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Fruits & Vegetables

Loganberry

Botanical Name: Rubus loganobaccus
Family: Rosaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales
Genus: Rubus
Species: R. × loganobaccus

Synonyms: R. ursinus loganobaccus.

Common Names: California blackberry, California dewberry, Douglas berry, Pacific blackberry, Pacific dewberry and trailing blackberry.

Name in Other Languages :
Afrikaans: Soort framboos
Albanian: Loganberry
Arabic: Loganberry(loganberry)
Armenian: Loganberry
Azerbaijani: Loganberry
Basque: Loganberry
Belarusian: Lohanova jahada
Bosnian: Crne maline
Bulgarian: Loganberry
Catalan: Loganberry
Cebuano: Loganberry
Chichewa: Loganberry
Chinese: Yáng méi
Croatian: Loganova Malina
Czech: Loganberry
Danish: Loganberry, Loganbær
Dutch: Soort framboos, Loganbes
English: Boysenberry, Loganberry, Phenomenal-berry, Tayberry,
Esperanto: Loganberry
Estonian: Loganberry
Filipino: Ratiles ni logan
Finnish: Loganberry, Boysenmarja, Jättivatukka, Loganinmarja
French: Loganberry, Ronce de Logan , Ronce-framboise, Ronce
Galician: Framboesa silvestre
German: Loganbeere
Georgian: Loganis
Greek: Eídos moúrou
Gujarati: Loganberry
Haitian Creole: Loganberry
Hausa: Loganberry
Hindi: Logaanberi
Hmong: Loganberry
Hungarian: Kaliforniai málna
Icelandic: Loganberry
Igbo: Loganberry
Indonesian: Loganberry
Irish: Loganberry
Italian: Loganberry, Mora di rovo
Japanese: Roganber?
Javanese: Loganberry
Kannada: L?ganberi
Kazakh: Logan jïdegi
Khmer: Loganberry
Korean: Logan beli
Lao: Loganberry
Latin: Loganberry
Latvian: Loganberry
Lithuanian: Loganberry
Macedonian: Loganberry
Malagasy: Loganberry
Malay: Loganberry
Maori: Loganberry
Maltese: Loganberry
Mongolian: Loganberry
Myanmar (Burmese): Loganberry
Nepali: Loganberry
Norwegian: Loganbær
Polish: Loganberry
Portuguese: Loganberry
Romanian: Loganberry
Russian: Loganova yagoda
Serbian: Loganberri
Sesotho: Loganberry
Sinhala: Loganberry
Slovak: Cernice
Slovenian: Loganberry
Somali: Loganberry
Spanish: Loganberry, Mora Logan, Zarza de Logan, Zarza-frambuesa
Swahili: Loganberry
Swedish: Loganberry, Loganbär
Tajik: Loganberry
Turkish: Loganberry
Ukrainian: Lohanova yahoda
Urdu: Loganberry
Uzbek: Loganberry
Welsh: Loganberry
Yiddish: Loganberri
Yoruba: Loganberry
Zulu: Loganberry

Habitat: Probably a hybrid between R. ursinus and the raspberry ‘Red Antwerp’. Rarely naturalized in Britain.

Description:
Rubus loganobaccus is a deciduous Shrub growing to 2.5 m (8ft) by 2.5 m (8ft) at a fast rate. It is a spreading or climbing shrub . The plant is found growing in relatively cold-tender and thrives best in areas with mild winters and warm summers. The plant prefers well drained, humus-rich, loamy soil and is best trained on a wire trellis or other structure. The plant has terete, glabrous stem with soft prickles 3–6 mm long. Leaves are imparipinnately compound, with 3, 5 or rarely leaflets; the terminal leaflet is larger than the rest. Leaflets are sparsely pilose below, broadly-ovate and acute to acuminate tip, rounded bases and coarsely serrated margins and on 3–8.5 cm long petiole. Inflorescence is sub corymbose with 6–12 flowers. Sepals are rarely with prickles. Petals are 12–18 mm long by 7–9 mm wide, elliptic, white. Stamens are normally shorter than styles. Ovoid to oblong, aggregate fruit is as large as the largest size blackberry and is of the same shape, with globules similar to that fruit. Fruits are initially green, ripening dark red to dark maroon to purplish-black. Fruits are pleasant, mild, vinous and delightful to the taste and are normally used syrup, jam, and juice. It can also be a complementary menu of your salad…. CLICK & SEE

Cultivation:
Loganberry plants are sturdy and more disease- and frost-resistant than many other berries. However, they are not very popular with commercial growers due to several problems which increase labor costs, since the plants tend to be thorny and the berries are often hidden by the leaves. Additionally, berries of varying maturity may grow on a single plant, making it difficult to completely harvest each plant. Loganberries are therefore more commonly grown in household gardens.

