Category Archives: Fish

Tuna Fish

Family: Scombridae
Subfamily: Scombrinae
Tribe: Thunnini
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Scombriformes

Habitat: Tuna fish are found in all sorts of habitats (places), including coastal estuaries, lakes, wetlands, rivers, mountain streams and even alpine tarns.

For both long- and shortfins, places to hide (cover) during daylight are very important – water weed, tree roots, undercut banks, and debris piles are all suitable types of cover. They are able to squeeze into very small spaces and dig down into the mud.

Description:
A tuna is a saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family (Scombridae). Thunnini comprises fifteen species across five genera, the sizes of which vary greatly, ranging from the bullet tuna (max. length: 50 cm (1.6 ft), weight: 1.8 kg (4 lb)) up to the Atlantic bluefin tuna (max. length: 4.6 m (15 ft), weight: 684 kg (1,508 lb)). The bluefin averages 2 m (6.6 ft), and is believed to live for up to 50 years.

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Tuna, Opah, mackerel sharks are the only species of fish that can maintain a body temperature higher than that of the surrounding water. An active and agile predator, the tuna has a sleek, streamlined body, and is among the fastest-swimming pelagic fish – the yellowfin tuna for example, is capable of speeds of up to 75 km/h (47 mph). Found in warm seas, it is extensively fished commercially, and is popular as a game fish. As a result of overfishing, stocks of some tuna species, such as the southern bluefin tuna, are close to extinction.

Nutritional Value of Tuna Fish:
The health benefits of tuna fish can be attributed to the impressive content of vitamins, minerals, and organic compounds found in this delicious fish. [1] These include antioxidants and protein, without much-saturated fat or sodium. It also has impressive levels of selenium, phosphorous, iron, magnesium, and potassium. In terms of vitamins, there is a wealth of vitamin B12 and niacin, as well as a good amount of vitamin B6 and riboflavin.

Health Benefits of Tuna Fish

Heart Health:
Perhaps the most common health benefit that is attributed to tuna fish is its significant impact on heart health.  In terms of reducing coronary heart diseases, tuna fish has high levels of omega-3 fatty acids, which help reduce omega-6 fatty acids and LDL or bad cholesterol in the arteries and blood vessels. Furthermore, it often replaces foods with high saturated fat content, further lowering the risk of heart diseases.

Blood Pressure:
The anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids can help reduce blood pressure. [3] Potassium, found in tuna, is a vasodilator and is very good for lowering blood pressure. Reducing hypertension can significantly boost your health by lowering the strain on your cardiovascular system. This will help prevent heart attacks and strokes, as well as conditions like atherosclerosis.

Eye Care:
Tuna fish, being rich in omega-3 fatty acids, is a great option for preventing eye disorders like age-related macular degeneration. [4] This disease is the major reason behind the occurrence of blindness in the elderly people. The blindness is also caused due to diabetic complications and tuna can help in reducing the chances of diabetic retinopathy.

Growth and Development:
Tuna fish is packed with high levels of protein. [5] A single serving of only 165 grams (approximately 1 can of tuna fish) contains more than 80% of your daily protein requirement. Proteins are the building blocks of our body that guarantee growth, faster recovery from wounds and illnesses, improved muscle tone, and overall metabolic efficiency.

Weight Loss:
Tuna fish is low in calories and fat, yet loaded with beneficial nutrients like protein. The omega-3 fatty acids found in tuna stimulate a hormone called leptin, which balances the body’s food intake with the internal desire to eat more. [6] This can reduce overeating and make sure that your body is only consuming what it actually needs.

Boosted Immune System:
Tuna contains a good amount of vitamin C, zinc, and manganese, all of which are considered antioxidant in nature. Antioxidants are one of the body’s defense mechanisms against free radicals, the harmful by-products of cellular metabolism that cause cancer and other chronic diseases.  However, the real champion of tuna’s immune system-boosting potential is selenium. Tuna fish is rich in this mineral, giving nearly 200% of the daily requirement in a single serving. This makes the fish a very powerful antioxidant and immune-boosting food.

Energy Levels:
The B complex vitamins in tuna have been connected with a wide range of health aspects. [8] They are mainly involved in boosting the metabolism, increasing the efficiency of organs, protecting the skin, and increasing energy levels. By consuming tuna fish regularly, you can ensure that you are active, energetic, and healthy.

