Blue cod

Binomial name: Parapercis colias
Family: Pinguipedidae
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Trachiniformes
Genus: Parapercis
Species: P. colias

Enchelyopus colias Forster, 1801

Common Names: Blue cod,Boston blue cod, New Zealand cod, Sand perch and patutuki

Habitat:Blue cod is exclusively found in New Zealand in shallow waters around the rocky coasts to a depth of 150 m, though it is far more common south of Cook Strait.

Blue cod is bluish green to blue-black above with white toward the belly. Large examples are usually greenish blue in colour, while smaller ones are blotched in varying shades of brown. An adult may grow to 60 cm in length and weigh from 1.0 to 3.0 kg. It feeds mainly on small fish and crabs. Blue cod is territorial. Spawning takes place in southern spring. Blue cod can also change sex from female to male.

Blue cod are caught mainly in winter (from April to September) around southern New Zealand and the Chatham Islands.  They are also found in the Marlborough Sounds, Cook Strait, and off  Wanganui.  Most are caught in cod pots.

It is an important recreational species in the South Island and is commercially harvested. Blue cod populations are managed under New Zealand’s fisheries quota management system, although are becoming scarce in some small areas due to fishing pressure. Annual catch range is between 2,000 and 2,500 tonnes.


Nutrient Content:
Cod contains several important nutrients your body needs.

The nutrition information listed below pertains to Atlantic and Pacific cod. Keep in mind that the exact nutrient content of fish labeled “cod” can vary, as some may be different species entirely.

High in Lean Protein:
Cod is high in protein but low in calories, fat, and carbs.

A 3-ounce (85-gram) serving of cooked Atlantic cod has only 90 calories and around 1 gram of fat. However, it is packed with 19 grams of protein (3Trusted Source).

Similarly, the same serving size of cooked Pacific cod provides about 85 calories, less than 1 gram of fat, and 20 grams of protein.

A Good Source of Some B Vitamins:
B vitamins have many essential functions in your body, including metabolizing nutrients and releasing energy from food (4Trusted Source).

Both Atlantic and Pacific cod are good sources of several B vitamins.

One 3-ounce (85-gram) serving of cooked cod provides over 30% of the Reference Daily Intake (RDI) for vitamin B12 for adults.

In addition to other vital functions, vitamin B12 helps form red blood cells and DNA .

What’s more, these fish are good sources of vitamin B6 and niacin — both of which are necessary for hundreds of significant chemical reactions in our body

Rich in Phosphorus and Selenium:
In addition to its vitamin content, cod provides several important minerals, including phosphorus and selenium.

Phosphorus is a critical component of bones and teeth. It also plays a role in the proper function of some B vitamins .

Meanwhile, selenium helps make and protect your DNA .

Cod contains approximately 20% or more of the RDI for phosphorus in a 3-ounce (85-gram) serving.

This fish is an especially good source of selenium, too, with a single 3-ounce (85-gram) serving often giving 40% or more of the RDI for adults.

Thus, cod goes a long way to fulfilling our mineral requirements.

Potential Health Benefits:
There are several potential benefits of adding cod to your diet.

May Promote Heart Health and a Healthy Weight:
Fish consumption is associated with a variety of health benefits, including lower heart disease risk and brain function support (11Trusted Source, 12Trusted Source, 13Trusted Source).

However, it is important to note that cod and other lean fish are lower in omega-3 fatty acids than fatty fish like salmon (3Trusted Source).

These fats are presumed responsible for many health benefits.

Nonetheless, cod is nutrient-dense, meaning that it contains many beneficial nutrients in relatively few calories. Thus, lean fish like cod can still promote good health and may even be weight-loss-friendly (14Trusted Source, 15Trusted Source).

As mentioned previously, cod is also a good source of high-quality protein (3Trusted Source, 16Trusted Source).

Low in Mercury:
One potential health concern associated with fish consumption is mercury exposure.

Water sources can be contaminated with mercury, a toxic heavy metal, that accumulates in fish. When humans eat these fish, the mercury can lead to health problems .

In severe cases, mercury poisoning in humans can result in brain damage, which may be especially concerning in nursing or pregnant women because of potential harm to the developing child .

In fish, the highest levels of mercury are often found in species that have longer lifespans and are relatively high on the food chain.

Fish with the highest mercury content include shark, swordfish, king mackerel, tilefish, orange roughy, and marlin. Common fish like tuna, halibut, and bass also contain mercury.

Cod is lower in mercury than these fish, making it a better choice for those looking to avoid toxins (19Trusted Source).

