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Herbs & Plants

Elaeagnus pungens

Botanical Name: Elaeagnus pungens
Family: Elaeagnaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales
Genus: Elaeagnus
Species: E. pungens

Common names: Thorny olive, Spiny oleaster and Silverthorn; Elaeagnus, Thorny Elaeagnus, Oleaster, Silverberry, Silverthorn, Pungent Elaeagnus

Habitat: Elaeagnus pungensis native to Asia, including China and Japan. It grows on the sunny slopes, road sides and thickets in lowlands, usually below 1000 metres and especially by the sea.

Description:
Elaeagnus pungens is a dense, branching shrub which can reach over 7 metres (23 ft) tall by 4 metres (13 ft) wide. It sprouts prolifically from its stem, spreading out and twining into adjacent vegetation. Parts of the stem are covered in thorns which can be up to 8 centimetres (3.1 in) long. The evergreen, alternately-arranged leaves are up to 10 centimetres (3.9 in) long but under 5 centimetres (2.0 in) wide. The undersides are silvery white with brown flecks. Tubular flowers are borne in clusters of up to three. The flowers are yellowish or white and are sweet-scented. The fruit is a drupe up to 1.5 centimetres (0.59 in) long which contains one seed. It is reddish with silver scales. Blooming occurs in the autumn and fruit develops during the spring. The plant grows quickly, with shoots growing over one meter per season. The growth has been described as “aggressive”, with shoots extending many meters into neighboring treetops. The seeds are dispersed by birds.

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Cultivation:
Despite its invasive potential, E. pungens is widely cultivated as a garden plant in temperate regions. It tolerates varied environmental conditions, including heat, cold, wind, coastal conditions, shade, and full sun. It is very drought-tolerant. It can grow in varied soil types, including those found at mine spoils. Numerous cultivars have been developed, especially for variegated foliage effects. Commercially available cultivars include ‘Maculata’, which has gold coloration on the leaves, as well as ‘Fruitlandii’, ‘Hosoba-Fukurin’ and ‘Goldrim’.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. It should germinate freely within 4 weeks, though it may take 18 months. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate, often taking more than 18 months. A warm stratification for 4 weeks followed by 12 weeks cold stratification can help. The seed usually (eventually) germinates quite well. Prick out the seedlings into individual pot as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant out when they are at least 15cm tall. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 – 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Good percentage. It is best to take the cuttings in June. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, 10 – 12cm with a heel, November in a frame. Leave for 12 months. Fair to good percentage. Layering in September/October. Takes 12 months.

Edible Uses:
Fruits are edible, eaten – raw or cooked. About the size of a large blackcurrant, though the seed is also quite large. A nice sub-acid flavour when fully ripe but astringent if eaten before then. Can be made into preserves, drinks etc. Seeds are also eaten- raw or cooked. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous. A taste vaguely reminiscent of peanuts. The seed contains 42.2% protein and 23.1% fat on a zero moisture bas

Medicinal Uses:
The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers. The leaves and the stems are concocted and used in the treatment of asthma, cough, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids etc. The seed is used to treat watery diarrhoea. The root is astringent and is applied to sores, itchy skin etc. Flowers have been reported to have astringent properties.

Other Uses:
Plants can be grown as a hedge in exposed positions, tolerating maritime exposure. Succeeds when planted under trees that have become bare at the base, in time it will scramble up into the tree and fill out the bottom.
It can fix Nitrogen.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaeagnus_pungens
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Elaeagnus+pungens

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Herbs & Plants

Elaeagnus parvifolia

Botanical Name: Elaeagnus parvifolia
Family: Elaeagnaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales
Genus: Elaeagnus

Synonyms: Elaeagnus umbellata parvifolia

Common Names: Autumn berry; Autumn elaeagnus; Oleaster; Spreading oleaster Spanish: Fresa de otoño; Fresa japonesa; Fresa plateada.

Habitat: Elaeagnus parvifolia is native to E. Asia – Himalayas. It grows on Shrubberies, 1500 – 3000 metres, from Afghanistan to S.W. China. Forest openings at elevations of 1300 – 3000 metres in Nepal.

Description:
Elaeagnus parvifolia is a deciduous Shrub growing to 4.5 m (14ft) by 3 m (9ft) at a medium rate.
The alternate leaves and the shoots are usually covered with tiny silvery to brownish scales, giving the plants a whitish to grey-brown colour from a distance. It is in flower from May to June. The flowers are small, with a four-lobed calyx and no petals; they are often fragrant. The fruit is a fleshy drupe containing a single seed; it is edible in many species.It ripens from September to November. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees.