Blood Circulation:
Tuna is a rich source of iron, along with the B-complex vitamins that play an important role in red blood cell formation. [9] Without iron, people become anemic and their blood is unable to oxygenate the vital organs that need fresh oxygen to function efficiently.

Cancer Prevention:
Tuna fish has antioxidant properties, thanks to selenium and other nutrients, making it effective at preventing some types of cancer. [10] Numerous studies have connected tuna to a reduction in the occurrence of breast and kidney cancer. Selenium is a powerful antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals before they can cause a mutation in healthy cells, thereby turning them into cancer cells. Other promising results have also shown a reduction in colon cancer, thanks to the high levels of omega-3 fatty acid in the fish.

Kidney Diseases:
The potassium and sodium content in tuna is well-balanced, which helps manage the fluid balance in the body. When your body maintains a fluid balance, the kidneys function properly, thereby lowering the chances of developing serious kidney conditions.

Reduced Inflammation:
Tuna fish can keep the body’s overall stress levels down by reducing inflammation, thanks to the anti-inflammatory vitamins and minerals. [11] A reduction in inflammation across the body ensures an enhanced functioning of all organs. It also helps prevent inflammatory diseases like arthritis and gout, both of which afflict millions of people around the world.

Cell Membrane Damage:
When tuna fish is cooked, the proteins in tuna begin to break down into fragments, called peptides. These fragments can actually be powerful antioxidants that specifically target cell membranes, keeping them healthy, strong, and functioning properly. [12] Free radicals often attack membranes throughout the body, including those in the brain, so eating cooked tuna and improving the membrane protection is a very good idea!

Mercury and Selenium Balance:
Consuming any fish, or for that matter, tuna, above a certain limit can bring the mercury level in our body at an unhealthy point. Studies have shown that there is a unique form of selenium, called selenoneine. This actually binds to mercury and acts as an antioxidant, slightly changing the composition of mercury to make it less dangerous. However, studies are still ongoing to completely validate this.

Depression:
Intake of tuna fish is good for relieving depression. Findings of a research study suggest that fish consumption may be beneficial for women’s mental health. [14] It can also reduce depression levels in women.

Tips for Enjoying Tuna Fish

The taste of tuna fish makes it perfect for eating as a tuna steak, as a spread with mayonnaise on crackers or bread, in tuna salad and burger, or any of the other varieties. [15] It is versatile, delicious, inexpensive, and very good for health.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuna

13 Amazing Benefits of Tuna Fish


https://www.niwa.co.nz/te-k%C5%ABwaha/tuna-information-resource/biology-and-ecology/habitat

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Cat fish

Binomical Name:  Siluriformes or Nematognathi

Kingdom:: Animalia

Phylum:    Chordata

Class:   Actinopterygii

Superorder:  Ostariophysi

Order:   Siluriformes

Habitat:

Extant catfish species live inland or in coastal waters of every continent except Antarctica. Catfish have inhabited all continents at one time or another.  Catfish are most diverse in tropical South America, Asia and Africa with one family native to North America and one family in Europe.  More than half of all catfish species live in the Americas. They are the only ostariophysans that have entered freshwater habitats in Madagascar, Australia, and New Guinea.

They are found in freshwater environments, though most inhabit shallow, running water.  Representatives of at least eight families are hypogean (live underground) with three families that are also troglobitic (inhabiting caves).  One such species is Phreatobius cisternarum, known to live underground in phreatic habitats.  Numerous species from the families Ariidae and Plotosidae, and a few species from among the Aspredinidae and Bagridae, are found in salt water.

In the Southern United States, catfish species may be known by a variety of slang names, such as “mud cat”, “polliwogs”, or “chuckleheads”.  These nicknames are not standardized, so one area may call a bullhead catfish by the nickname “chucklehead”, while in another state or region, that nickname refers to the blue catfish.

Description:

Catfishs  are a diverse group of ray-finned fish. Named for their prominent barbels, which resemble a cat’s whiskers, catfish range in size and behavior from the three largest species, the Mekong giant catfish from Southeast Asia, the wels catfish of Eurasia and the piraíba of South America, to detritivores (species that eat dead material on the bottom), and even to a tiny parasitic species commonly called the candiru, Vandellia cirrhosa. There are armour-plated types and there are also naked types, neither having scales. Despite their name, not all catfish have prominent barbels. Members of the Siluriformes order are defined by features of the skull and swimbladder. Catfish are of considerable commercial importance; many of the larger species are farmed or fished for food. Many of the smaller species, particularly the genus Corydoras, are important in the aquarium hobby. Many catfish are nocturnal,but others (many Auchenipteridae) are crepuscular or diurnal (most Loricariidae or Callichthyidae, for example).

