Category Archives: Herbs & Plants

Panicum sumatrense

Botanical Name: Panicum sumatrense
Family: Poaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Genus: Panicum
Species: P. sumatrense

Synonyms:
Panicum sumatrense subsp. psilopodium
Panicum simplex Willd. ex Spreng.
Panicum simplex Rottler ex Trin.
Panicum royleanum Nees ex Duthie
Panicum psilopodium var. epaleatum
Panicum psilopodium var. coloratum
Panicum psilopodium Trin.
Panicum paianum var. minus
Panicum miliare var. hirtum
Panicum miliaceum var. attenuatum
Panicum flexuosum Retz.
Panicum crispum Llanos
Panicum attenuatum (Moench) Willd.
Panicum attenuatum (Moench) Moench
Panicum albidulum Steud.
Milium attenuatum Moench

Common Names: Little millet,
Hindi: Moraiyo, Kutki, Shavan.
Bengali : Sama.
Tamil : Samai.
Gujarati : Gajro, Kuri.
Telugu : Samalu.
Marathi : Sava, Halvi, Vari.
Oriya : Suan.
Kannada : Saame

Habitat : Panicum sumatrense grows in the temperate zones of Asia: the Caucasus, China, East Asia and also in the tropics of the continent: India, Indochina and Malaysia. It can withstand both drought and waterlogging. It can be cultivated up to 2000 m above sea level.

Description:
Panicum sumatrense is an annual herbaceous plant, which grows straight or with folded blades to a height of 30 cm to 1 m. The leaves are linear, with the sometimes hairy laminae and membranous hairy ligules. The panicles are from 4 to 15 cm in length with 2 to 3.5 mm long awn. The grain is round and smooth, 1.8 to 1.9 mm long. This species of cereal is similar in habit to the proso millet except that it is smaller.

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Edible Uses: Little millet is cooked like rice. Sometimes the millet is also milled and baked. The protein content of the grain is 7.7%.

Medicinal Uses:
Fresh juice (ca. 10 ml) with a pinch of common salt is given 3-times a day for 3 days as refrigerant during suffering from
smallpox by the Lodhas. Fresh root (ca. 50 gm) is made into a paste with black pepper (Piper nigrum) (ca. 5 gm) It is given for the
treatment of scalp infection by the Asurs. Root paste (freshly prepared) warmed gently and is applied on the carbuncle to reduce pain
by the Polias.

Cultivation:
The largest cultivation is in central India. Usually, it is planted using a seed drill. It can also if necessary be planted spoiled. The green plant can also be used in part as cattle feed. The straw can be mixed with clay or cement be used in construction.

The harvest yield is from 230 to 900 kg/ha.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panicum_sumatrense
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf
https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panicum_sumatrense

Panicum repens

Botanical Name: Panicum repens
Family: Poaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Genus: Panicum
Species: P. repens

Synonyms: Panicum gouinii Fourn.

Common Names: Torpedograss, Creeping panic, Panic rampant, Couch panicum, Wainaku grass, Quack grass, Dog-tooth grass, and Bullet grass.

U.S. name: Torpedo grass
English name: Victoria grass
Spanish name: Canota
French name: Panic rampant
Italian name: Panico strisciante

Habitat : Panicum repens is native to “Africa and/or Asia”, “Europe or Australia”, “Eurasia”, “Australia”, “Europe, Asia, and Africa”, or other specific regions, including the Mediterranean, Israel, and Argentina. It is present in many places as an introduced species and often a noxious weed. It has been called “one of the world’s worst weeds. This grass grows throughout the world in tropical and subtropical areas.

Description:
Panicum repens is a perennial grass, spreads via its large, branching rhizomes, which are thick and pointed. The pointed shape of the rhizome tip gives the plant the name torpedograss. The rhizomes creep along the ground or float in water, forming floating mats. They can reach a length of 6 meters (20 ft) and a soil depth of 7 meters (23 ft), and they can form a mat 15 centimeters (5.9 in) thick. The spreading rhizomes sprout repeatedly to form colonies of stems. The stems are 20 to 90 centimeters (7.9 to 35.4 in) tall, sometimes reaching 1 meter (3 ft 3 in). They grow erect or bend down. The leaves are stiff and straight, linear in shape, and flat or folded. They are sometimes white in color and waxy in texture. The inflorescence is a loose panicle of branches bearing small spikelets 2 to 3 millimeters (0.079 to 0.118 in) long.. Leaf sheaths can be glabrous or hairy with a membranous ligule covered by short hairs. Flowering occurs nearly year round. When mature and fertile the lemma palea are yellow or stramineous.

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Medicinal Uses:
Fresh juice prepared by crushing internode portion of the plant is filtered. The filtrate is used as eye drop to cure eye irritation
by the Lodhas. Fresh stolon (ca. 20gm) is made into a paste, and mixed with black pepper (Piper nigrum) (ca. 5 gm) seeds. The paste
is taken to cure piles by the Asurs. The drug is continued for at least 15 days.

Other Uses: Panicum repens is a useful species of grass for binding coastal sands, lake shores and 20 – 30° steep pond slopes.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panicum_repens
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf

Panicum psilopodium

Botanical Name: Panicum psilopodium
Family: Poaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Genus: Panicum
Species: P. sumatrense

Synonyms:
Panicum miliare auct
Panicum longiloreum
Panicum psilopodium
Panicum ramosum

Common Names: Little millet, Witch grass, Chikui, Bara gondula.
Hindi: Moraiyo, Kutki, Shavan.
Bengali : Sama.
Tamil : Samai.
Gujarati : Gajro, Kuri.
Telugu : Samalu.
Marathi : Sava, Halvi, Vari.
Oriya : Suan.
Kannada : Saame

Habitat: Panicum psilopodium grows in the temperate zones of Asia: the Caucasus, China, East Asia and also in the tropics of the continent,India, Indochina and Malaysia. It can withstand both drought and waterlogging. It can be cultivated up to 2000 m above sea level.