A loganberry bush usually produces about ten canes (vines). The canes are not as upright as its raspberry parent, and tend instead to vine more like its blackberry parent. Growth can be undisciplined, with the canes growing five or more feet in a year. Some gardeners train the canes fanwise along a wall or a wire frame. Old canes die after their second year, and should be cut away as they can become diseased, and also hinder harvesting.

Edible Uses:
Loganberries may be eaten fresh without preparation, or used for juice or in jams, pies, crumbles, fruit syrups, and country wines. In common with other blackberry/raspberry hybrids, loganberries can be used interchangeably with raspberries or blackberries in most recipes.

In the UK fresh or canned (tinned) loganberries are often paired with English Sherry trifle, or their juice (or syrup) paired with the Sherry wine.

Loganberry is a popular beverage flavoring in Western New York and parts of Southern Ontario, where it became popular due to being sold at the amusement park at Crystal Beach, Ontario. Even though the park has long been closed down, several companies still sell varieties of loganberry drinks through stores throughout the area, which are sold at several local fast-food franchises such as Mighty Taco in Buffalo, Sport of Kings Restaurant in Batavia, New York as well as at supermarkets. There are also milkshakes flavored with loganberry syrup.

Major nutrients:
*Manganese (79.70%)
*Vitamin C (25.00%)
*Total dietary Fiber (20.53%)
*Copper 19.11%)
*Carbohydrate (14.72%)

Health benefits:
*Prevents Cancer

  • Promotes Brain Health
  • Excellent For Constipation
  • Fights Asthma
  • Makes for a Healthy Heart
  • Bones and Nervous System
  • Helps in Losing Weight
  • Fights Macular Degeneration
  • Prevent Blood Clotting
  • Good for Digestion
  • Strengthens Immune System
  • Reduces Wrinkles
  • Improves Feminine Health
  • Antimicrobial
  • Tissue Development

Other Uses: A purple to dull blue dye is obtained from the fruit

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loganberry
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rubus+loganobaccus
https://www.healthbenefitstimes.com/loganberry/

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Fruits & Vegetables

Lingonberry

Botanical Name: Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Family: Ericaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales
Genus: Vaccinium
Species: V. vitis-idaea

Common Names: Lingonberry, Partridgeberry, Mountain cranberry or Cowberry

Habitat: Lingonberry is native to boreal forest and Arctic tundra throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Eurasia to North America. Lingonberries are picked in the wild and used to accompany a variety of dishes in Northern Baltoscandia, Russia, Canada and Alaska. Commercial cultivation is undertaken in the U.S. Pacific Northwest and in many other regions of the world. It grows on Sunny mountain meadows, peat moors and pine woods, on acid soils.

Description:
Lingonberry spreads by underground stems to form dense clonal colonies. Slender and brittle roots grow from the underground stems. The stems are rounded in cross-section and grow from 10 to 40 cm (4 to 16 in) in height. Leaves grow alternately and are oval, 5–30 mm (0.2–1.2 in) long, with a slightly wavy margin, and sometimes with a notched tip.

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The flowers are bell-shaped, white to pale pink, 3–8 mm (0.1–0.3 in) long, and produced in the early summer.

The fruit is a red berry 6–10 mm (0.2–0.4 in) across, with an acidic taste, ripening in late summer to autumn. While bitter early in the season, they sweeten if left on the branch through winte.

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Varities:
There are two regional varieties or subspecies of V. vitis-idaea, one in Eurasia and one in North America, differing in leaf size:

*V. vitis-idaea var. vitis-idaea L. — syn. V. vitis-idaea subsp. vitis-idaea.
Cowberry. Eurasia. Leaves 10–30 mm (0.4–1.2 in) long.