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Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils that are well-drained. Prefers a soil that is only moderately fertile, succeeding in very poor soils and in dry soils. Prefers a light sandy loam and a sunny position. Dislikes shallow chalk soils. Plants are very drought resistant and very tolerant of maritime exposure. A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to at least -40°c. Somewhat similar to E. multiflora, but flowering a few weeks later. The flowers are rich in nectar and very aromatic, they are much visited by bees. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus. Plants can fruit in 6 years from seed. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. An excellent companion plant, when grown in orchards it can increase yields from the fruit trees by up to 10%.

Propagation:
Through Seeds – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. It should germinate in late winter or early spring, though it may take 18 months. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate, often taking more than 18 months. A warm stratification for 4 weeks followed by 12 weeks cold stratification can help. The seed usually (eventually) germinates quite well. Prick out the seedlings into individual pot as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant out when they are at least 15cm tall. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 – 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Good percentage. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, 10 – 12cm with a heel, November in a frame. Leave for 12 months. Fair to good percentage. Layering in September/October. Takes 12 month

Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw, cooked or added to curries. The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent – though children seem to love it at the slightly unripe stage. The fruit is about 8mm in diameter and contains a single large seed. Seed – raw or cooked. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous.

Medicinal Uses:
The unripe fruit is astringent and is eaten in the treatment of bloody dysentery. The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.
Fruits has been used against flatulence, amoebic dysentery, nausea, and vomiting. Flowers have been reported to have astringent properties.

Other Uses:
Very tolerant of maritime exposure, it can be grown as an informal hedge in exposed positions.
It can fix Nitrogen.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaeagnus
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Elaeagnus+parvifolia

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Herbs & Plants

Elaeagnus orientalis

Botanical Name: Elaeagnus orientalis
Family: Elaeagnaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales
Genus: Elaeagnus

Synonyms : Elaeagnus angustifolia orientalis.

Common Name: Trebizond Date

Habitat: Elaeagnus orientalis is native to W. Asia. It grows by streams and on river banks, to elevations of 3000 metres in Turkey.

Description:
Elaeagnus orientalis is a deciduous Shrub growing to 12 m (39ft) by 6 m (19ft) at a medium rate. The leaves are Like other plane trees, its leaves are borne alternately on the stem, deeply lobed, and palmate or maple -like. It usually has flaking bark, occasionally not flaking and becoming thick and rugged. Flowers and fruit are round and burr-like, borne in clusters of between 2 and 6 on a stem. The oval fruit is about 10mm long and contains a single large seed.

It is in flower in June. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees.

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Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils that are well-drained. Prefers a soil that is only moderately fertile, succeeding in very poor soils and in dry soils. Established plants are very drought resistant. Prefers a light sandy loam and a sunny position. Dislikes shallow chalk soils. Very closely related to E. angustifolia and often considered to be no more than a sub-species of it, it does not flower so freely in Britain as that species. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. An excellent companion plant, when grown in orchards it can increase yields from the fruit trees by up to 10%. The flowers are very fragrant and are rich in nectar, they are much visited by bees. Occasionally cultivated for its edible fruit, there are some named varieties. The fruit used to be commonly sold in the markets of Iran and Turkey but is rarely found there nowadays.

Propagation:
Through seeds – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[78]. It should germinate in late winter or early spring, though it may take 18 months. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate, often taking more than 18 months. A warm stratification for 4 weeks followed by 12 weeks cold stratification can help. The seed usually (eventually) germinates quite well. Prick out the seedlings into individual pot as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant out when they are at least 15cm tall. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 – 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, 10 – 12cm with a heel, October/November in a frame. The cuttings are rather slow and difficult to root, leave them for 12 months. Layering in September/October. Takes 12 months.

Edible Uses:
Fruits are edible, eaten – raw or cooked. Sweet and mealy but of better quality than the closely related E. angustifolia. Eaten fresh or made into sherbet and preserves. The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent. Seeds are also edible, eaten – raw or cooked. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous.

Medicinal Uses:
The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. In folkoric medicine, the fruit and flower have been used as a tonic and antipyretic agent. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancer.

The leaves and the stems are concocted and used in the treatment of asthma, cough, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids; the root is astringent and is applied to sores or itchy skin.

