a broad head, an elongated body, long dorsal and anal fins, large pectoral fins, and a rudder-like caudal fin. They typically move slowly, but are capable of speed bursts that can elude predatory seals.

Antarctic cods mainly eat fish and are the primary predator of fish in their habitat. They will also eat crustaceans and squid, however. Antarctic cods are preyed on by sperm whales and some species of seals and killer whales.


These fish are commercially fished and are sometimes marketed in the United States as Chilean sea bass. As of 2010, they were in danger of being over-fished. The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) put restrictions on fishing them. In addition, the environmental action group Greenpeace added them to its seafood red list.

In addition to being used for food, the Antarctic cod is also useful in medicine. Its heart has been studied in conjunction with cardiac medicines because of its slow beat. Beating only once every six seconds, the Antarctic cod’s heart might help researchers discover better ways to deal with hypothermia and surgeries in which the heart must be slowed.




Scientific Name: Engraulidae
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Clupeiformes
Family: Engraulidae

Subfamilies & Genera:

Name in Other Languages :

Afrikaans: Ansjovis
Albanian: lloj sardeleje
Armenian: Andzruk
Arabic: Albilm alanshufa
Azerbaijani: Hamsi
Bengali: Haring
Basque: Antxoa
Bulgarian: Anshoa
Catalan: Anxova
Chichewa: Anchovy
Chinese: Fèngwiyú
Czech: Sardel
Cebuano: Anchovy
Danish: Ansjos
Dutch: Ansjovis
Estonian: Anšoovi
Finnish: Sardelli
Filipino: Dulis
French: Anchois
Galician: Anchoas
German: Sardelle
Greek: Gávros
Hausa: Irin kifi
Haitian Creole: Anchwa
Hindi: Anchovy
Hmong: Me nyuam ntses
Hungarian: Szardella
Icelandic: Ansjósu
Igbo: Azu ankovi
Irish: Ainseabhaí
Italian: Acciuga
Indonesian: Ikan teri
Javanese: Teri
Japanese: Anchobi
Kazakh: Ançows
Khmer: Anchovy
Korean: Myeolchi
Latvian: Anšovs
Latin: Anchovy
Lao: Anchovy
Malayalam: Orinammatti
Mongolian: Anchous
Malagasy: Anchovy
Malay: Ikan bilis
Maori: Anchovy
Myanmar (Burmese): Aaan hkyao ngarr
Macedonian: Anšoa
Norwegian: Ansjos
Polish: Anchois
Portuguese: Anchova
Romanian: Hamsii
Serbian: Sardela
Sesotho: Anchovy
Somali: Kalluun
Swahili: Ansjovis
Slovak: Sardela
Slovenian: Sardoni
Spanish: Anchoa
Swedish: Ansjovis
Sinhala: Anchovy
Tamil: Nettili
Turkish: Hamsi
Ukrainian: Anchous
Uzbek: Anchous
Welsh: Ansiofi
Yiddish: Antshovi
Yoruba: Anchovy
Zulu: Anchovy

Habitat :
Anchovies are found in scattered areas throughout the world’s oceans, but are concentrated in temperate waters, and are rare or absent in very cold or very warm seas. They are generally very accepting of a wide range of temperatures and salinity. Large schools can be found in shallow, brackish areas with muddy bottoms, as in estuaries and bays. The European anchovy is abundant in the Mediterranean, particularly in the Alboran Sea,[6] Aegean Sea and the Black Sea.

This species is regularly caught along the coasts of Crete, Greece, Sicily, Italy, France, Turkey, Northern Iran,Portugal and Spain. They are also found on the coast of northern Africa. The range of the species also extends along the Atlantic coast of Europe to the south of Norway. Spawning occurs between October and March, but not in water colder than 12 °C (54 °F). The anchovy appears to spawn at least 100 km (62 mi) from the shore, near the surface of the water.

Anchovies are small, green fish with blue reflections due to a silver-colored longitudinal stripe that runs from the base of the caudal (tail) fin. They range from 2 to 40 cm (0.79 to 15.75 in) in adult length, and their body shapes are variable with more slender fish in northern populations.

The snout is blunt with tiny, sharp teeth in both jaws. The snout contains a unique rostral organ, believed to be sensory in nature, although its exact function is unknown.[5] The mouth is larger than that of herrings and silversides, two fish which anchovies closely resemble in other respects. The anchovy eats plankton and recently hatched fish.

The more than 140 species are placed in 17 genera; they are found in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, and in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Anchovies are usually classified as oily fish.

Anchovies, like most clupeoids (herrings, sardines and anchovies), are filter-feeders that open their mouths as they swim. As water passes through the mouth and out the gills, food particles are sieved by gill rakers and transferred into the esophagus.


