Categories
Fruits & Vegetables Herbs & Plants

Ambarella(Spondias dulcis)

View Post

 

Botanical Name :Spondias dulcis
Family: Anacardiaceae
Genus: Spondias
Species: S. dulcis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Common Name:- Ambarella,Malay Apple,Golden Apple,Pomme cythere in Trinidad and Tobago, June plum in Jamaica, Juplon in Costa Rica, Jobo Indio in Venezuela, and Caja-manga in Brazil.
Hog Plum in English , In Bengali it is called as  Amra or bilati amra

Vernacular names:-
(Ambarella) (Sinhalese)
ambarella (Dutch)
amra (Bengali)
buah kedondong (Malay)
cajá-manga (Brazilian Portuguese)
cóc (Vietnamese)
Manzana de Oro (Dominican Republic)
évi (Réunion)
Goldpflaume (German)
gway (Burmese)
hevi (Philippines)
hog plum
jobo indio (Español de Venezuela)
June plum (Jamaica)
kedondong (Indonesian)
makok farang (Thai)
manga zi nsende (Kikongo)
mkak  (Khmer)
mokah (Cambodian)
naos (Bislama)
pomarosa (Puerto Rico)
prune Cythère, pomme Cythère (French)
sugar apple (St. Lucia)
wi apple (Hawaii)
Pomcite (Trinidad and Tobago)

Habitat: Native to Melanesia through Polynesia, S. dulcis has been introduced into tropical areas across the world. The species was introduced into Jamaica in 1782, and, among other places, is also cultivated in Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and also from Puerto Rico to Trinidad, and Sucre east, in Venezuela. Although the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) received seeds from Liberia in 1909, S. dulcis has yet to become popular in America.

Description:
This fast growing tree can reach up to 60 ft (18 m) in its native homeland of Melanesia through Polynesia; however, it usually averages out at 30 to 40 ft (9-12 m) in other areas. Spondias dulcis has deciduous, “pinnate leaves, 8 to 24 in (20-60 cm) in length, composed of 9 to 25 glossy, elliptic or obovate-oblong leaflets 2 1.2 to 4 in (6.25-10 cm) long, finely toothed toward the apex” (Morton 1987). The tree produces small, inconspicuous white flowers in terminal panicles, assorted male, female. Its oval fruits, 2 ½ to 3 ½ in (6.25-9 cm) long, are long-stalked and are produced in bunches of 12 or more. Over several weeks, the fruit fall to the ground while still green and hard, turning golden-yellow as they ripen. According to Morton (1987), “some fruits in the South Sea Islands weigh over 1 lb (0.45 kg) each”.

click to see the pictures….…(01)......(1)..…….(2)..…...(3).……..(4)...

Edible Uses:
Spondias dulcis is most commonly used as a food source. Its fruit may be eaten raw; the flesh is crunchy and a little sour. In Indonesia and Malaysia, S. dulcis is eaten with shrimp paste (a thick black salty-sweet sauce, called hayko in Chinese Southern Min dialect). It occurs as an ingredient in rojak. It may also be juiced, and goes then under the name “umbra juice” in Malaysia, or balonglong juice in Singapore.

click to see

Alternative food uses include cooking the fruit into a preserve, similar in consistency to apple butter, sauce flavoring, soups, and stews.

In Fiji, it is used to make jam.

In West Java, its young leaves are used as seasoning for pepes.

In Vietnam it is not considered as a regular “table” fruit, just a snack. It is consumed unripe, like green mangoes, sliced and dipped in a mixture of salt, sugar and fresh chili, or in shrimp paste. Another recipe favored by children is to macerate in liquid, artificially sweetened licorice extract.

In Jamaica it is mostly considered a novelty especially by children. The fruit is peeled and sprinkled with salt. The sourness and saltiness provide amusement. The fruit is also made into a drink sweetened with sugar and spiced with some ginger.

In India & Bangladesh this fruit is used in “Achar” and “Chatni”

The ambarella has suffered by comparison with the mango and by repetition in literature of its inferior quality. However, taken at the proper stage, while still firm, it is relished by many out-of-hand, and it yields a delicious juice for cold beverages. If the crisp sliced flesh is stewed with a little water and sugar and then strained through a wire sieve, it makes a most acceptable product, much like traditional applesauce but with a richer flavor. With the addition of cinnamon or any other spices desired, this sauce can be slowly cooked down to a thick consistency to make a preserve very similar to apple butter. Unripe fruits can be made into jelly, pickles or relishes, or used for flavoring sauces, soups and stews.