Other Uses:
Plants can be grown as a hedge in exposed positions, tolerating maritime exposure. It can fix Nitrogen.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaeagnus
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Elaeagnus+orientalis

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Herbs & Plants

Elaeagnus oldhamii

Botanical Name: Elaeagnus oldhamii
Family: Elaeagnaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales
Genus: Elaeagnus

Habitat: Elaeagnus oldhamii is native to E. Asia – S. China. It grows in the open area at elevations below 500 m metres in Fujian, Guangdong and Taiwan Provinces.

Description:
Elaeagnus oldhamii is an evergreen Shrub growing to 4 m (13ft 1in).Young branches and buds densely silvery scaly. Petiole 3-5 mm; leaf blade obovate, 3-6 × 1.3-2.5 cm, papery, scales mostly silvery, lateral veins 4-6 per side of midrib, base cuneate, apex obtuse, rounded, or emarginate. Inflorescences umbellate-racemose, 1-3-flowered, in axils of long shoots and of bracteoles on short shoots. Pedicel 3-4 mm. Flowers white. Calyx tube cup-shaped, ca. 2 mm; lobes 2.5-3.5 mm. Filaments ca. 0.7 mm; anthers narrowly elliptic, 2.5-2.7 mm. Style 0.7-0.9 mm, with stellate hairs. Drupe red, globose or nearly so, 7-9 mm. Seed 7-8 mm.

It is in in flower from September to December, and the fruits ripen from April to June. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Prefers a soil that is only moderately fertile, succeeding in poor soils and in dry soils. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. An excellent companion plant, when grown in orchards it can increase yields from the fruit trees by up to 10%.

Propagation:
Through seeds – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[78]. It should germinate in late winter or early spring, though it may take 18 months[K]. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate, often taking more than 18 months. A warm stratification for 4 weeks followed by 12 weeks cold stratification can help. The seed usually (eventually) germinates quite well. Prick out the seedlings into individual pot as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant out when they are at least 15cm tall. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 – 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, 10 – 12cm with a heel, October/November in a frame. The cuttings are rather slow and difficult to root, leave them for 12 months. Layering in September/October. Takes 12 months.

Edible Uses:
Fruits are edible, eaten – raw or cooked. The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent. The globose fruit is about 9mm wide and contains a single large seed. Seed – raw or cooked. The globose fruit is up to 9mm long and contains a single large seed that can be up to 8mm long. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous.

Medicinal Uses:
Elaeagnus oldhamii has a lot of medicinal utilization and local physician’s uses it for curing tumours, cancer, and viral diseases (Matthews, 1994 ). In folkoric medicine, the fruit and flower have been used as a tonic and antipyretic agent.
The fruit is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Elaeagnus+oldhamii#:~:text=Conservation%20Status%20%20%20%20Latin%20Name%20,%20%20%20%2018%20more%20rows%20
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=242319788

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Herbs & Plants

Elaeagnus maritima

Botanical Name: Elaeagnus maritima
Family: Elaeagnaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales
Genus: Elaeagnus

Habitat: Elaeagnus maritima is native to E. Asia – central and southern Japan, Korea. It grows mainly in the coastal regions of central and southern Japan.

Description:

Elaeagnus maritima is a deciduous or evergreen shrubs or small trees, growing to 6 m (19ft 8in). The alternate leaves and the shoots are usually covered with tiny silvery to brownish scales, giving the plants a whitish to grey-brown colour from a distance. It is in flower from October to December, and the fruits ripen from April to June. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. The flowers are small, with a four-lobed calyx and no petals; they are often fragrant. It can fix Nitrogen.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

Propagation:
Through seeds – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. It should germinate in late winter or early spring, though it may take 18 months. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate, often taking more than 18 months. A warm stratification for 4 weeks followed by 12 weeks cold stratification can help. The seed usually (eventually) germinates quite well. Prick out the seedlings into individual pot as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant out when they are at least 15cm tall. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 – 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, 10 – 12cm with a heel, October/November in a frame. The cuttings are rather slow and difficult to root, leave them for 12 months. Layering in September/October. Takes 12 month.

Edible Uses:
Fruits are edible,eaten – raw or cooked. The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent. The fruit is up to 20mm long and contains a single large seed. Seeds are also eatable,eaten – raw or cooked. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous.

Medicinal Uses:
Elaeagnus maritima has a lot of medicinal utilization and local physician’s uses it for curing tumours, cancer, and viral diseases (Matthews, 1994 ). In folkoric medicine, the fruit and flower have been used as a tonic and antipyretic agent.

The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaeagnus
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Elaeagnus+maritima#:~:text=Elaeagnus%20maritima%20is%20an%20evergreen%20Shrub%20growing%20to,and%20the%20seeds%20ripen%20from%20April%20to%20June.

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