Herbs & Plants

Solanum torvum

Botanical Name: Solanum torvum
Family: Solanaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Solanales
Genus: Solanum
Species:S. torvum
*Solanum ferrugineum Jacq.
*Solanum mayanum Lundell
*Solanum verapazense Standl. & Steyerm.

Common Names: Turkey berry, Devil’s fig, Pea eggplant, Platebrush or Susumber. In Jamaica this berry is called Susumba, or Gully beans.

Habitat: Solanum torvum is native from Florida and southern Alabama through the West Indies and from Mexico through Central America and South America through Brazil (Little and others 1974).It grows on the Forests, forest margins, waterways, plantation crops, roadsides, pastures, disturbed sites and waste areas. Once established, S. torvum can, by sprouting from the roots, form dense thickets capable of overrunning farmlands and pastures, and of displacing native vegetation.

Solanum torvum is a bushy, erect and spiny perennial plant used horticulturally as a rootstock for eggplant. The plant is usually 2 or 3 m in height and 2 cm in basal diameter, but may reach 5m in height and 8 cm in basal diameter. The shrub usually has a single stem at ground level, but it may branch on the lower stem. The stem bark is gray and nearly smooth with raised lenticels. The inner bark has a green layer over an ivory color (Little and others 1974). The plants examined by the author, growing on firm soil, had weak taproots and well-developed laterals. The roots are white. Foliage is confined to the growing twigs.

The twigs are gray-green and covered with star-shaped hairs. The spines are short and slightly curved and vary from thick throughout the plant, including the leaf midrib, to entirely absent. The leaves are opposite or one per node, broadly ovate with the border entire or deeply lobed. The petioles are 1 to 6 cm long and the blades are 7 to 23 by 5 to 18 cm and covered with short hairs. The flowers are white, tubular with 5 pointed lobes, and grouped in corymbiform cymes. They are shed soon after opening.

The fruits are berries that grow in clusters of tiny green spheres (ca. 1 cm in diameter) that look like green peas. They become yellow when fully ripe. They are thin-fleshed and contain numerous flat, round, brown seeds (Howard 1989, Liogier 1995, Little and others 1974).


Solanum torvum usually has a single stem at ground level, but it may branch on the lower stem. The stem bark is gray and nearly smooth with raised lenticels.It has many medicinal applications. How to Grow: Mix Manure with soil (30:70),and this will help in germination of seeds.
Since they are small they are quick to grow with about 10 weeks until harvest time. Once they are ripe the yield tons of fruit.

Solanum torvum is normally propagated by seed. … The fresh seed shows strong dormancy. Seed is sown in a nursery and seedlings are transplanted after 5–6 weeks at a spacing of 1 m. Branch cuttings taken from high-yielding shrubs are also used for propagation.

Edible Uses:
The young shoots can be eaten raw or cooked.
Leaves and young shoots. They are cut into small pieces and cooked with salt and chilli, and garnished with mustard seeds, curry leaves and onions in oil.

Fruits eaten – raw or cooked. A juicy pulp, containing many small seeds. A distinctive, bitter flavour, it tends to be more appreciated by older people. The fruit is eaten raw in Asia, where it is also cooked and served as a side dish with rice, or is added to stews, soups, curries etc. In the West Indies, the half-grown, firm berries are boiled and eaten with foods such as yams or akees, or are added to soups and stews. The yellowish, globose berry can be 10 – 15mm in diameter, containing many small seeds. The immature fruit is green, turning yellow then orange as it ripens.

Medicinal Uses:
Solanum torvum plant is often used in traditional medicine and, when used wisely, its fruit and leaves can be used to control a range of microbial activities. The glycoalkaloid solasodine, which is found in the leaves and fruits, is used in India in the manufacture of steroidal sex hormones for oral contraceptives.

The juice of the plant is used to treat fevers, coughs, asthma, chest ailments, sore throats, rheumatism, dropsy, stomach aches and gonorrhoea.
The juice of the flowers, with salt added, is used as eye drops.

The leaves are an effective antimicrobial and diuretic. An infusion is used as a treatment for thrush. The leaves are dried and ground to powder, this is used as a medicine for diabetic patients.
The leaves are applied topically to treat cuts, wounds and skin diseases.

A syrup prepared from the leaves and flowers is used as a treatment for colds.

An infusion of the leaves and fruits is used as a treatment for bush yaws and sores.

The fruit is diuretic. It is used in the treatment of malaria, stomach aches and problems with the spleen. A decoction is given to children as a treatment for coughs. The young fruits are used to improve the eyesight.
A paste of the mature fruit is applied as a poultice to the forehead to treat headaches. The fruit juice is applied locally to ease the irritation of ant bites.

A decoction of the root is used to treat venereal disease. The roots are boiled, lime juice is added, and the whole is drunk as a treatment for malaria. The juice of the roots is used to treat vomiting caused by weakness.
The pounded root is inserted into the cavity of a decayed tooth to relieve toothache

Other Uses:
The plant is sometimes used as a rootstock for tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and aubergines (Solanum melongena), where it conveys resistance to bacterial wilt and nematodes. Solanum aethiopicum cv. ‘Iizuka’ gives better results with tomatoes.