Young ambarella leaves are appealingly acid and consumed raw in southeast Asia. In Indonesia, they are steamed and eaten as a vegetable with salted fish and rice, and also used as seasoning for various dishes. They are sometimes cooked with meat to tenderize it.

Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion:-
Calories -157.30
Total Solids -14.53-40-35%
Moisture -59.65-85.47%
Protein- 0.50-0.80%
Fat– 0.28-1.79%
Sugar (sucrose)-8.05-10-54%
Acid-0.47%
Crude Fiber- 0.85-3-60%
Ash-0.44-0.65%

Medicinal Uses: In Cambodia, the astringent bark is used with various species of Terminalia as a remedy for diarrhea.

Other Uses: The wood is light-brown and buoyant and in the Society Islands has been used for canoes.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is  always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spondias_dulcis
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/ambarella_ars.html
http://saintlucianplants.com/cultivated/spondulc/spondulci.html
http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/ambarella.htm

http://www.kew.org/mng/gallery/348.html

Categories
Fruits & Vegetables Herbs & Plants

Pondapple

Botanical Name :Annona glabra
Family: Annonaceae
Genus: Annona
Species: A. glabra
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Magnoliales
Synonyms:Annona australis,Annona chrysocarpa,Annona laurifolia,Annona palustris,Annona peruviana

Common Names: Pond-apple, Alligator-apple, Corkwood, Bobwood, and Monkey-apple. The name Alligator-apple derives from the fact that American Alligators sometimes eat the fruit.

Habitat : The tree is native to Florida in the United States, the Caribbean, Central and South America, and West Africa

Description:
Pond-apple tree is generally semi-decidious.It grows in swamps, is tolerant of saltwater, and cannot grow in dry soil. The trees grow to a height of around 10–12 m. They have thin, gray trunks and sometimes grow in clumps. The leaves are ovate and  alternate.  They are   oblong with an acute tip, 8–15 cm long and 4–6 cm broad.They can be more than 4 in (10 cm) long, and are shiny green on the upper face.The pond apple has flowers with white petals which have a pink base. They are about 1 in (2.5 cm) in diameter. The fruit is oblong to spherical and apple-sized or larger, 7–15 cm long and up to 9 cm diameter, and falls when it is green or ripening yellow. It disperses by floating to new locations, and it is food for many animal species. It is edible for humans, and can be made into jam, although the taste is usually not preferable to Soursop and other related fruits. The flesh is sweet-scented and agreeable in flavor, but it has never attained general popular use.

click to see…>…..(0)......(1).…...(2).…...(3).…...(4)...(5)……..(6).….

The pond apple is a rounded fruit that is similar either to a rounded mango, or an apple. This fruit can be up to 4 in (10 cm) long and more, and is yellow-green when ripe. Its flesh is edible and aromatic, even if this fruit is seldom consumed. In fact, this wild fruit is considered to be inferior in quality to its more well-known relatives like cherimoya, atemoya and custard apple. However, the pond apple can be eaten raw, or transformed into juice.


Cultivation:

*Annona glabra requiert les expositions suivantes : lumière,soleil
*This tree can grow in very moist soils.

Experiments in South Florida have been made in an attempt to use it as a superior rootstock for Sugar-apple or Soursop. While the grafts initially appear to be effective a high percentage of them typically fail over time. Soursop on Pond-apple rootstock has a dwarfing effect.

Although tropical, a mature pond apple can withstand brief negative temperatures down to about 28°F/26°F. (-2°C to -3°C) This tree is considered as invasive in many tropical areas.

It is a very troublesome invasive species in Australia. There it grows in estuaries and chokes mangrove swamps, where its seedlings carpet the banks and prevent other species from germinating or thriving.


Constituents:

On a preliminary screening, substantial antimicrobial, antifungal and moderate insecticidal, sporicidal and cytotoxic activities were observed for the hexane extract of the stem bark of Annona glabra L. Chromatographic fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of kaur-16-en-19-oic acid in a large amount as the main constituent, which was found to be largely responsible for the biological activities possessed by the crude extract.