*V. vitis-idaea var. minus Lodd. — syn. V. vitis-idaea subsp. minus (Lodd.) Hultén.
Lingonberry. North America. Leaves 5–18 mm (0.2–0.7 in) long

Cultivation:
Lingonberry has been commercially cultivated in the Netherlands and other countries since the 1960s. Empress Elizabeth ordered lingonberry to be planted all over Peterhof in 1745.

Some cultivars are grown for their ornamental rather than culinary value. In the United Kingdom, the Koralle Group has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit.

Edible Uses:

The berries are quite tart, so they are often cooked and sweetened before eating in the form of lingonberry jam, compote, juice, smoothie or syrup. The raw fruits are also frequently simply mashed with sugar, which preserves most of their nutrients and taste. This mix can be stored at room temperature in closed but not necessarily sealed containers, but in this condition, they are best preserved frozen. Fruit served this way or as compote often accompanies game and liver dishes.

In Sweden and Norway, reindeer and elk steaks are traditionally served with gravy and lingonberry sauce. Preserved fruit is commonly eaten with meatballs, as well as potato pancakes. A traditional Swedish dessert is lingonpäron (literally lingonberry pears), consisting of fresh pears which are peeled, boiled and preserved in lingondricka (lingonberry juice) and is commonly eaten during Christmas. This was very common in old times, because it was an easy and tasty way to preserve pears. In Sweden and Russia, when sugar was still a luxury item, the berries were usually preserved simply by putting them whole into bottles of water. This was known as vattlingon (watered lingonberries); the procedure preserved them until next season. This was also a home remedy against scurvy.

This traditional Russian soft drink, known as “lingonberry water”, is mentioned by Alexander Pushkin in Eugene Onegin. In Russian folk medicine, lingonberry water was used as a mild laxative. A traditional Finnish dish is sautéed reindeer (poronkäristys) with mashed potatoes and lingonberries, either cooked or raw with sugar. In Finland, a porridge made from the fruit is also popular. In Poland, the berries are often mixed with pears to create a sauce served with poultry or game. The berries can also be used to replace redcurrants when creating Cumberland sauce.

The berries are also popular as a wild picked fruit in Eastern Canada, for example in Newfoundland and Labrador and Cape Breton, where they are locally known as partridgeberries or redberries, and on the mainland of Nova Scotia, where they are known as foxberries. In this region they are incorporated into jams, syrups, and baked goods, such as pies, scones, and muffins.

In Sweden lingonberries are often sold as jam and juice, and as a key ingredient in dishes. They are used to make Lillehammer berry liqueur; and, in East European countries, lingonberry vodka is sold, and vodka with lingonberry juice or “mors” is a popular cocktail.

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Neutricinal Values:
The berries contain plentiful organic acids, vitamin C, vitamin A (as beta carotene), B vitamins (B1, B2, B3), and the elements potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus.

Medicinal Uses:
Traditionsal Medicines:
In folk medicine, V. vitis-idaea has been used as an apéritif, astringent, antihemorrhagic, anti-debilitive, depurative, antiseptic (especially for the urethra), a diuretic, a tonic for the nervous system, and in various ways to treat breast cancer, diabetes mellitus, rheumatism, and various urogenital conditions.

In traditional Austrian medicine the fruits have been administrated internally as jelly or syrup for treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and urinary tract, and fever.

Medicinal use by Native Americans:
The Upper Tanana eat the berries or use their juice to treat colds, coughs and sore throats.

The leaves are antiseptic, astringent, diuretic, refrigerant. They are used in the treatment of gonorrhoea, arthritis, rheumatism, diabetes and diarrhoea. The leaves are gathered in early summer and dried for later use. The mature fruits are eaten fresh or dried as a remedy for diarrhoea and as a treatment for sore throats, coughs and colds[257]. The juice has been gargled as a treatment for sore throats.

Other Uses:
The berries are an important food for bears and foxes, and many fruit-eating birds. Caterpillars of the case-bearer moths Coleophora glitzella, Coleophora idaeella and Coleophora vitisella are obligate feeders on V. vitis-idaea leaves.The Nihithawak Cree use the berries of the minus subspecies to color porcupine quills, and put the firm, ripe berries on a string to wear as a necklace. The Western Canadian Inuktitut use the minus subspecies as a tobacco additive or substitute.