Catfish have one of the greatest ranges in size within a single order of bony fish.   Many catfish have a maximum length of under 12 cm.  Some of the smallest species of Aspredinidae and Trichomycteridae reach sexual maturity at only 1 centimetre (0.39 in).

The wels catfishSilurus glanis, and the much smaller related Aristotle’s catfish are the only catfish indigenous to Europe: the former ranging throughout Europe, and the latter restricted to GreeceMythology and literature record wels catfish of astounding proportions, yet to be proven scientifically. The average size of the species is about 1.2–1.6 m (3.9–5.2 ft), and fish more than 2 metres (6.6 ft) are rare. However, they are known to exceed 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) in length and 100 kilograms (220 lb) in weight. In July 2009, a catfish weighing 88 kilograms (194 lb) was caught in the River Ebro, Spain, by an 11-year-old British schoolgirl.

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In North America the largest Ictalurus furcatus (Blue catfish) caught in the Missouri River on 20 July 2010, weighed 59 kilograms (130 lb). The largest flathead catfishPylodictis olivaris, ever caught was in Independence, Kansas, weighing 56 kilograms (123 lb).

These records pale in comparison to a giant Mekong catfish caught in northern Thailand on 1 May 2005 and reported to the press almost 2 months later that weighed 293 kilograms (646 lb). This is the largest giant Mekong catfish caught since Thai officials started keeping records in 1981.[26] This species is not well studied since it lives in developing countries and it is quite possible it can grow even larger.[citation needed] Also in Asia, Jeremy Wade caught a 75.5 kilograms (166.4 lb) Goonch following three fatal attacks on humans in the Kali River on the IndiaNepal border. Wade was of the opinion that the offending fish must have been significantly larger than this to have taken an 18-year-old boy as well as a water buffalo.

Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum) can grow exceptionally large and are native to the Amazon basin. They can occasionally grow to 400 lbs, as evidenced by numerous catches.

In many catfish, the humeral process is a bony process extending backward from the pectoral girdle immediately above the base of the pectoral fin. It lies beneath the skin where its outline may be determined by dissecting the skin or probing with a needle.

The retina of catfish are composed of single cones and large rods. Many catfish have a tapetum lucidum which may help enhance photon capture and increase low-light sensitivity. Double cones, though present in most teleosts, are absent from catfish.

The anatomical organization of the testis in catfish is variable among the families of catfish, but the majority of them present fringed testis: Ictaluridae, Claridae, Auchenipteridae, Doradidae, Pimelodidae, and Pseudopimelodidae.   In the testes of some species of Siluriformes, organs and structures such as a spermatogenic cranial region and a secretory caudal region are observed, in addition to the presence of seminal vesicles in the caudal region.[30] The total number of fringes and their length are different in the caudal and cranial portions between species.   Fringes of the caudal region may present tubules, in which the lumen is filled by secretion and spermatozoa.  Spermatocysts are formed from cytoplasmic extensions of Sertoli cells; the release of spermatozoa is allowed by breaking of the cyst walls.[29]

The occurrence of seminal vesicles, in spite of their interspecific variability in size, gross morphology and function, has not been related to the mode of fertilization. They are typically paired, multi-chambered, and connected with the sperm duct, and have been reported to play a glandular and a storage function. Seminal vesicle secretion may include steroids and steroid glucuronides, with hormonal and pheromonal functions, but it appears to be primarily constituted of mucoproteins, acid mucopolysaccharides, and phospholipids.

Fish ovaries may be of two types: gymnovarian or cystovarian. In the first type, the oocytes are released directly into the coelomic cavity and then eliminated. In the second type, the oocytes are conveyed to the exterior through the oviduct.   Many catfish are cystovarian in type, including Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, P. fasciatum, Lophiosilurus alexandri, and Loricaria lentiginos

Edible Uses:

Cat fish as Food :

Catfish have widely been caught and farmed for food for hundreds of years in Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America. Judgments as to the quality and flavor vary, with some food critics considering catfish excellent to eat, while others dismiss them as watery and lacking in flavor.[42] Catfish is high in vitamin D.[43] Farm-raised catfish contains low levels of omega-3 fatty acids and a much higher proportion of omega-6 fatty acids.

In Central Europe, catfish were often viewed as a delicacy to be enjoyed on feast days and holidays. Migrants from Europe and Africa to the United States brought along this tradition, and in the Southern United States, catfish is an extremely popular food.