Edible Uses:
Anchovy fish is edible and very tasty. CLICK & SEE
A traditional method of processing and preserving anchovies is to gut and salt them in brine, allow them to cure, and then pack them in oil or salt. This results in a characteristic strong flavor and the flesh turning a deep grey. Pickled in vinegar, as with Spanish boquerones, anchovies are milder and the flesh retains a white color. In Roman times, anchovies were the base for the fermented fish sauce garum. Garum had a sufficiently long shelf life for long-distance commerce, and was produced in industrial quantities. Anchovies were also eaten raw as an aphrodisiac.

Today, they are used in small quantities to flavor many dishes. Because of the strong flavor, they are also an ingredient in several sauces and condiments, including Worcestershire sauce, Caesar salad dressing, remoulade, Gentleman’s Relish, many fish sauces, and in some versions of Café de Paris butter. For domestic use, anchovy fillets are packed in oil or salt in small tins or jars, sometimes rolled around capers. Anchovy paste is also available. Fishermen also use anchovies as bait for larger fish, such as tuna and sea bass.

The strong taste people associate with anchovies is due to the curing process. Fresh anchovies, known in Italy as alici, have a much milder flavor. In Sweden and Finland, the name anchovies is related strongly to a traditional seasoning, hence the product “anchovies” is normally made of sprats[34] and herring can be sold as “anchovy-spiced”. Fish from the family Engraulidae are instead known as sardell in Sweden and sardelli in Finland, leading to confusion when translating recipes.

Nutritional Value:
*Sodium, Na 734 mg (48.93%)
*Vitamin B3 (Niacin) 3.981 mg (24.88%)
*Selenium, Se 13.6 µg (24.73%)
*Isoleucine 0.266 g (15.91%)
*Lysine 0.531 g (15.88%)
*Tryptophan 0.065 g (14.77%)
*Threonine 0.253 g (14.38%)
*Valine 0.298 g (14.11%)
*Histidine 0.17 g (13.80%)
*Leucine 0.47 g (12.72%)
*Iron, Fe 0.93 mg (11.63%)
*Protein 5.78 g (11.56%)

Health Benefits:
*Improves digestive health
*Anti-inflammatory effects
*Weight Loss
*Eye Health
*Prevents Toxicity
*Bone Health
*Skin Health
*Tissue and Cell Repair
*Heart Health

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.



American sole

Family: Achiridae
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Pleuronectiformes


Habitat & Description: American sole fish is a flatfish. It is found in temperate and tropical seas, with some species extending northward into the Arctic. Sizes range from about 100 mm (4 inches) to the large Atlantic halibut, which attains a length of more than 2 metres (nearly 7 feet) and a weight of about 325 kg (716 pounds). Most species are marine, but some spend all or part of their lives in fresh water. Flatfishes are found in depths up to 1,000 metres (3,300 feet), but most occur on the continental shelf in less than 200 metres (about 660 feet) of water.

Flatfishes lie on the bottom, generally covered by sand or mud, with only their eyes protruding. The eyes can be raised or lowered and moved independently. Flounders feed primarily on crustaceans, other bottom invertebrates, and small fish. When feeding they remain motionless until their prey ventures too close and then literally leap off the bottom in pursuit. Flatfishes in turn fall prey to a variety of large fish and cetaceans (such as whales and porpoises), but humans are the primary predator of many flatfishes.

The family includes about 35 species in seven genera. These are closely related to the soles (Soleidae), and have been classified as a subfamily of it, but achirids have a number of distinct characteristics.

Eyes are on the right side, and the eyed-side lower lip has a distinctive fleshy rim. The dorsal and anal fins are usually separate from the caudal fin. The pectoral fins are small or nonexistent. They are fairly small; only Achirus achirus is known to surpass 30 cm (1 ft) in length.

These fish, like other soles, have spineless fins. The dorsal fin typically extends along the fish’s entire body, from the tip of the head to the fused pectoral fin. The right side of the fish, where the eyes are located, may be olive green or brownish in color. These fish often have blotchy or irregular brown markings on an otherwise green body, and some species can control color changes in order to camouflage themselves. Narrow, vertical bands typically cross the right side of the American sole’s body, while the left or underside is often white or pale in color.


Edible Uses:This fish is edible, it has good protin & fat , but eating toomuch and regularly may not good.

*High Risk of Contamination
*Overfished and Unsustainable
*Low in Heart-Healthy Fats
*Much Better Options Available

American sole are not fished commercially, though many people consider them good to eat. They typically feed on small aquatic creatures, including worms, shrimp, and small fish. They can usually be kept as pets, if nourished on a live diet similar to that eaten by American soles in the wild.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only.