Medicinal Uses:
A recent study suggests that its alcoholic seed extract contains anticancer compounds that could be used pharmaceutically.

Traditional remedy or use: Wood used to make rafts, sharpen blades and bottle corks. Insect repellent and fish poison. Emetic; Used to treat tuberculosis, abdominal cramps, colic, diarrhea, dysentery, jaundice and rheumatism. Tea was used as a vermifuge.

Modern remedy or use: Genus being researched as a treatment for cancer, malaria and H.I.V.

You may click to see :Anticancer effects of Annona glabra plant extracts in human leukemia cell lines.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://coolexotics.com/plant-400-annona-glabra.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annona_glabra
http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/2059/
http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=187&fr=1&sts=
http://www.medgarden.org/plantfiles/annona_glabra.html
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T8D-3YVD0GR-G&_user=10&_coverDate=08%2F11%2F1995&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=55610d05197843748fa24a1b1e2aafd0&searchtype=a
http://www.uni-kl.de/FB-Biologie/Botanik/2006_s-laube.html

Categories
Fruits & Vegetables Herbs & Plants

Burmese grape (Baccaurea ramiflora Lour.)

Botanical Name : Baccaurea ramiflora Lour
Family: Phyllanthaceae
Genus: Baccaurea
Species: B. ramiflora
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Synonym : Baccaurea cauliflora Lour.,

Pierardia sapida Roxb.
Baccaurea sapida (Roxb.) Mull.Arg.
Baccaurea flaccida
Baccaurea propinqua Mull.Arg.
Baccaurea wrayi King ex Hook.f.
Baccaurea oxycarpa Gagnep.
Gatnaia annamica Gagnep.

Common Names :Lutco, Leteku, Lotqua.

Other names:-
English: Burmese grape
Thai: mafai, mak fai pa, khi mi, sae khrua sae, somfai, hamkang, pha yio
Vietnamese: giâu gia ??t
Burmese: kanazo
Cambodian: phnhiew
Local names: Phu noi: cha chouay see
Indian : Le-te-ku
Bengali : Lotkon

Habitat : Burma (Myanmar), South China, India (Assam, Andaman and Nicobar Islands), Malaysian Peninsula, Vietnam, Laos (Khammouan and many other provinces ).

Description:
Small evergreen tree of more than 10 m. high, branches sympodially developed.  Leaves simple, alternate and spiral. Petiole swollen at base and top. Flowers unisexual cauliflorous. Fruit fleshy, orange to purple.
click to see the pictures
Leaves : Leaves simple, 9-25 by 3-9 cm. alternate and spirally-clustered at intervals along the twigs, narrowly elliptic or obovate, apex acuminate, base acute, margin entire or slightly undulate, reddish when young, finely brown-hairy, becoming dark green and shiny above and glabrous when mature. Midrib flat above, prominent below, secondary veins oblique to the midrib, widely parallel, looped and joined at margin, tertiary veins reticulate.
Petiole slender swollen at top and base.
Stipules caducous.

Inflorescences or flowers : Flowers small grouped in raceme, axillary to cauliflorous, males and females on different trees. Males smaller arranged in slender clusters of 10 cm. long, mostly at the end of the branches, individual flower with short pedicel. Female slightly bigger, racemes clustered of 30 cm. long on old branches and main trunk.

Fruits : The fruit is a berry of 2.5 – 3.5 cm. in diameter, ovoid or ellipsoid, hanging along old branches and main trunk, pale orange ripening reddish to purplish.
Seeds :  2-4 large seeds surrounded by a juicy translucent or pinkish pulp.

They are the oblate fruits hanging in big trees; from the bottom of the branches to the top of the trees. They are so large in number that they even bend the branches. Some are green, some are yellow and some are red, they look like balls engraved with jades or beads made of agates. The fruits have a succulent, sour and sweet taste.

Edible Uses:
1.The fruit is usually eaten fresh, poached or made into wine.
2.The seeds are edible as well.
3.Though it is most commonly cultivated in India and Malaysia, it is also found throughout Asia.
4.The trees are usually found at a low density.
5.The fruit is harvested and used locally.
6.This can be used in variety of colors as a tinned or a sweetened fruit topping.
7.Eating too many fruits makes your stomach get upset.
8.More often it is nurtured in home gardens and intercropped with fruits like durian, rambutan and mango.
9.The trees have a poor regeneration capacity.
10.The tree shows a good example for the fruits which grows directly from the main trunk.

Fruits can be kept fresh for 4–5 days, or boiled and mixed with salt after which it is keeps well closed jars. Marginal importance of the fruit, locally used and sold.

How to eat the fruit?
To consume the fruit first we have to break the fruit by peeling off the skin. After that the pulp can be eaten directly, mostly the seeds are also swallowed.

Nutritions in fruit:
Most of the fruit contain ascorbic acid, enzymes, bioflavonoids. The fruit is rich in minerals like chromium, potassium, and magnesium etc as well as B vitamins to amino acids. The largest amount of iron, 5.34 mg/100g was observed in Burmese-grape,

Medicinal Uses:
1)  It is used medicinally to treat skin diseases.
2)  The roots, bark and wood are harvested for medicinal uses.

Bark, roots and wood are dried and ground before boiling in water.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:

http://www.biotik.org/laos/species/b/bacra/bacra_en.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_grape
http://www.fruitsinfo.com/burmese-grapes-tropical-fruit.php

Enhanced by Zemanta
Categories
Fruits & Vegetables Herbs & Plants

Falsa (Grewia asiatica)

Botanical Name :Grewia asiatica
Family: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Grewioideae
Genus: Grewia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malvales
Species: G. asiatica
syn. : Grewia asiatica Mast.
Common Name :Phalsa or Falsa

Habitat :Native to southern Asia from Pakistan east to Cambodia, and widely cultivated in other tropical countries. Grewia celtidifolia was initially considered a mere variety of Phalsa, but is now recognized as a distinct species.It has become naturalised and locally invasive in Australia and the Philippines.

Description:
A large, scraggly shrub or small tree to 15 ft (4.5 m) or more, the phalsa has long, slender, drooping branches, the young branchlets densely coated with hairs. The alternate, deciduous, widely spaced leaves are broadly heart-shaped or ovate, pointed at the apex, oblique at the base, up to 8 in (20 cm) long and 6 1/2 in (16.25 cm) wide, and coarsely toothed, with a light, whitish bloom on the underside. Small, orange-yellow flowers are borne in dense cymes in the leaf axils. The round fruits, on 1-in (2.5 cm) peduncles are produced in great numbers in open, branched clusters. Largest fruits are 1/2 to 5/8 in (1.25-1.6 cm) wide. The skin turns from green to purplish-red and finally dark-purple or nearly black. It is covered with a thin, whitish bloom and is thin, soft and tender. The soft, fibrous flesh is greenish-white stained with purplish-red near the skin and becoming suffused with this color as it progresses to overripeness. The flavor is pleasantly acid, somewhat grapelike. Large fruits have 2 hemispherical, hard, buff-colored seeds 3/16 in (5 mm) wide. Small fruits are single-seeded.

click to see the pictures..>   (01)      .(1)....(2)...(3)....(4)....(5).…...(6)..

Varities:The tall-growing wild plants bear acid fruits which are not relished. The dwarf, shrubby type, with a blend of sweet-and-acid in the best fruits, is cultivated.

Cultivation:
It is extensively cultivated for its sweet and sour acidic fruits, which are sold in the market during summer months under the name Falsa.
In India, the phalsa grows well up to an elevation of 3,000 ft (914 m). It can stand light frosts which cause only shedding of leaves.

The phalsa grows in most any soil–sand, clay or limestone–but rich loam improves fruit production, as does irrigation during the fruiting season and in dry periods, even though the tree is drought-tolerant. Generally, it is grown in marginal land close to city markets.

Propagation:
Seeds are the usual means of propagation and they germinate in 15 days. Ground-layers, treated with hormones, have been 50% successful; air-layers, 85%. Cuttings are difficult to root. Only 20% of semi-hardwood cuttings from spring flush, treated with 1,000 ppm NAA, and planted in July (in India) rooted and grew normally.

Edible Uses:
The fruits are  sweet & sower when ripen….
The pleasant sherbet or squash is prepared from the fruit pulp by mixing it with sugar and used as an astringent, stomachic and cooling agent.