The most commonly eaten species in the United States are the channel catfish and the blue catfish, both of which are common in the wild and increasingly widely farmed. Farm-raised catfish became such a staple of the diet of the United States that on 25 June 1987, President Ronald Reagan established National Catfish Day to recognize “the value of farm-raised catfish.”

Catfish is eaten in a variety of ways. In Europe it is often cooked in similar ways to carp, but in the United States it is popularly crumbed with cornmeal and fried.

Catfish have widely been caught and farmed for food for hundreds of years in Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America. Judgments as to the quality and flavor vary, with some food critics considering catfish excellent to eat, while others dismiss them as watery and lacking in flavor. Catfish is high in vitamin D.   Farm-raised catfish contains low levels of omega-3 fatty acids and a much higher proportion of omega-6 fatty acids.

In Central Europe, catfish were often viewed as a delicacy to be enjoyed on feast days and holidays. Migrants from Europe and Africa to the United States brought along this tradition, and in the Southern United States, catfish is an extremely popular food.

The most commonly eaten species in the United States are the channel catfish and the blue catfish, both of which are common in the wild and increasingly widely farmed. Farm-raised catfish became such a staple of the diet of the United States that on 25 June 1987, President Ronald Reagan established National Catfish Day to recognize “the value of farm-raised catfish.”

Catfish is eaten in a variety of ways. In Europe it is often cooked in similar ways to carp, but in the United States it is popularly crumbed with cornmeal and fried.

Health Benefits of Catfish:

Many people enjoy the flavor of catfish, but it offers a variety of health benefits as well. Including the nutritious fish in your diet helps you meet your protein needs and boosts your intake of vitamins and healthy fats and fatty acids. Consider catfish regularly in your meal planning.

Low in Calories and Fat

A 3-oz. serving of catfish introduces 122 calories and 6.1 g of fat into your diet. The low amount of calories in this fish make it a popular choice for a healthy meal plan – women generally require approximately 300 to 500 calories per meal, and men need around 400 to 600 calories, so it fits in well and allows you to serve several healthy side dishes with it. The fat content is also relatively low, and little of it is saturated fat — 2 g. Avoid consuming more than 16 to 22 g of saturated fat per day; too much in your diet can trigger health problems.

Contains Healthy Fatty Acids

Eating catfish is a tasty way to boost your intake of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. One serving of this fish provides 220 mg of omega-3 fatty acids and 875 mg of omega-6. You will not find federal guidelines on the consumption of these fatty acids, although the American Heart Association suggests including fish in your diet several times each week to increase the amount of fatty acids you eat. Both of these nutrients play a part in heart and cognitive health.

Provides Complete Protein

The 15.6 g of protein in a serving of catfish provides you with all of the amino acids your body needs. This high-quality, complete protein helps your body build lean muscle mass, and it also helps improve the effectiveness of your immune function. You may also rely on protein to provide energy, especially if your body has used all of the carbohydrates you have eaten for fuel.

Source of Vitamin B-12

Consume a serving of catfish, and you take in 40 percent of the daily recommended intake of vitamin B-12. As a B vitamin, the vitamin B-12 in catfish is critical to aiding your body in the breakdown of the foods you eat into usable energy, but this vitamin has other functions as well. Without enough vitamin B-12 in your diet, your nerve function suffers, and you might become lethargic.

Low in Mercury

Almost all fish contains mercury, a contaminant that may impact your nervous system, but you may safely eat catfish unless the waters in which it is caught are particularly high in mercury. The Environmental Protection Agency lists catfish as one of the mostly commonly consumed, low-mercury fish. Despite this, limiting your consumption of fish to 12 oz. per week is recommended to decrease your exposure. This is especially important if you are pregnant, since high levels of mercury may harm your fetus.

Medicinal Uses:

Venomous Persian Gulf catfish excrete a gel-like slime that dramatically speeds the healing of cuts and might spur development of a new preparation to treat wounded humans, a UC Davis researcher believes.

Economic Importance:

Catfish are easy to farm in warm climates, leading to inexpensive and safe food at local grocers. About 60% of U.S. farm-raised catfish are grown within a 65-mile (100-km) radius of Belzoni, Mississippi.

Catfish raised in inland tanks or channels are considered safe for the environment, since their waste and disease should be contained and not spread to the wild.