Known Hazards: Tea should not be drunk on a regular basis because it contains the toxin ‘arbutin’

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccinium_vitis-idaea
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Vaccinium+vitis-idaea

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Fruits & Vegetables

Limequat

Botanical Name: Citrus × floridana
Family: Rutaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales
Genus: Citrus
Species:C. × floridana

Common Name: Limequat

Habitat: Limequat is native to Asiatic countries. This plant is now grown in Japan, Israel, Spain, Malaysia, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States in California, Florida, and Texas. The fruit can be found, in small quantities, during the fall and winter months in the United States, India and Japan.

Description:
It is a small tree that grows into a contained bushy form. The leaves are characteristically citrus-like. The limequat produces an abundance of fruit even at a young age. The fruit is small, oval, greenish yellow and contains seeds or pips. It has a sweet tasting skin and a bitter sweet pulp that tastes similar to limes. The fruit can be eaten whole or the juice and rind can be used to flavor drinks and dishes. It has considerable amounts of vitamin C and is strongly acidic.

Limequats can be grown indoors or outdoors providing the temperature stays between 10 °C to 30 °C (50 °F to 86 °F). They are fairly small and can be planted in containers or pots, in well-drained fertile soil. Plants grow fairly slowly and flower and fruit between 5–7 months and rest for 7–5 months.

Limequats are more cold hardy than limes but less cold-hardy than kumquats.

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To date, there are three different varieties of limequats, and all of them are named after certain towns in Florida, the state in which they were developed. These varieties are Eustis (the offspring of key lime and round kumquat), Lakeland (a kumquat and Eustis hybrid), and Tavares (the product of crossbreeding key lime and oval kumquat).:

Cultivation: Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.Requires a position in full sun in a fertile well-drained but not dry soil. Prefers a moderately heavy loam with a generous amount of compost and sand added and a very sunny position. When growing plants in pots, a compost comprising equal quantities of loam and leafmould plus a little charcoal should produce good results.

Propagation: Thruogh seeds. The seed is best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it ripe after thoroughly rinsing it. Sow stored seed in March in a greenhouse

Edible Uses: Limequats are used in cocktails, fruit salads, they can be candied whole, they can be cooked if the seeds are removed as they impart a bitter taste, and they can also be made into conserve.

Health Banefits:
*Lowered Infection Risk : Just like their parents, limequats are loaded with vitamin C that helps keep the immune system working optimally. As a result, your risk of going down with the common cold or flu can be significantly reduced. Vitamin C is also an antioxidant that helps control oxidative stress, something that’s known to weaken a person’s immunity.

  • Delayed Skin Aging:
    If you are a beauty-conscious person and the steep prices of today’s anti-aging products are giving you an anxiety attack, simply include limequats in your diet regularly. Their vitamin C content has the ability to zap free radicals. What’s more, the said nutrient encourages the production of collagen that makes the skin firm.

*Strengthened Bones and Teeth:
Limequats supply the body with calcium, and that is why their consumption can help strengthen the bones and lower one’s risk of having osteoporosis. These hybrid fruits from Florida also help keep the teeth strong, courtesy of their calcium content as well as vitamin C that is crucial for keeping the gums in a healthy state.

*Reduced Risk of Cancer:
Thanks to the loads of antioxidants in limequats, their regular intake may help lower your chances of having to face cancer. Free radicals damage cells, which can leave them mutated. When that happens, cancer may strike. Antioxidants in limequats zap free radicals before they have the opportunity to wreak havoc to your healthy cells.

  • Lowered Heart Disease Risk:
    A couple of reasons exist why limequats can help in keeping your heart in an excellent shape. First, they contain potassium that widens the blood vessels and lowers the blood pressure. Second, antioxidants in limequats help prevent cholesterol buildup in the arteries, which is something that can increase a person’s risk of heart attack and stroke.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limequat
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Citrofortunella+floridana
https://www.healthdigezt.com/health-benefits-limequats/

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Lilly pilly

Botanical Name: Syzygium smithii
Family: Myrtaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Myrtales
Genus: Syzygium
Species: S. smithii

Synonyms:
*Eugenia smithii Poir.
*Acmena smithii (Poir.) Merr. & L.M.Perry
*Lomastelma smithii (Poir.) J.H.Willis

Common Names: Lilly pilly, Monkey apple,Riberry, Small Leaved Lilly Pilly, Cherry Satinash, Cherry Alder, or Clove Lilli Pilli.