Description:
Panicum psilopodium is an annual herbaceous plant, which grows straight or with folded blades to a height of 30 cm to 1 m. This species of cereal is similar in habit to the proso millet except that it is smaller. The leaves are linear, with the sometimes hairy laminae and membranous hairy ligules. The panicles are from 4 to 15 cm in length with 2 to 3.5 mm long awn. The grain is round and smooth, 1.8 to 1.9 mm long.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Edible Uses: Panicum psilopodium or Little millet is cooked like rice. Sometimes the millet is also milled and baked. The protein content of the grain is 7.7%.

Medicianal Uses:
Aqueous decoction of fresh root (ca. 10 ml) mixed with (ca. 1 gm) table salt is given to cure stomach-ache by the Lodhas.
Root paste (ca. 20 gm) mixed with a little camphor (ca. 2 gm) and “Haldi” paste (paste of Curcuma longa rhizome) is applied on skin
eruption by the Asur tribe.

Cultivation:
The largest cultivation is in central India. Usually, it is planted using a seed drill. It can also if necessary be planted spoiled. The green plant can also be used in part as cattle feed. The straw can be mixed with clay or cement be used in construction.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panicum_sumatrense
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf

Oryza rufipogon

Botanical Name : Oryza rufipogon
Family: Poaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Genus: Oryza
Species: O. rufipogon

Common Names: Brownbeard rice, Wild rice,Junglee rice, Basu dhan, Jhari dhan and Red rice

Habitat : Oryza rufipogon is native to East, South and Southeast Asia. It has a close evolutionary relation to Oryza sativa, the plant grown as a major rice food crop throughout the world.

Oryza rufipogon is an invasive species and listed as a ‘noxious weed’ by the United States, and also listed as a noxious weed in Alabama, California, Florida, Massachusetts, Minnesota, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, and Vermont. According to the North American Plant Protection Association, O. rufipogon blends in with cultivated O. sativa so well that it cannot be detected. In this position it competes with the cultivated rice and uses valuable fertilizer and space. O. rufipogon sheds most of its seeds before the harvest, therefore contributing little to the overall yield. In addition, the rice grains produced by the plant are not eaten by consumers, who see it as a strange foreign particle in otherwise white rice.

Description:
Oryza rufipogon is a perennial grass with elongated rhizomes; it can grow up to 2 metres tall. The plant produces a clump of scrambling stems that form new roots at the nodes.

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Because they are a source of resistance to or tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses, the most important use of the various species of wild rice is probably in breeding programmes to improve the species of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa, Oryza glaberrima). However, this species is also valuable for use as a food supplement in India and Sri Lanka, and as famine food when other crops fail. In many parts of South Asia, wild rice grains are used as an offering to Deities in the temples and can command a high price in the market where they are sold during religious festivals.

Edible Uses:
Seed – cooked. Used like rice in S. America. In Asia they are used as a traditional food by some tribal communities, as a famine food when there are no better foods available, whilst the seed is also eaten by Brahmins on days of fasting.

Medicinal Uses:
The aqueous extract of the fresh internodes is filtered. The filtrate is used as eye drop to cure irritation of the eye due to
conjunctivitis infection by the Lodhas. Fresh root paste mixed with the ‘Adarak’ paste (rhizome of Zingiber officinale) is applied to
cure orchitis by the Santals. Seed powder mixed with black pepper (Piper nigrum) paste is given as a diaphoretic agent by the Santals.
Grains are edible, used as a substitute of rice.

Other Uses:
Because they are a source of resistance to or tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses, the most important use of the various species of wild rice is probably in breeding programmes to improve the species of cultivated rice.

Cultivation:
Prefers an open, sunny position. Prefers a clay-loam soil and a black soil, and is able to grow in water from 20 – 400cm deep.
This species is widely believed to be the closest related species to the cultivated rice (Oryza sativa). It is spread widely through the tropics and subtropics and is considered to be invasive in many parts of Central and South America where it has become naturalized. It is considered to be a weed in rice fields, as it easily crosses with the cultivated rice, reducing its market value

Propagation:
Seed. The seed of wild rice less than 12 months old often exhibits strong dormancy, which implies (though this has not been established) that the seed retains its viability for a considerable period

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oryza_rufipogon
http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Oryza+rufipogon
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf

Oryza nivara

Botanical Name: Oryza nivara
Family: Poaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Subfamily: Oryzoideae
Genus: Oryza
Species: O. nivara

Common Name: Jhara dhan

Habitat:Oryza nivara grows in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is found growing in swampy areas, at edge of pond and tanks, beside streams, in ditches, in or around rice fields. Grows in shallow water up to 0.3 m, in seasonally dry and open habitats.

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Description:
Oryza nivara is an annual, short to intermediate height (usually <2 m) grass; panicles usually compact, rarely open; spikelets large, 6-10.4 mm long and 1.9-3.4 mm wide, with strong awn (4–10 cm long); anthers 1.5–3 mm long.

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Edible Uses: Oryza nivara is a wild rice from India; one of rice species being used in the OMAP project. It belongs to the AA genome group. Breeders are interested in this organism because it exhibits resistance to grassy stunt virus.

Medicinal Uses: Root paste is applied to cure gum swelling by the Mundas. Root paste is applied to reset the teeth by the Santals.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oryza_nivara
http://plants.ensembl.org/Oryza_nivara/Info/Annotation/
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf