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Berberis empetrifolia

Botanical Name: Berberis empetrifolia
Family: Berberidaceae
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales
Genus: Berberis
Species: B. empetrifolia

Synonyms:
*Berberis cuneata
*Berberis empetrifolia
*Berberis mutabilis
*Berberis. revoluta
*Berberis wawrana

Common Names: Heath barberry

Habitat: Berberis empetrifolia is native to S. America – S. Argentina, S. Chile. It grows on the waste ground near the sea and at elevations up to 1300 metres.

Description:
Berberis empetrifolia is a heath barberry is a low (up to ½ m high and over 1 m wide in the wild) shrub. It is in leaf all year, in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from September to October. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile.

The mature twigs have a warm brown color, with 3-branched, flattened, light brown spines (1-1½ cm long) under each short side shoot. The thick, narrow leaves are semi-deciduous, linear in shape (1–2 cm long), somewhat bluish-green, with entire, rolled-under margins, and pointed, often purplish tips that may later die-down to a light brown. The flowers are radially symmetrical (about ½ cm), occur late in spring individually or in small umbels, are yolk yellow hinting towards orange. As in other Berberis species, the tepals are set in four whorls of three to five and equal in shape and color, so it is difficult to separate sepals from petals. The filament has a tooth on each side near its upper end, where the anther is attached. The fruit is a globose, blue-black berry of about 7 mm in diameter.

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Cultivation:
Prefers a warm moist loamy soil and light shade but it is by no means fastidious, succeeding in thin, dry and shallow soils. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are hardy to about -15°c. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Plants can be pruned back quite severely, they resprout well from the base.

Edible Uses: The fruits of the Berberis empetrifolia is edible raw or cooked, and it can be used in jams after removing the seeds.

Medicinal Uses:
Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Berberis species, has marked antibacterial effects. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity.

Other Uses: A yellow dye is obtained from the root and bark. It is sometimes planted as an ornamental, and in good soil it can eventually exceed 1 m in height and 2 m wide

Known Hazards: The rest of the plant is poisonous.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berberis_empetrifolia
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Berberis+empetrifolia

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Herbs & Plants

Berberis darwinii

Botanical Name: Berberis darwinii
Family: Berberidaceae
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales
Genus: Berberis
Species: B. darwinii

Synonyms:
*Berberis costulata Gand.
*Berberis darwinii var. magellanica Ahrendt
*Berberis knightii (Lindl.) K.Koch
*Mahonia knightii Lindl.

Common Names: Darwin’s Barberry, Michay

Habitat: Berberis darwinii is native to S. America – S. Argentina, S. Chile. It grows on the moist shady woodland in the Patagonian mountains.

Description:
Berberis darwinii is an evergreen Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft) by 3.5 m (11ft) at a medium rate. It has dense branches from ground level. It is in leaf all year, in flower from April to May, and the seeds ripen from July to August. The leaves are small oval, 12–25 mm long and 5–12 mm broad, with a spiny margin; they are borne in clusters of 2–5 together, subtended by a three-branched spine 2–4 mm long. The flowers are orange, 4–5 mm long, produced in dense racemes 2–7 cm long in spring. The fruit is a small purple-black berry 4–7 mm diameter, ripening in summer.
. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile.

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Berberis darwinii was discovered (in Western science) in South America in 1835 by Charles Darwin during the voyage of the ‘Beagle’. It was one of many named in honour of Darwin. The berries of this species are known to have been consumed by prehistoric native peoples in the Patagonian region over millennia.

Cultivation:
Prefers a warm moist loamy soil in full sun or light shade but it is by no means fastidious, succeeding in thin, dry and shallow soils. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Succeeds on chalky soils if other conditions are suitable but prefers an acid soil. Dislikes exposure to strong winds according to one report. whilst others say that it is a very wind hardy plant, tolerating maritime exposure. Does not flower well in exposed positions. Plants growing in a very exposed position on our trial grounds in Cornwall are flowering and fruiting well, they are rather slow growing but are looking very happy and healthy. A very ornamental plant, it is hardy to about -15°c. A good bee plant. Birds love this fruit and will happily eat it all before it is fully ripe. If you want to experience the fully ripe fruit then it might be necessary to find ways of keep the birds off the plants[K]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Plants can be pruned back quite severely, they resprout well from the base. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus. Special Features:Not North American native.