In Asia, many catfish species are important as food. Several walking catfish (Clariidae) and shark catfish (Pangasiidae) species are heavily cultured in Africa and Asia. Exports of one particular shark catfish species from Vietnam, Pangasius bocourti, has met with pressures from the U.S. catfish industry. In 2003, The United States Congress passed a law preventing the imported fish from being labeled as catfish.[40] As a result, the Vietnamese exporters of this fish now label their products sold in the U.S. as “basa fish.” Trader Joe’s has labeled frozen fillets of Vietnamese Pangasius hypophthalmus as “striper.”

There is a large and growing ornamental fish trade, with hundreds of species of catfish, such as Corydoras and armored suckermouth catfish (often called plecos), being a popular component of many aquaria. Other catfish commonly found in the aquarium trade are banjo catfish, talking catfish, and long-whiskered catfish.

Known Hazards:
A sting from the striped eel catfish, Plotosus lineatus, may be fatal.
While the vast majority of catfish are harmless to humans, a few species are known to present some risk. Many catfish species have “stings” (actually non-venomous in most cases) embedded behind their fins; thus precautions must be taken when handling them.

Resources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catfish

https://www.livestrong.com/article/445658-health-benefits-of-catfish/

http://articles.latimes.com/1988-01-18/local/me-24500_1_saltwater-catfish

Catla Fish


Botanical Name: Catla catla
Family: Cyprinidae
Genus: Catla
Valenciennes, 1844
Species: C. catla
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cypriniformes

Synonyms:
*Gibelion catla
*Cyprinus catla

Common Names: Catla, Bahu, Bhokua, or Baudhekera.

Description:
Catla fish known as the major (Indian) carp, is an economically important South Asian freshwater fish in the carp family Cyprinidae. It is commonly found in rivers and lakes in northern India, Nepal, Myanmar, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. In Assam.

Catla is a fish with large and broad head, a large protruding lower jaw, and upturned mouth. It has large, greyish scales on its dorsal side and whitish on its belly.

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Catla is a surface and midwater feeder. Adults feed on zooplankton, but young ones on both zooplankton and phytoplankton. Catla attains sexual maturity at an average age of two years and an average weight of 2 kg.
Aquaculture:
It is one of the most important aquacultured freshwater species in South Asia. It is grown in polyculture ponds with other carp-like fishes, particularly with the roho labeo and mrigal carp. The reported production numbers have increased sharply during the 2000s, and were in 2012 about 2.8 million tonnes per year.

Catla is sold and consumed fresh, locally and regionally. It is transported on ice. Fish of 1–2 kg weight are preferred by the consumers.

Food value & Health benefits :

Research has shown that eating fish and shellfish regularly is beneficial to our bodies in many ways; here are ten great reasons to introduce a little more seafood into your diet.

1. Great for your heart:

It’s no coincidence that fish-eating Inuit populations in the Arctic have low levels of heart disease; seafood is low in saturated fat and high in omega-3, (which can both) protect the heart from disease and lower the amount of cholesterol in the blood. One study has even suggested that an extra portion of fish every week can cut risk of heart disease in half.

2. Clearing the vessels

Eating fish can improve your circulation and reduce the risk of thrombosis. The EPA and DHA – omega-3 oils – in seafood can save your body from having to produce eicosanoids, a hormone-like substance which can make you more likely to suffer from blood clots and inflammation.

3. Joint benefits:

Eating fish as a regular part of a balanced diet has been shown to ease the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, a condition which causes the joins to swell up. Recent research has also found a link between omega-3 fats and osteoarthritis, suggesting that eating more seafood could help to prevent the disease.
4. The eyes have it:

Eating oil-rich fish regularly can help to keep the eyes bright and healthy. A recent study has suggested that omega-3 fatty acids can help to protect the eyesight of those suffering from age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a condition which causes the retina to degenerate and the eyesight to become blurred. Fish and shellfish also contain retinol, a form of vitamin A which boosts night vision.

5. Essential nutrients:

Seafood provides the body with many essential nutrients which keep us running smoothly, including iodine, selenium, zinc and potassium. Iodine is important for the thyroid gland, and selenium makes enzymes which can help to protect us from cancer. Fish and shellfish are also excellent sources of many vitamins, including vitamins A and D.

6. Take a deep breath:

A number of studies have indicated that fish and shellfish may help to protect our lungs. Not only can seafood relieve the symptoms of asthma in children, but it has shown signs of preventing it. Eating a lot of fish can also keep your lungs stronger and healthier as you age in comparison to those who don’t eat a lot of fish.