Cod Liver Oil:
Some cod byproducts are utilized in dietary supplements. The most popular of these is cod liver oil.

Cod liver oil is an excellent source of vitamin D and gives higher concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids than cod filets.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.



Atlantic salmon

Binomial name: Salmo salar
Family: Salmonidae
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Salmoniformes
Genus: Salmo
Species: S. salar

Common Names: Atlantic salmon

Other names: Bay salmon, Black salmon, Caplin-scull salmon, Fiddler, Sebago salmon, Silver salmon, outside salmon and winnish. At different points in their maturation and life cycle, they are known as Parr, Smolt, Grilse, Grilt, Kelt, Slink, and Spring salmon.

The natural breeding grounds of Atlantic salmon are rivers in Europe and the northeastern coast of North America. In Europe, Atlantic salmon are still found as far south as Spain, and as far north as Russia. Because of sport-fishing, some of the species’ southern populations in northern Spain are growing smaller. The species distribution is easily influenced by changes in freshwater habitat and climate. Atlantic salmon are a cold-water fish species and are particularly sensitive to changes in water temperature.

Atlantic salmon are the largest species in their genus, Salmo. After two years at sea, the fish average 71 to 76 cm (28 to 30 in) in length and 3.6 to 5.4 kg (7.9 to 11.9 lb) in weight. But specimens that spend four or more winters feeding at sea can be much larger. An Atlantic salmon netted in 1960 in Scotland, in the estuary of the river Hope, weighed 49.44 kg (109.0 lb), the heaviest recorded in all available literature. Another netted in 1925 in Norway measured 160.65 cm (63.25 in) in length, the longest Atlantic salmon on record.

The colouration of young Atlantic salmon does not resemble the adult stage. While they live in fresh water, they have blue and red spots. At maturity, they take on a silver-blue sheen. The easiest way of identifying them as an adult is by the black spots predominantly above the lateral line, though the caudal fin is usually unspotted. When they reproduce, males take on a slight green or red colouration. The salmon has a fusiform body, and well-developed teeth. All fins, except the adipose fin, are bordered with black.

Young salmon begin a feeding response within a few days. After the yolk sac is absorbed by the body, they begin to hunt. Juveniles start with tiny invertebrates, but as they mature, they may occasionally eat small fish. During this time, they hunt both in the substrate and in the current. Some have been known to eat salmon eggs. The most commonly eaten foods include caddisflies, blackflies, mayflies, and stoneflies.

As adults, the salmon prefer capelin as their meal of choice. Capelin are elongated silvery fish that grow up to 20–25 centimetres (8–10 in) long.


Edibl Uses: Atlantic salmon is very tasty in whatever way one cookes.

Health Benefits:
We’ve known the benefits of eating Atlantic salmon since the 1970s, when the indigenous people of Greenland were found to have a substantially lower heart attack rate than Western populations. Believing diet was responsible, a pair of young Danish doctors travelled to collect blood samples from the country’s Inuit population. They identified high levels in the blood of 2 particular compounds’long-chain fatty acids with the chemical names docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), now more widely known as omega-3s. And they established that a major source of these fatty acids was cold-water marine fish, including Atlantic salmon and capelin, a relative of salmon that also featured strongly in the traditional Greenland Inuit diet.

Thousands of studies have investigated the Inuit phenomenon and the role played by omega-3s in cardiac health. This research has shown that the human body needs but can’t produce omega-3s and must source them from foods such as the Atlantic salmon and other cold-water marine fish species with oily flesh. And many clinical trials have confirmed that these remarkable fatty acids, also known as n-3 polyunsaturated fats, really do provide significant cardiac protection.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.



Atlantic herring

Binomial name: Clupea harengus
Family: Clupeidae
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Clupeiformes
Genus: Clupea
Species: C. harengus

Common Names: Dunbar wedder, Nun, Peeo, Scadan, Scattan, Sgadan and Sild. The names Shaldoo, Shaltoo, Sile, Yaulin’ and Yawling have been used for small herring, and the names Torn belly and Wine drinker have been used to describe condition. In addition there are several names, originating from the old Crown Brand system of marking barrels of pickle cured herring, that are still occasionally used to describe the condition of the fish or the nature of the product made from them; these include filling, full, halflin, lafull, laspent, matfull, mattie, medium and spent.

Atlantic herring can be found on both sides of the Atlantic ocean. They range across North Atlantic waters such as the Gulf of Maine, the Gulf of St Lawrence, the Bay of Fundy, the Labrador Sea, the Davis Straits, the Beaufort Sea, the Denmark Straits, the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea, the English Channel, the Celtic Sea, the Irish Sea, the Bay of Biscay and Sea of the Hebrides. Although Atlantic herring are found in the northern waters surrounding the Arctic, they are not considered to be an Arctic species.

Atlantic herring have a fusiform body. Gill rakers in their mouths filter incoming water, trapping any zooplankton and phytoplankton.

Atlantic herring are in general fragile. They have large and delicate gill surfaces, and contact with foreign matter can strip away their large scales.

They have retreated from many estuaries worldwide due to excess water pollution although in some estuaries that have been cleaned up, herring have returned. The presence of their larvae indicates cleaner and more–oxygenated waters.

Herrings reach sexual maturity when they are 3 to 5 years old. The life expectancy once mature is 12 to 16 years. Atlantic herring may have different spawning components within a single stock which spawn during different seasons. They spawn in estuaries, coastal waters or in offshore banks. Fertilization is external like with most other fish, the female releases between 20,000 and 40,000 eggs and the males simultaneously release masses of milt so that they mix freely in the sea. Once fertilized the 1 to 1.4 mm diameter eggs sinks to the sea bed where its sticky surface adheres to gravel or weed and will mature in 1–3 weeks, in 14-19 °C water it takes 6–8 days, in 7,5 °C it takes 17 days. It will only mature if its temperature stays below 19 °C. The hatched larvae are 3 to 4 mm long and transparent except for the eyes which have some pigmentation.

The body of the herring is deeper than it is thick, and the length of the fish is about five times the greatest depth. The upper part of the body is dark blue green, or steel blue, and the snout is blackish blue; the sides and belly are silvery. The lower jaw protrudes slightly beyond the upper. There is a single short back fin, a short anal fin near the tail, and a deeply forked tail fin. The pelvic fins are behind the start of the back fin, whereas on the sprat they are in front.

The herring has smooth gill covers, and moderately blunt keel scales along the edge of the belly, whereas the pilchard and the shads have radiating lines on the gill covers, and the sprat has pointed keel scales that feel prickly when a finger is run along the belly.

The body is covered with large, thin, loosely attached scales. The mouth is large, and contains small weak teeth. The lateral line is not visible, and there is no barbel.


Most of the herring landed in Britain are between 23 and 30 cm long; herring caught off Norway and Iceland are often larger, up to 36 cm. Occasionally a herring reaches a length of about 43 cm, but this is exceptional.

The weight of a herring in relation to its length is shown in the following graph. The weight for a given length can vary considerably from season to season and from year to year.

Edible Uses:
Atlantic herring is highly edible.It can be eaten in many different mode of cooking &

Nutrition Facts:
A three-ounce serving of herring is relatively small but contains almost 150 percent of the daily recommended value of vitamin D, as well as over 100 percent of the omega-3 your body needs each day. In addition, there are several other nutrients found in large quantities in this fish, such as vitamin B12 and selenium.

According to the USDA, one ounce of pickled Atlantic herring contains about:

*73 calories
*2.7 grams carbohydrates
*4 grams protein
*5 grams fat
*411 milligrams omega-3 fatty acids
*190 IU vitamin D (48 percent DV)
*16.4 micrograms selenium (23 percent DV)
*1.2 micrograms vitamin B12 (20 percent DV)
*241 IU vitamin A (5 percent DV)
*0.9 milligrams niacin (5 percent DV)

Health Benefits:

  • Supports Heart Health:
    The leading cause of death for adult men in the U.S. is currently coronary heart disease, which is generally related to poor nutrition and treated with dangerous medications that come with intense side effects.

Fortunately, herring is one food that can help reduce your risk of heart disease. Because of the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids in herring, studies suggest it’s a preferred source of protein over red meats like beef for people concerned with their risk for heart disease.

*Acts as an Anti-Inflammatory
In one study, researchers found that people suffering from back and neck pain found similar results when treating the inflammatory pain with ibuprofen or omega-3 supplementation.

Eating anti-inflammatory foods like herring can help decrease pain-causing inflammation because of the presence of omega-3s, as well as the high amount of selenium, another anti-inflammatory nutrient.

  • Protects Mental Health:
    There’s a lot of scientific evidence pointing to an association with high omega-3 intake (coupled with the proper ratio of omega-3 to omega-6) and decreased levels of depression. One reason this method of treatment has been studied more recently has to do with the high prevalence of health problems connected to psychotropic medications, including a high rate of smoking, obesity and heart problems as side effects.

*Helps Prevent Age-Related Diseases
Some studies show that consuming fish, like herring, high in omega-3s can actually reverse the loss of skeletal muscle tissue and slow the process of aging.

*May Help Decrease Risk of Cancer
A well-known risk factor for breast cancer is the prevalence and ratio of omega-3s in a person’s diet versus omega-6 levels. Higher intake of omega-3s has been associated with lowered risk of breast cancer. This finding is significant because a poor ratio of fatty acid intake seems to be reversible with a dietary adjustment.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.



Atlantic cod

Binomial name: Gadus morhua
Family: Gadidae
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Gadiformes
Genus: Gadus
Species: G. morhua

Common Names: Haberdine, Cod or Codling

Habitat:The Atlantic cod ranges from Greenland to North Carolina.Atlantic cod prefer waters close to the ocean bottom. They are most commonly found relatively shallow waters less than 500 feet deep.

It is native to the western Atlantic Ocean, cod has a distribution north of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, and around both coasts of Greenland and the Labrador Sea; in the eastern Atlantic, it is found from the Bay of Biscay north to the Arctic Ocean, including the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, Sea of the Hebrides, areas around Iceland and the Barents Sea.

Atlantic Cod are greenish-brown to gray on their sides and back, with a lighter underside. They have a light line that runs along their side, called the lateral line. They have an obvious barbel, or whisker-like projection, from their chin, giving them a catfish-like appearance. They have three dorsal fins and two anal fins, all of which are prominent.

It is omnivorous and feeds on sand eels, haddock, whiting, squid, small cod, crabs, mussels, lobsters, mackerel, worms and molluscs. It is usually 51 inches long and roughly cylindrical in shape.


Detail Description:
*The large species could reach 220 pounds in weight.
*They are slow swimmers.
*Female could lay up to 5 million of eggs which hatch after 8 to 23 days.
*Larvae are 0.16 inches in length and transparent.
*Cods mature at the age of 3 to 4 years.
*Atlantic cod has the lifespan of 25 years in wild.
*It liver for 15 years on average.
*Atlantic cod is also known as “sacred cod”.
*For an adult cod, humans are the natural predators.

Female cod are sexually mature at 2-3 years, and spawn in winter and spring, releasing 3-9 million eggs along the ocean bottom. With this reproductive potential, it may seem that cod should be abundant forever, but the eggs are vulnerable to wind, waves and often become prey to other marine species.

Cod may live to over 20 years

Edible Uses:
Atlantic cod is very much edible. It possesses a mild flavor when it is cooked. It could weigh upto 55 to 77 pounds. It contains ample amounts of Vitamin B12, phosphorus, selenium and protein. It also contains potassium, niacin, Vitamin B6, pantothenic acid, molybdenum and omega-3 fatty acids.

How to Eat :

*The livers of cod are used to make oil which is a great source of Vitamin A, E, D and Omega-3 fatty acids.
*The soft liver of Cod could be canned or consumed.
*It is widely eaten in Spain, Portugal, Brazil and Italy.
*It is also salted, smoked and dried.
*Mix cod with sautéed onions, broth, garlic, vegetables and seasonings to make a fish soup.
*Cook cod with tomatoes, garlic, olives and Italian herb.
*Cod could be poached by covering it with water and adding lemon juice and parsley. Let it simmer till the flesh becomes flakey and opaque.
*A steamed cod could be served in a large and shallow bowl by the miso soup. It could be garnished with chopped scallions, shiitake mushrooms and daikon.
*Cod could be baked in an oven by covering it with chives, chervil, tarragon and lemon juice.
*It could be broiled, baked, poached, fried and braised.
*The tongues and cheeks of Cod are used as delicacies.

Nutritional Value:
In 85 grams, we could find 66.61 g of moisture, 71 calories, 17.36 g of protein, 0.21 g of total lipid fat and 1.13 g of ash. It also provides 34.72% of protein, 24.86% of phosphorus, 7.60% of sodium, 7.14% of magnesium, 6.72% of potassium, 3.36% of zinc, 1.78% of copper, 1.75% of iron, 1.40% of calcium, 0.60% of total lipid fat and 0.43% of manganese.