Edible Uses:
Fruits are eaten – raw or cooked and used in preserves. An acid but very pleasant flavour, children seem particularly fond of the fruit. When fully ripe, the fruit loses most of its acidity and makes very pleasant eating. Unfortunately there is a lot of seed compared to the amount of flesh and this does detract somewhat from the pleasure of eating it. The fruit goes very well raw in a muesli or cooked in a porridge. The fruits are about 7mm long.

Medicinal Uses:
The root bark is tonic. Berberine, universally present in all parts of Berberis species but especially the rhizomes, has marked antibacterial effects, especially upon the urinary system. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity.

Other Uses:
Landscape Uses:Border, Erosion control, Pest tolerant, Hedge, Massing, Seashore. Plants are very amenable to trimming and can be used as a formal hedge. They also make a very good informal hedge, their long arching branches looking especially attractive when in flower or bearing fruit. The plants tolerate maritime exposure though they are slow growing. A yellow dye is obtained from the root and bark.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berberis_darwinii
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Berberis+darwinii

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Herbs & Plants

Berberis calliantha

Botanical Name:Berberis calliantha
Family: Berberidaceae
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales
Genus: Berberis

Habitat: Berberis calliantha is native to E. Asia – S.E. Tibet. It grows on the Montane regions.

Description:
Berberis calliantha is an evergreen spiny shrub of dwarf, compact growth, up to 3 ft high; shoots angled, armed with triple spines. Leaves elliptic or inclined to oval, 1 to 2.5 in . wide, pointed, cuneate at the base, margins spiny-toothed, dark glossy green above, waxy white beneath; stalk 1/10 to 1/5 in.

. It is in leaf all year, in flower from May to June. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile.
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food. It is sometimes grown as an ornamental in gardens.

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Cultivation:
Prefers a warm moist loamy soil and light shade but it is by no means fastidious, succeeding in thin, dry and shallow soils and in full sun. Grows well in heavy clay soils.
Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus.
Plants can be pruned back quite severely and resprout well from the base.
Some Berberis species (especially Berberis vulgaris) harbour the black stem-rust fungus (Puccinia graminis Persoon). This is a major disease of wheat and barley crops and can spread from infected barberries to the grain crop. The sale or transport of susceptible or untested species of Berberis is illegal in the United States and Canada. This species has been found to be resistant to the disease.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame, when it should germinate in late winter or early spring. Seed from over-ripe fruit will take longer to germinate, whilst stored seed may require cold stratification and should be sown in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. The seedlings are subject to damping off, so should be kept well ventilated. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame. If growth is sufficient, it can be possible to plant them out into their permanent positions in the autumn, but generally it is best to leave them in the cold frame for the winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year.

Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. An acid flavour. The blue-black, oval fruit can be up to 15mm long and10mm wide.

Medicinal Uses:
The alkaloid berberine, which is universally present in the roots and stems of Berberis species, has marked antibacterial effects. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery.
It should not be used in combination with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine.
Berberine has also shown antitumour activity.

Other Uses:
The roots and wood of all Berberis species contain alkaloids and, when cut open, are a strong yellow colour. This has been utilized by various cultures to make a yellow dye for cloth etc.

Known Hazards:
All parts of the plant contain the alkaloid berberine – this is most concentrated in the roots, stems and inner bark, and least concentrated in the fruits. In small quantities berberine has a range of effective medicinal applications but, in excess, can cause vomiting, lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate, lethargy, and other ill-effects.
The fruit of most, if not all, members of this genus are more or less edible and can be eaten in quantity since the levels of berberine in the fruit are very low.

Botanical Name:Berberis calliantha
Family: Berberidaceae
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales
Genus: Berberis

Habitat: Berberis calliantha is native to E. Asia – S.E. Tibet. It grows on the Montane regions.

Description:
Berberis calliantha is an evergreen spiny shrub of dwarf, compact growth, up to 3 ft high; shoots angled, armed with triple spines. Leaves elliptic or inclined to oval, 1 to 2.5 in . wide, pointed, cuneate at the base, margins spiny-toothed, dark glossy green above, waxy white beneath; stalk 1?10 to 1?5 in.

. It is in leaf all year, in flower from May to June. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile.
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food. It is sometimes grown as an ornamental in gardens.