Constituents:
The flowers have been found to contain grewinol, a long chain keto alcohol, tetratricontane-22-ol-13-one. The seeds contain 5% of a bright-yellow oil containing 8.3% palmitic acid, 11.0% stearic acid, 13.4% oleic acid, 64.5% linoleic acid; 2.8% unsaponifiable.

Medicinal Uses:
The fruit is astringent and stomachic. When unripe, it alleviates inflammation and is administered in respiratory, cardiac and blood disorders, as well as in fever.

An infusion of the bark is given as a demulcent, febrifuge and treatment for diarrhea. The root bark is employed in treating rheumatism. The leaves are applied on skin eruptions and they are known to have antibiotic action.

The fruits allay thirst and burning sensations, and can reduce inflammations.These are said to be good for heart and blood disorders, fevers and diarrhoea. The fruit is also good for the troubles of throat. The unripe fruits remove vata, kapha and biliousness. The root bark is used by Santhal tribals for rheumatism. The stem bark is said to be used in refining sugar, for making ropes and its infusion is used as a demulcent. The leaves are used as an application to pustular eruptions. The buds are also prescribed by some physicians.

Other Uses:-

Leaves: The fresh leaves are valued as fodder.

Bark: The bark is used as a soap substitute in Burma. A mucilaginous extract of the bark is useful in clarifying sugar. Fiber extracted from the bark is made into rope.

Wood: The wood is yellow-white, fine-grained, strong and flexible. It is used for archers’ bows, spear handles, shingles and poles for carrying loads on the shoulders. Stems that are pruned off serve as garden poles and for basket-making.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grewia_asiatica
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/phalsa.html

Enhanced by Zemanta
Categories
Fruits & Vegetables Herbs & Plants

Wild Cabbage(Brassica oleracea)

[amazon_link asins=’B01MSRYU6X,B00FGP0HQG’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’340d5fe6-054a-11e7-922f-7554077e1300′]

[amazon_link asins=’B004FCQTM2,B00OJNOX02′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’4ad9194e-054a-11e7-b003-e563e9dfe6c3′]

Botanical Name: Brassica oleracea
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Brassica
Species: B. oleracea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Synonyms : Brassica sylvestris.

Common Names: Wild Cabbage, Broccoli, Tronchuda cabbage, Brussels sprouts, Kohlrabi, Sprouting broccoli

Habitat : Brassica oleracea is native to Coastal regions of the Mediterranean and W. Europe north to France and Britain. Its high tolerance of salt and lime and its intolerance of competition from other plants typically restrict its natural occurrence to limestone sea cliffs.

Description:
Biennial/Perennial growing to 1.2m.Wild  forming a stout rosette of large leaves in the first year, the leaves being fleshier and thicker than those of other species of Brassica, adaptations to store water and nutrients in its difficult growing environment. In its second year, the stored nutrients are used to produce a flower spike 1 to 2 metres (3–7 ft) tall bearing numerous yellow flowers.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

They have smooth margins and look like the outer or basal, non-heading leaves of cabbage. The lower leaves tend to sag down and the upper ones are more erect and cup-shaped. Kale leaves are not as thick as collards and in many cultivars they are fringed or wavy-edged. Kale plants, and their leaves, are smaller than those of collards. There are many cultivars of kale and collards. Some were selected more for ornamental use than food.

It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to August, and the seeds ripen from July to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant is self-fertile.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves.

Leaves – raw or cooked. Slightly bitter raw, they can be cooked in one or more changes of water. We find that the slight bitterness actually enhances the flavour, and this is one of our favourite cooked leaves. The plant can usually be harvested all year round, though there will be little to pick in very cold winters.

Medicinal Actions & Uses
Anthelmintic; Cardiotonic; Diuretic; Laxative; Stomachic.

The leaves are cardiotonic and stomachic. They have been used in the treatment of gout and rheumatism. The leaves can be used as a poultice to cleanse infected wounds – the mid-rib is removed and the leaf ironed then placed on the affected area whilst still hot. The poultice should not be left on too long or it an cause blisters. The seeds are anthelmintic, diuretic, laxative and stomachic.