7. Brighten your outlook:

Seafood may also play a large part in preventing depression; research has highlighted links between low omega-3 levels and a higher risk of depression. Seafood could also help us to avoid Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and post-natal depression.

8. Your skin looks great:

Not only does omega-3 help to protect the skin from the harmful effects of the UV damage, but eating lots of fish can also help with the symptoms of skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. Fish is also a great source of protein, which is an essential ingredient of collagen, a substance which keeps the skin firm and flexible.

9. Good for down below:

Evidence suggests that a diet rich in fish oils can help to protect us against serious inflammatory bowel diseases (BD) including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. There is also evidence to suggest that omega-3 could help to slow the progression of inflammatory bowel disease in some sufferers.

10. Boost your brainpower:

The human brain is almost 60% fat, with much of this being omega-3 fat. Probably for this reason, research has indicated that people who eat plenty of seafood are less likely to suffer dementia and memory problems in later life. DHA, an omega-3 fat found in seafood, has also been linked to improvements in children’s concentration, reading skills, behaviour, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catla
http://sunsamayal.com/samayal/index.php/en/??????/health-benefits-and-minerals/2069-catla-fish-health-benefits-and-nutrition-facts.html

Rohu or Rui

Botanical Name: Labeo rohita
Family: Cyprinidae
Genus: Labeo
Species: L. rohita
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cypriniformes

Common Names: , Rui, or Roho labeo, Rohu

Description:
Thev Rohu is a species of fish of the carp family, found in rivers in South Asia. It is a large omnivore and extensively used in aquaculture. It is a large, silver-coloured fish of typical cyprinid shape, with a conspicuously arched head. Adults can reach a length of up to 2 m (6.6 ft) and a weight of up to 45 kg (99 lb).This fish is available throughout northern and central India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Myanmar and Pakistan, and has been introduced into some of the rivers of peninsular India and Sri Lanka. It inhabits the freshwater section of rivers to a depth of ~550 m.

Rohu reach sexual maturity between two and five years of age. They generally spawn during the monsoon season, keeping to the middle of flooded rivers above tidal reach. The spawning season of rohu generally coincides with the southwest monsoon. Spawn may be collected from rivers and reared in tanks and lakes.

As Food:
Rohu is very commonly eaten in Bangladesh ; Pakistan, Sri Lanka and the Indian states of Tripura, Bihar, Odisha, Assam, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.[citation needed] A recipe for fried Rohu fish is mentioned in Manasollasa, a 12th century Sanskrit encyclopedia compiled by Someshvara III, who ruled from present-day Karnataka. In this recipe, the fish is marinated in asafoetida and salt after being skinned. It is then dipped in turmeric mixed in water before being fried.

The Maithil Brahmins and the Kayastha community of Mithila region of India and Nepal treats it as one of their most sacred foods, to be eaten on all auspicious occasions. Rohu is the most commonly used fish in Pakistan and is usually eaten fried, or in a sauce with spices.

The roe of rohu is also considered a delicacy in Bhojpur, Andhra Pradesh, Nepalis Oriyas and Bengalis. It is deep fried and served hot as an appetizer as part of a Bihari, Oriya and Bengali meal. It is also stuffed inside a pointed gourd to make potoler dolma which is considered a delicacy. Rohu is also served deep fried in mustard oil, as kalia, which is a rich gravy made of a concoction of spices and deeply browned onions and tok, where the fish is cooked in a tangy sauce made of tamarind and mustard. Rohu is also very popular in northern India and Pakistan, as in the province of Punjab. In Lahore it is a speciality of Lahori cuisine in “Lahori fried fish” where it is prepared with batter and spices. It is also a very popular food fish in Iraq.

Health Benefits:
Rohu fish is as beneficial as eating other fishes such as mackerel, salmon or tuna. Here are some of the health benefits of eating rohu fish.

Vitamin C:
Rohu is a river fish. It is considered to be a rich source of vitamin C, which is essential for maintaining a good health. It keeps diseases like cold and cough at bay and prevents other diseases related to it.

Mineral source:
Iron, zinc, iodine, potassium, calcium and selenium are just a few names. The list consists of many more such essential minerals that are found in fish. The quantity may vary from one variety to another but the fact cannot be denied that fish is a rich source of minerals required by the body.
Protein rich:
This Fish protein is one of the best forms of protein available. It is said that sea fish has a greater content of protein. But the river fishes are not far behind. Living inland where river fish like rohu and katla are more common, it is always a good idea to bank upon the fish protein as much as possible. Be it a child or an adult, this protein is needed for growth and good health of tissues.

Low fat:
Rohu is rich in protein but low in fat – what could be better than this? When you get benefits without piling up layers of fat, you know you have the ideal dish.

Heart friendly:
Omega 3 fatty acid is known for being heart friendly. We hear cooking oils being advertised of its content of Omega 3 fatty acids, but it is a fact that the best natural source of this is none other than the fish. So, that’s one of the reasons one should start eating rohu fish today.

Brain booster :
Fish and brains are always mentioned together. Eating fish benefits the entire body, including the brain. A fish eater is seen to have better memorising and analysing skills along with fewer occasions of mood swings.
Cancer chaser :
One deadly disease that is affecting people across the world is cancer. Be it any form, the mere name of cancer is heart wrenching. Antioxidants in fish are believed to be helpful in fighting cancer to a great extent. It could be river fish or sea fish but the idea is to have more of it.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rohu
http://www.boldsky.com/health/nutrition/2014/health-benefits-of-rohu-fish-carp-fish/cancer-chaser-pf67831-049909.html

Hilsa fish

Botanical Name: Tenualosa ilisha
Family: Clupeidae
Subfamily:Alosinae
Genus: Tenualosa
Species: T. ilisha
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Clupeiformes

Synonyms:
*Clupanodon ilisha Hamilton, 1822
*Clupea ilisha (Hamilton, 1822)
*Hilsa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822)
*Macrura ilisha (Hamilton, 1822)
*Tenualosa illisha (Hamilton, 1822)
*Tenualosa illsha (Hamilton, 1822)
*Clupea palasah Cuvier, 1829

Common Names: ilish, hilsa, hilsa herring or hilsa shad

Other Names: Ellis, palla fish, hilsha etc. Bengali: ilish, Gujarati: Modar or Palva, Odia: Sindh?: pallu machhi, Telugu: pulasa or polasa : Tamil – ‘Ullam’. The ilish word is also used in India’s Assamese, Bengali-, Odia- and Telugu-speaking regions and in Pakistan’s Sindh province. In Iraq it is Called Sboor In Malaysia and Indonesia, it is commonly known as terubuk. Due to its unique features of oily and tender, some Malays call it TERUBUK UMNO.
Description:
Hilsa fish is a species of fish in the herring family (Clupeidae), and a popular food fish in South Asia. The fish contributes about 12% of the total fish production and about 1% of GDP in Bangladesh. About 450,000 people are directly involved with the catching for livelihood; around four to five million people are indirectly involved with the trade. It is also the national fish of Bangladesh.

The fish is marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; anadromous; depth range ? – 200 m. Within a tropical range; 34°N – 5°N, 42°E – 97°E in marine and freshwater. It can grow up to 60 cm in length with weights of up to 3 kg. It is found in rivers and estuaries in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Burma and the Persian Gulf area where it can be found in the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in and around Iran and Iraq. It has no dorsal spines but 18 – 21 dorsal soft rays and anal soft rays. The belly has 30 to 33 scutes. There is a distinct median notch in upper jaw. Gill rakers fine and numerous, about 100 to 250 on lower part of arch and the fins are hyaline. The fish shows a dark blotch behind gill opening, followed by a series of small spots along the flank in juveniles. Color in life, silver shot with gold and purple. The species filter feeds on plankton and by grubbing muddy bottoms. The fish schools in coastal waters and ascends up the rivers (anadromous) for around 50 – 100 km to spawn during the South West monsoons (June to September) and also in January to April . April is the most fertile month for breeding of ilish. The young fish returning to the sea are known in Bangladesh as jatka, which includes any ilish fish up to 9 inches long.

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As food:
The fish is popular food amongst the people of South Asia and in the Middle East, but especially with Bengalis. It is the national fish of Bangladesh. Bengali fish curry is a popular dish made with mustard oil or seed. It is also popular in India, especially West Bengal, Odisha, Tripura, Assam, Andhra Pradesh and Southern Gujarat and in Mizoram and it is also exported globally.

In North America (where ilish is not always readily available) other shad fish are sometimes used as an ilish substitute, especially in Bengali cuisine. This typically occurs near the East coast of North America, where fresh shad fish having similar taste can be found.