Habitat :Lilly pilly is native to New Zealand, it is found in rainforest from the Windsor Tableland in north-east Queensland south through New South Wales and Victoria to Wilsons Promontory. Associated trees species include bangalow palm (Archontophoenix cunninghamiana), ironwood (Backhousia myrtifolia), black wattle (Callicoma serratifolia), sassafras, (Doryphora sassafras), blueberry ash (Elaeocarpus reticulatus), pinkwood (Eucryphia moorei), sweet pittosporum (Pittosporum undulatum) and kanuka (Tristaniopsis laurina). Stunted coastal plants are often associated with coast banksia (Banksia integrifolia)

Description:
Lilly pilly grows as a tree to 20 m (66 ft) high by 5–15 m (16–49 ft) wide, with a trunk attaining a diameter of 70 cm (2.3 ft). The largest tree was recorded at Dingo Creek Flora Reserve, south of Tenterfield, being 30 m (98 ft) tall and a trunk 60 cm (2.0 ft) wide.

The trunk is sometimes buttressed. The bark is brown and scaled and flakes off easily. Its dark green shiny leaves are arranged oppositely on the stems, and are lanceolate or ovate and measure 2–10 by 1–3 cm (1–4 by 0.5–1 in). The cream-white flowers appear from October to March, occurring in panicles at the end of small branches. Berries follow on, appearing from May to August, and are oval or globular with a shallow depression at the top. They measure 0.8 to 2 cm in diameter, and range from white to maroon in colour.

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Tree

Flowers are pollinated by bees

Flowers

Berries

A raft of fruit from a large lilly pilly

A distinctive narrow leaved form with thin leaves 3–6 cm long is found along rainforest riverbanks from Sydney northwards through Queensland, (rheophytic race) and a small leaved form (known as the small-leaved race or var. minor) with leaves measuring 1.6–6 cm found in dryer rainforests from Colo Heights near Sydney north to the Bunya Mountains.

The fruit of this tree is known as Ribbery and it matures from December to February; being a pear shaped red berry, they grow to 13 mm long, covering a single seed, 4 mm in diameter. Flanked by the Macleay.

There are more than 50 Lilly Pilly species and each tree bears fruits that vary in color, size and flavor. The most fit for human consumption species of Lilly Pilly berries, Syzygium luehmannii, also happens to be the sweetest one.

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Edible Uses:
The fruit is edible, used to make a jam that has a unique flavor and it is commonly used in other items like sauces, syrups and confectionaries. Loaded with high levels of essential oils, in order to bring the culinary attributes, it is recommended that the fruit is consumed with other ingredients. They are also added to fruit salads, savory salads, ice creams, salsas, pureed and used as a soak for meats and seafood and served flanking hard cheeses, such as cheddar, manchego and aged gouda.

Health Benefits of Lillypilly fruit:
L. Pilly was used by the native aborigines for its anti-bacterial properties. In addition, it also had great healing components present in it. Rich in vitamin C, it has good astringent properties that improve the firmness of the skin which in turn helps your skin look radiant and youthfu.

Other Uses:
The white to pinkish brown timber is used for flooring, frames and fittings.The character “Lilly Pilly” (based on the fruit of the tree) who is an actress friend of Snugglepot and Cuddlepie, was illustrated by author May Gibbs.The fruit and leaves of Syzigium smithii were featured on a 49c Australian stamp, one of a bush tucker set, in 2002. The stamp was designed by Janet Boschen and titled “Lilly-pilly”

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syzygium_smithii
https://www.fruitsinfo.com/lillypilly-fruit.php

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Fruits & Vegetables

Leucaena

Botanical Name: Leucaena leucocephala
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales
Genus: Leucaena
Species: L. leucocephala

Synonyms:
*Acacia frondosa Willd.
*Acacia glauca (L.) Willd.
*Acacia leucocephala (Lam.) Link
*Acacia leucophala Link
*Leucaena glabra Benth.
*Leucaena glauca Benth.
*Mimosa glauca sensu L.1763 Misapplied
*Mimosa glauca Koenig ex Roxb.
*Mimosa leucocephala Lam.
*Mimosa leucophala Lam

Common Names:Leucaena, White leadtree, Jumbay, River tamarind, Subabul, Cow-Bush, Jump and Go Jumbie Bean, Lead Tree and White popinac

Habitat: Leucaena is native to southern Mexico and northern Central America (Belize and Guatemala) and is now naturalized throughout the tropics.It grows in the Dry coastal regions, waste ground.