Cultivation:
Prefers a warm moist loamy soil and light shade but it is by no means fastidious, succeeding in thin, dry and shallow soils and in full sun. Grows well in heavy clay soils.
Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus.
Plants can be pruned back quite severely and resprout well from the base.
Some Berberis species (especially Berberis vulgaris) harbour the black stem-rust fungus (Puccinia graminis Persoon). This is a major disease of wheat and barley crops and can spread from infected barberries to the grain crop. The sale or transport of susceptible or untested species of Berberis is illegal in the United States and Canada. This species has been found to be resistant to the disease.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame, when it should germinate in late winter or early spring. Seed from over-ripe fruit will take longer to germinate, whilst stored seed may require cold stratification and should be sown in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. The seedlings are subject to damping off, so should be kept well ventilated. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame. If growth is sufficient, it can be possible to plant them out into their permanent positions in the autumn, but generally it is best to leave them in the cold frame for the winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year.

Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. An acid flavour. The blue-black, oval fruit can be up to 15mm long and10mm wide.

Medicinal Uses:
The alkaloid berberine, which is universally present in the roots and stems of Berberis species, has marked antibacterial effects. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery.
It should not be used in combination with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine.
Berberine has also shown antitumour activity.

Other Uses:
The roots and wood of all Berberis species contain alkaloids and, when cut open, are a strong yellow colour. This has been utilized by various cultures to make a yellow dye for cloth etc.

Known Hazards:
All parts of the plant contain the alkaloid berberine – this is most concentrated in the roots, stems and inner bark, and least concentrated in the fruits. In small quantities berberine has a range of effective medicinal applications but, in excess, can cause vomiting, lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate, lethargy, and other ill-effects.
The fruit of most, if not all, members of this genus are more or less edible and can be eaten in quantity since the levels of berberine in the fruit are very low.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berberis
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Berberis+calliantha
http://temperate.theferns.info/plant/Berberis+calliantha

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Herbs & Plants

Berberis canadensis

Botanical Name: Berberis canadensis
Family: Berberidaceae
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales
Genus: Berberis
Species: B. canadensis

Synonyms:
*Berberis caroliniana Sweet
*Berberis caroliniana var. macrocarpa (Schrad.) Zabel
**Berberis integerrima K.Koch
*Berberis macracantha K.Koch
*Berberis macrocarpa Schrad.
*Berberis macrotheca K.Koch
*Berberis microphylla K.Koch
*Berberis nitens K.Koch
*Berberis pisifera Raf.
*Berberis serrulata Raf.
*Berberis sinensis f. canadensis (Willd.) Regel
*Berberis sinensis var. canadensis (Willd.) Regel
*Berberis vulgaris var. canadensis Willd.

Common Names: Allegheny Barberry, American barberry

Habitat: Berberis canadensis is native to Eastern N. America – Virginia to Georgia, Alberta and Indiana. It grows on the
banks of streams and dry woods. In woods or glades, on rocky slopes and near rivers at elevations of 100 – 700 metres.

Description:
Berberis canadensis is a deciduous Shrub growing 3 to 6 ft high at a midium rate, with the branchlets not downy, but thickly covered with small, warty lenticels, and armed with three-parted spines. Leaves narrowly obovate, from 1 to 2.5 in. long, tapering very gradually at the base, the apex rounded or acute, but always terminating in a short spine, the margin toothed, sometimes remotely so, sometimes almost entire, glabrous. Racemes 1 to 1.5 in. long, bearing from six to fifteen yellow flowers. Fruit oval or nearly globose, red. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in August. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile.

The flowers of Berberis canadensis are arranged in a raceme. They are usually 2–5 cm (1–2 in) in length and have six petals. The petals are cup-shaped and notched at the tips. In addition, flowers are set in a double row pattern, with one petal sitting on top of another. They range in color from yellow to a dull whitish yellow with a bright green stigma protruding out of the middle.

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Cultivation:
Prefers a warm moist loamy soil but is by no means fastidious, succeeding in thin, dry and shallow soils. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Succeeds in full sun or light shade. The plant is an alternate host of ‘black stem rust’ of cereals and so it is often grubbed out when growing wild in cereal-producing areas. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Plants can be pruned back quite severely and resprout well from the base. For polyculture design as well as the above-ground architecture (form – tree, shrub etc. and size shown above) information on the habit and root pattern is also useful and given here if available. The plant growth habit is multistemmed with multiple stems from the crown .