In Bangladesh, fish are caught in the Padma-Meghna-Jamuna delta, which flows into the Bay of Bengal and Meghna (lower Brahmaputra), and Jamuna rivers. In India, the Rupnarayan (which has the Kolaghater Ilish), Ganges, Mahanadi, Chilka Lake, Narmada and Godavari rivers are also famous. In Pakistan, fish are caught in the Indus River. They are also caught in the sea, but some consider the marine stage of the fish as not so tasty. The fish has very sharp and tough bones, making it problematic to eat for some.

Ilish is an oily fish rich in omega 3 fatty acids. Recent experiments have shown its beneficial effects in decreasing cholesterol level in rats [9] and insulin level.

In Bengal, ilish can be smoked, fried, steamed, baked in young plantain leaves, prepared with mustard seed paste, curd, begun (eggplant), different condiments like jira(cumin) and so on. It is said that people can cook ilish in more than 50 ways. Ilish roe is also popular as a side dish. Ilish can be cooked in very little oil since the fish itself is very oily.
Food Value:
All figures below are expressed per 100g edible portion.

ENENGY:
Energy (Calories)……262 Kcals/Calories
Energy (Kilojoules)…..1088 KJ
Water…………….53.7 g
Nitrogen……..3.49 g
Protein………21.8 g
Fat……………19.4 g
Carbohydrates…….0.0 g
Starch……….0.0 g
Sugar…………0.0 g
Fibre………….0.0 g

Health benefits :

Research has shown that eating fish and shellfish regularly is beneficial to our bodies in many ways; here are ten great reasons to introduce a little more seafood into your diet.

1. Great for your heart

It’s no coincidence that fish-eating Inuit populations in the Arctic have low levels of heart disease; seafood is low in saturated fat and high in omega-3, (which can both) protect the heart from disease and lower the amount of cholesterol in the blood. One study has even suggested that an extra portion of fish every week can cut risk of heart disease in half.

2. Clearing the vessels

Eating fish can improve your circulation and reduce the risk of thrombosis. The EPA and DHA – omega-3 oils – in seafood can save your body from having to produce eicosanoids, a hormone-like substance which can make you more likely to suffer from blood clots and inflammation.

3. Joint benefits:

Eating fish as a regular part of a balanced diet has been shown to ease the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, a condition which causes the joins to swell up. Recent research has also found a link between omega-3 fats and osteoarthritis, suggesting that eating more seafood could help to prevent the disease.

4. The eyes have it:

Eating oil-rich fish regularly can help to keep the eyes bright and healthy. A recent study has suggested that omega-3 fatty acids can help to protect the eyesight of those suffering from age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a condition which causes the retina to degenerate and the eyesight to become blurred. Fish and shellfish also contain retinol, a form of vitamin A which boosts night vision.

5. Essential nutrients:

Seafood provides the body with many essential nutrients which keep us running smoothly, including iodine, selenium, zinc and potassium. Iodine is important for the thyroid gland, and selenium makes enzymes which can help to protect us from cancer. Fish and shellfish are also excellent sources of many vitamins, including vitamins A and D.

6. Take a deep breath:

A number of studies have indicated that fish and shellfish may help to protect our lungs. Not only can seafood relieve the symptoms of asthma in children, but it has shown signs of preventing it. Eating a lot of fish can also keep your lungs stronger and healthier as you age in comparison to those who don’t eat a lot of fish.

7. Brighten your outlook:

Seafood may also play a large part in preventing depression; research has highlighted links between low omega-3 levels and a higher risk of depression. Seafood could also help us to avoid Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and post-natal depression.

8. Your skin looks great:

Not only does omega-3 help to protect the skin from the harmful effects of the UV damage, but eating lots of fish can also help with the symptoms of skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. Fish is also a great source of protein, which is an essential ingredient of collagen, a substance which keeps the skin firm and flexible.

9. Good for down below:

Evidence suggests that a diet rich in fish oils can help to protect us against serious inflammatory bowel diseases (BD) including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. There is also evidence to suggest that omega-3 could help to slow the progression of inflammatory bowel disease in some sufferers.

10. Boost your brainpower:

The human brain is almost 60% fat, with much of this being omega-3 fat. Probably for this reason, research has indicated that people who eat plenty of seafood are less likely to suffer dementia and memory problems in later life. DHA, an omega-3 fat found in seafood, has also been linked to improvements in children’s concentration, reading skills, behaviour, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ilish
http://sunsamayal.com/samayal/index.php/en/??????/health-benefits-and-minerals/2084-hilsa-fish-health-benefits-and-nutrition-facts.html