Description:
Leucaena leucocephala is an arborescent deciduous small tree or shrub, to 20 m tall, fast-growing; trunk 10–25 cm in diam., forming dense stands; where crowded, slender trunks are formed with short bushy tuft at crown, spreading if singly grown; leaves evergreen, alternate, 10–25 cm long, malodorous when crushed, bipinnate with 3–10 pairs of pinnae, these each with 10–20 pairs of sessile narrowly oblong to lanceolate, gray-green leaflets 1–2 cm long, less than 0.3 cm wide; flowers numerous, axillary on long stalks, white, in dense global heads 1–2 cm across; fruit pod with raised border, flat, thin, becoming dark brown and hard, 10–15 cm long, 1.6–2.5 cm wide, dehiscent at both sutures; seeds copiously produced, 15–30 per pod, oval, flattish, shining brown, 18,000–24,000 per kg; taproot long, strong, well-developed. Tree grown as an annual when harvested for forage. Fl. and fr. nearly throughout the year….CLICK & SEE

A widely used multipurpose tree in Mexico, where it provides food, medicines and a range of commodities for the local population, and is also commonly sold as a food in local and national markets, Vigorous and fast-growing, it is often cultivated in many areas of the tropics as an ornamental and is also used in reforestation and soil stabilization projects, as a shade plant for coffee etc
Widespread and locally abundant in Central America, this species is not believed to be under any threat. The plant is classified as ‘Least Concern’ in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Cultivation:
Leucaena leucocephala is a plant of the tropics, it succeeds at altitudes up to 1,500 metres, occasionally to as high as 2,100 metres. It grows best with a mean annual temperature in the range 25 – 30°c and a mean annual rainfall of 650 – 3,000mm. For optimal growth it is limited to areas 15 – 25° north or south of the equator. It grows well only in subhumid or humid climates with moderate dry seasons of up to 6 – 7 months.
Prefers a well-drained soil in full sun. Tolerant of a range of soils, including limestone, wet and dry soils, soils of volcanic origin and those with moderate levels of salt. It is found in the wild on shallow limestone soils and coastal sand. Prefers a pH in the range 6 – 7.7, tolerating 5 – 8.5. Plants are very tolerant of drought and of salt-laden winds.

Propagation:
Seed – pre-soak for 24 hours in warm water then sow in containers. Seedlings and direct sowing are recommended methods of propagation where soil-moisture conditions permit and economic weed control can be maintained. Seed pre-treatment involves soaking in hot water for 2 minutes or nicking the seed coat at the distal (cotyledon) end, using a sharp tool like scalpel, knife or nail clipper. A germination rate of 50-80% in 8 days can be achieved.
Cuttings of semi-ripe wood. Vegetative propagation has been successful in relatively few locations, reflecting critical environmental requirements, or possibly systemic fungi. The use of bare-root cuttings has worked in Indonesia, Taiwan and Thailand.

Edible Uses
Young leaves, pods and flower buds are eaten raw, steamed, in soups, with rice or mixed with chillies and other spices. The mid- to orange-brown seedpods are 90 – 190mm long and 13 – 21mm wide, containing 8 – 18 seeds. There can be anything from 3 – 45 seedpods per flower head, though usually 20 or less.
Some caution is advised – see the notes above on toxicity.

Seeds are eaten raw or cooked. They are often eaten raw as a snack when working in the field. The unripe seeds are mixed with grated coconut, wrapped in banana leaves and cooked. They are also often used as a garnish on cooked foods or added to stews, mixed with beans and maize tortillas etc. The mature, but not dried, seeds are eaten raw or cooked as a delicacy. Dried seeds are fermented into tempeh lamtoro and dageh lamtoro.
After removal from the pods, the unripe seeds can be dried and stored for later use or ground into a flour and mixed with wheat, corn etc. The seeds are 6 – 9mm long and 4 – 6mm wide; there are 15,000 – 20,000 seeds/kg.

The dried seed can be roasted and used as a coffee substitute.

An edible gum obtained from the plant is used in sauces.

Medicinal Uses:
Folk Medicine:
Medicinally, the bark is eaten for internal pain. A decoction of the root and bark is taken as a contraceptive, ecbolic, depilatory, or emmenagogue in Latin America. However, in experiments with cattle, leucaena had no effect on conception.

List of known nutrients:
Leucaena contains essential vitamins and minerals that keep various diseases at bay. These include:

*Calcium
*Iron
*Leukanin
*Mimosin
*Phosphorus
*Protein
*Vitamin A
*Vitamin B1
*Vitamin C

Health Benefits:
*Leucaena alleviates wrinkles, psoriasis, and dandruff.

*Leucaena prevents cancer and eliminates intestinal worms.

*Leucaena relieves muscle pain and various menstrual issues.

*Leucaena is particularly beneficial to both skin and hair health.

*Leucaena helps maintain both digestive and muscle health

*Leucaena also promotes female reproductive health.

Agroforestry Uses:
Leucaena leucocephala is an aggressive colonizer of disturbed ground and ruderal sites, and thus an excellent pioneer species for restoring woodland cove Plants are sometimes used in re-reforestation projects. It is a fast growing plant with an extensive root system and has been used in land reclamation, for preventing soil erosion and as a shade plant for coffee crops. It thrives on steep slopes and in marginal areas with extended dry seasons, making it a prime candidate for restoring forest cover, watersheds and grasslands.
An aggressive taproot system helps break up compacted subsoil layers, improving the penetration of moisture into the soil and decreasing surface runoff.
Leucaena was one of the first species to be used for the production of green manure in alley-cropping systems. The leaves, even with moderate yields, contain more than enough nitrogen to sustain a maize crop. The finely divided leaves decompose quickly, providing a rapid, short-term influx of nutrients. It has even been suggested that the leaves decompose too rapidly, resulting in leaching of nutrients away from the crop-rooting zone before they are taken up by the crop. This also means that they have little value as mulch for weed control. The tree has the potential to renew soil fertility and could be particularly important in slash-and-burn cultivation, as it greatly reduces the fallow period between crops.

Other Uses
Gum arises from the stems under ill-defined conditions of injury and disease or from sterile hybrids, especially Leucaena leucocephala x Leucaena esculenta. The gum has been analysed and found similar to gum arabic, and of potential commercial value

Red, brown and black dyes are extracted from the pods, leaves and bark

The dried seeds are widely used for ornamentation

The heartwood is a light reddish-brown; the sapwood pale yellow. It is medium textured, close grained. The wood is strong, hard and heavy (about 800 kg/m), of medium density. It is easily workable for a wide variety of carpentry purposes and dries without splitting or checking. Sawn timber, mine props, furniture and parquet flooring are among increasingly popular uses. However, the use of the plant for sawn timber is greatly limited by its generally small dimensions (usually not greater than 30cm diameter), its branchiness, which limits lengths of clear bole available and means wood is often knotty, and its high proportion of juvenile wood. Nevertheless, there is growing use of small-dimension sawn wood in a number of industries such as flooring, which might include this species in the future. Poles are used locally to prop bananas and as a support for yams, pepper and other vines. However, use of this species fo short-rotation production of poles is limited by their lack of durability and susceptibility to attack by termites and woodborers.
The wood is commonly pulped for its fibre, used to make paper. The fibre values are similar to those of other tropical hardwoods, and it produces paper with good printability but low tearing and folding strength; the wood-pulp strength is greater than that of most hardwoods, with almost 50% greater ring crush. Its pulping properties are suitable for both paper and rayon production. Also used for particleboard production.
An excellent firewood species with a specific gravity of 0.45-0.55 and a high calorific value of 4600 cal/kg. The wood burns steadily with little smoke, few sparks and produces less than 1% ash. The tree makes excellent charcoal with a heating value of 29 mJ/kg and good recovery values (25-30%). Addition of the ground wood to fuel oil for diesel engines was found to involve no harmful agents in the ash.

Known Hazards:
The leaves of most forms of this plant contain the unusual amino acid mimosene. In large quantities this can be harmful. There are low-mimosene cultivars.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leucaena_leucocephala
https://naturalpedia.com/leucaena-sources-health-benefits-nutrients-uses-and-constituents.html
http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Leucaena+leucocephala
https://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Leucaena_leucocephala.html