Edible Uses:
The fruit of Berberis canadensis are used extensively by many people, and is rich in vitamin C. Historically, it has been known as a major source of nutrition for the indigenous people of southeastern United States. The juicy red berries of the plant can be cooked to make jelly. The juice of the berries is also a sought-after refreshment. Lastly the berries of the B. canadensis are pounded to produce a paste similar to oatmeal. In addition, the berries are sometimes used to make alcoholic beverages

Medicinal Uses:
Native Americans, specifically the Cherokee, have been known to use Berberis canadensis as a remedy for diarrhea. The bark of the plant would be placed in water and then drunk to help alleviate the symptoms.

Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Berberis species, has marked antibacterial effects. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity. A tea made from the roots is used in the treatment of fevers and diarrhoea.

Other Uses:
A yellow dye is obtained from the root.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berberis_canadensis#:~:text=Jump%20to%20navigation%20Jump%20to%20search.%20Berberis%20canadensis%2C,or%20%27true%27%20Berberis%20indigenous%20to%20the%20United%20States.
https://treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/berberis/berberis-canadensis/
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Berberis+canadensis

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Berberis buxifolia

Botanical Name: Berberis buxifolia
Family: Berberidaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales
Genus: Berberis
Species: B. microphylla

Synonyms:
*Berberis antucoana C.K.Schneid.
*Berberis barilochensis Job
*Berberis microphylla.
*Berberis cristata (Lam.) Lavallée
*Berberis cuneata DC.
*Berberis dulcis Sweet nom. illeg.
*Berberis heterophylla Juss. ex Poir.
*Berberis inermis Pers.
*Berberis magellanica Dippel

Common Names: Magellan Barberry, Box-leaved barberry and Magellan barberry, in Spanish Calafate and Michay

Habitat: Berberis buxifolia is native to S. America – S. Chile and S. Argentina. Occasionally naturalized in Britain. It grows in coastal scrub, forest margins, clearings and moister areas in grass.

Description:
Berberis buxifolia is an evergreen Shrub growing to 2.5 m (8ft) by 3 m (9ft). It is in leaf all year, in flower in April. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile.

The bush grows to a height of 1.0 to 1.5 m (3 ft 3 in to 4 ft 11 in). It has many arching branches, each covered in many tripartite spines. The bush has many small yellow flowers in summer. Its edible blue-black berries are harvested for jams, but are eaten fresh too – a legend tells that anyone who eats a calafate berry will be certain to return to Patagonia.

The calafate is grown commercially for its fruit, potential medical uses and as a garden plant or bonsai. Its wood is used to make a red dye. The cultivar Berberis microphylla ‘Nana’ is widely available as a garden shrub, and is also used in commercial plantings as a low spiny hedge to discourage intruders, but it does not fruit.

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Cultivation:
Berberis microphylla is a fairly hardy plant, it can tolerate occasional winter temperatures falling as low as -15°c, though it can be deciduous in cold winters.
Prefers a warm moist loamy soil and light shade but it is by no means fastidious, succeeding in thin, dry and shallow soils and in full sun. Grows well in heavy clay soils.
The dwarf Berberis microphylla nana is the form of this species that is most commonly found growing in Britain. It is very free flowering but to date (1994) we have not seen this form bearing fruit. The species is supposed to be self-fertile so it is possible that this form is sterile. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Plants can be pruned back quite severely and resprout well from the base.

Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or used in conserves.. Freely borne in Britain. Large and black with a pleasant flavour, they are eaten out of hand. Said to be the best flavoured of the South American barberries, the fruit is hardly acid and but slightly astringent. The green unripe fruits can be used like gooseberries in pies etc. The subglobose berries are 7 – 11mm in diameter.

Medicinal Uses:
The alkaloid berberine, which is universally present in the roots and stems of Berberis species, has marked antibacterial effects. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery.
It should not be used in combination with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine.
Berberine has also shown antitumour activity.

Other Uses:
The roots and stems of all Berberis species contain alkaloids and, when cut open, are a strong yellow colour. This has been utilized by various cultures to make a yellow dye for cloth etc

Known Hazards:
All parts of the plant contain the alkaloid berberine – this is most concentrated in the roots, stems and inner bark, and least concentrated in the fruits. In small quantities berberine has a range of effective medicinal applications but, in excess, can cause vomiting, lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate, lethargy, and other ill-effects.
The fruit of most, if not all, members of this genus are more or less edible and can be eaten in quantity since the levels of berberine in the fruit are very low.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berberis_microphylla
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Berberis+buxifolia
http://temperate.theferns.info/plant/Berberis+microphylla