Cabbages best known medicinal use is as a poultice,  the leaves of the wild or cultivated plant are blanched, crushed, or chopped, and applied to swellings, tumors and painful joints. Wild cabbage leaves eaten raw or cooked aid digestion and the breakdown of toxins in the liver, so the Romans   eating it to ease a hangover was quite sensible.  The leaves can be used as a poultice to cleanse infected wounds – the mid-rib is removed and the leaf ironed then placed on the affected area whilst still hot. The seeds are anthelmintic, diuretic, laxative and stomachic.  Cabbage is also detoxifying and helpful in the long term treatment of arthritis.  The high vitamin C content of cabbage has made it useful in the prevention of scurvy.

Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, it succeeds in full sun in any reasonable soil, though it prefers a well-drained fertile preferably alkaline soil. It does well in heavy clay soils. It is often found wild by the coast and tolerates considerable maritime exposure. The true wild cabbage is a short-lived perennial, though we have seen specimens 5 years old or more[K]. This species has long been cultivated for its edible leaves, stems etc and a wide diversity of forms have been developed, including cabbages, cauliflowers, broccolis and Brussels sprouts. Most of these forms are biennial in cultivation, though there are also some perennial forms. These different forms are detailed below and have each been given their own entry in the database. We have chosen the most up to date classification we can find, as treated in ‘World Economic Plants’. B. oleracea alboglabra. Chinese kales are fast-growing plants with tender edible leaves. Although perennials, they are usually grown as annuals and are eaten as a summer and autumn crop whilst still young. B. oleracea botrytis. Cauliflowers are grown mainly for their edible swollen inflorescence. Different cultivars can be used to provide crops all year round. B. oleracea botrytis aparagoides. A short-lived perennial form of cauliflower producing a small cauliflower head in the spring followed by a number of broccoli-like flowering shoots. B. oleracea capitata. These are the cultivated cabbages, grown for their edible leaves that usually form a compact head. Reasonably winter hardy, different cultivars can be used to provide edible plants all year round. B. oleracea costata. Couve tronchuda is a tall-growing form of cabbage. It is less hardy than most other forms of this genus. B. oleracea gemmifera. Brussels sprouts form large edible axillary buds 5cm or more long. They are mainly used as late autumn to spring crops. B. oleracea gongylodes. Kohl rabi produces an edible swollen stem 8cm or more in diameter. It is reasonably cold hardy and provides crops from mid summer to the winter. B. oleracea italica. The calabreses and sprouting broccolis, grown mainly for their edible flowering shoots. Calabrese is the less hardy and is used mainly as an autumn and early winter crop. The sprouting broccolis are very winter hardy and are grown outdoors through the winter to provide a spring to early summer crop. B. oleracea medullosa. Marrowstem kales have edible leaves and stems. B. oleracea palmifolia. The Jersey kale produces a very tall stem which has been used as a walking stick. B. oleracea ramosa. The thousand-headed and perennial kales are very cold hardy. Their flavour is stronger than most of the other cultivated forms and they are mainly used as a winter crop. This form is very close to the wild species and has the most potential for developing perennial cultivars. B. oleracea subauda. The savoy cabbages form large heads like the cultivated cabbages (B. oleracea capitata). They have a stronger flavour, crinkly leaves and are generally more cold-hardy so can provide a winter crop in areas with quite severe winters. B. oleracea sabellica. The curly kales have attractively curled leaves. These are quite cold-tolerant plants and are mainly used to provide edible leaves in winter and spring. B. oleracea viridis. Collards are a cold-hardy non-heading form of cabbage, used mainly to provide green leaves in the spring.

Propagation
Seed – sow April in situ. Seedlings transplant very well and so, if you sow the seed too thickly, it is a simple matter to move some of the plants to give them more space. Cuttings root very easily at almost any time in the growing season[K]. Use shoots about 8cm long of the current year’s growth and place them in individual pots in the cuttings frame.

Cultivars
‘Tree Collards’
This is a perennial form of cabbage that is said to live for 20 years or more. The leaves are a very dark green and look somewhat like the leaves of savoy cabbages, though the plant does not form a heart. The flavour is very good and the leaves can be eaten raw or cooked. The plant can be harvested all year round. The shoot tips are removed when about 15 – 20cm long, making sure that there is plenty of stem left. The plant then forms new sideshoots along the stem and these can also be harvested in their turn.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Brassica+oleracea
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brassica_oleracea
http://www.floridata.com/ref/b/bras_ole_kale.cfm

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

Enhanced by Zemanta