Health Benefits:

Atlantic cod is a healthful type of fish with many dietary benefits. It is high in protein and low in fat, which makes it an excellent protein source. Cod is also high in vitamins and minerals that are essential to bodily functioning.
The fish is loaded with ample nutrients and vitamins. It contains Vitamin B3, B6 and B12. Moreover, it contains protein, Vitamin D and omega 3 fatty acids. It is also helpful for the diabetic heart disease or atherosclerosis patients. The daily intake of fish lowers the chances of heart attack and heart disease. Omega 3 fats and Selenium possess anti-inflammatory properties which help to lower inflammation that results in rheumatoid arthritis, asthma attacks, migraines and osteoarthritis.

It improves muscle strength as it contains high amount of protain which also Strengthens human immunity system. This Protein helps to assist the function of nervous system, hair, skin and bones.

Phosphorus has a vital role to facilitate digestion in human body. Niacin and riboflavin is essential for the metabolism of energy to emotional and neurological response systems. It helps to clear constipation, indigestion and diarrhea. It also eliminates toxins from the body. It repairs degeneration of cells and elemination of toxins from the body.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Known Hazards:
Consuming cod in moderate amounts is safe and generally without adverse effects.

Cod, like most types of fish, contains mercury. Excessive mercury consumption can be toxic and may cause neurological and behavioral disorders. It may be particularly problematic in children.

Fish naturally contain mercury, partly from consuming other fish. It may be worth limiting the consumption of large fish, such as swordfish, tilefish, and king mackerel. It is important to note that albacore tuna has significantly more mercury than canned light tuna.

However, cod does not contain high amounts of mercury. So, moderate consumption of cod should not cause problems in most people.


Atlantic bonito

Binomial name:Sarda sarda
Family: Scombridae
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Scombriformes
Genus: Sarda
Species: S. sarda

*Scomber sarda Bloch, 1793
*Palamita sarda (Bloch, 1793)
*Pelamis sarda (Bloch, 1793)
*Pelamys sarda (Bloch, 1793)
*Thynnus sardus (Bloch, 1793)
*Sarda pelamis (Brünnich, 1768)
*Scomber mediterraneus Bloch & Schneider, 1801

Common Names: Atlantic bonito or Sarda sarda

Habitat: Atlantic bonito is common in shallow waters of the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Black Sea, where it is an important commercial and game fish.

Normally, it travels in fairly large schools and is common offshore in the vicinity of New York City, where it is known as “skipjack” because of its habit of jumping from the water. (However, the name “skipjack” more commonly refers to the skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis.) The spawning season is June, and specimens 12–15 centimetres (4.7–5.9 in) long are taken in September off Long Island.

Atlantic bonito is a large mackerel-like fish of the family Scombridae. It belongs to a group which have the dorsal fins very near, or separated by a narrow interspace. Its body is completely scaled, with those scales in the pectoral fin area and the lateral line usually larger in size. Bonitos (fishes in the genus Sarda) differ from tuna by their compressed bodies, their lack of teeth on the roof of the mouth, and certain differences in colouration.

The Atlantic bonito can grow up to 12 pounds and 30 inches long. They are mainly silver with blue-green dorsal fins and black stripes along the body.
The Atlantic bonito has the same body shape as the tuna species. The only difference is that Atlantic bonito are skinnier than tuna. The Atlantic bonito has small, sharp teeth, as well as short pectoral fins. They have finlets behind the anal fin that stabilize the fish when swimming.

Atlantic bonito share Atlantic waters with the striped bonito, Sarda orientalis (the Atlantic population of which is sometimes considered a separate species, Sarda velox). The striped bonito has been taken on the Atlantic coast as far north as Cape Cod. It is similar in its habits, but somewhat smaller than the more common Atlantic bonito. The Atlantic bonito can be distinguished from its relative by its dark oblique stripes on the back and with a maxillary only about half as long as the head, whereas the striped bonito has striping on its topside nearly horizontal and a maxillary more than half the length of the head.

The world record, 18 pounds 4 ounces (8.3 kg), was caught in the Azores. It eats mackerel, menhaden, alewives, silversides, sand lances, and other fishes, as well as squid.


Edible Uses: .CLICK & SEE
Bonito is a popular food fish in the Mediterranean; its flesh is similar to tuna and mackerel, and its size is intermediate between the two.

Bonito under 1 kg (2.2 lb) or so (called palamut ~ ??????? in Bulgarian) are often grilled as steaks. Larger bonito (torik in Turkish) are cut into steaks and preserved as lakerda. Bonito is also canned, but canned bonito del norte (Spanish) is not bonito, but albacore tuna.

In Algeria and Spain, it is often prepared as escabeche, which preserves it for about a week. Bonito may also be baked and served cold.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only.