Known Hazards:
Although providing many well-known foods for people, including the potato, tomato, pepper and aubergine, most species in this genus also contain toxic alkaloids. Whilst these alkaloids can make the plant useful in treaing a range of medical conditions, they can also cause problems such as nausea, vomiting, salivation, drowsiness, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, weakness and respiratory depression.
Unless there are specific entries with information on edible uses, it would be unwise to ingest any part of this plant

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Herbs & Plants Uncategorized

Acacia concina

Botanical Name: Acacia concina
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales
Clade: Mimosoideae
Genus: Senegalia
Species: S. rugata

*Acacia abstergens (Roxb. ex Spreng.) Steud.
*Acacia gamblei Bahadur & R.C.Gaur
*Acacia habbasioides Bojer
*Acacia hooperiana Zipp. ex Miq.
*Acacia philippinarum Benth.
*Acacia poilanei Gagnep.
*Acacia quisumbingii Merr.

Common Names: Shikakai, Soap-Pod

Other Names: Aila, Atouqie, Banritha, Chikaka, Chikakai, Kochi, Lahiur, Ritha, Shikai, Shikakai, Shikaya, Sige, Sikakai, Soap-pod tree, Som poi, Song bai.

Habitat:Acacia concina is native to China and tropical Asia, common in the warm plains of central and south India.It grows in the Rain forest, disturbed forest, open grassland, fields, creek sides, in open areas often a sprawling shrub; also recorded from limestone; at elevations from 50 – 1050 metres.

Acacia concina is a woody climber, or shrub, or small tree up to 5 metres (16 ft) tall, with numerous spines. Bark is light grey. Leaves are oblong 4-10mm long forming 7-11 pairs of branches each with 17-37 pairs of leaflets. Flower buds are purple or dark red. The flowers are cream or white. Pods up to 5cm long are flat and thick with 7 seeds. The seedpods are widely used as a soap substitute in India. Plants flower throughout the year. Fruit are on trees from February to March.The tree is food for the larvae of the butterfly Pantoporia hordonia.


This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.

Acacia concinna can be grown from seeds. The seedlings can be transplanted. The seed of most, if not all, members of this genus has a hard seedcoat and may benefit from scarification before sowing to speed up germination. This can usually be done by pouring a small amount of nearly boiling water on the seeds (being careful not to cook them!) and then soaking them for 12 – 24 hours in warm water. By this time they should have imbibed moisture and swollen – if they have not, then carefully make a nick in the seedcoat (being careful not to damage the embryo) and soak for a further 12 hours before sowing.

Edible Uses:
Edible portion: Seeds, Leaves, Flowers, Vegetable. Leaves are cooked . The acid-flavoured young leaves can be used as a substitute for tamarinds (Tamarindus indica) in chutneys. They are also added to soups to make them hot and sour . They can be curried with salted fish and coconut milk. Flowers – cooked and eaten as a vegetable . Acid fruit are used in Philippine cooking to give a sour flavour. They are roasted and eaten. Seeds are edible after roasting. The young shoots are used to make pickles or cooked as a vegetable.

Medicinal Uses:
There is lots of anecdotal information on the medicinal use of Acacia concina which includs: the treating of dandruff and as a natural remedy for lice in both for humans and animals. The treatment of parasite-caused diseases such as malaria and visceral leishmaniasis. As a treatment for mouth and throat problems such as pharyngitis and mouth sores by chewing the pods. Tooth decay and plaque reduction from chewing the sticks. Alleviation of constipation indigestion, and other digestive problems from the fruit pods or a tea made from the leaves. A natural toxic cleanser, laxative, and diuretic. Recent research has shown that the tree has an antidermatophytic ability that can fight off fungi responsible for skin diseases. It also has antimicrobial and antibacterial properties and even contains some phytochemicals that may have antioxidant abilities.

Other Uses:
The bark is a source of tannins. This plant is important for its tannins. The pods are rich in saponins. They are widely used in India as a detergent for washing silks and woollen goods, and are also very commonly used for washing the hair. They are very effective in cleaning tarnished silver plates. It is said that yarn washed with these pods prior to being dyed will produce much better results from the dyeing . In order to prepare it the fruit pods, leaves and bark of the plant are dried, ground into a powder, then made into a paste.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Herbs & Plants

Morinda tinctoria

Botanical Name: Morinda tinctoria
Family: Rubiaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Genus: Morinda
Species: M. tinctoria

Common Names:: Indian mulberry,Noni

Habitat: Morinda tinctoria is native to Indonesia, Australia and is found throughout the tropics in a wide variety of environments.

Morinda tinctoria is an evergreen shrub or small tree growing to 5–10 m tall. The leaves are 15–25 cm long, oblong to lanceolate. The flowers are tubular, white, scented, about 2 cm long. The fruit is a green syncarp, 2-2.5 cm diameter.


A persistent and very tolerant plant, noni is widely adapted to a range of tropical and subtropical climates and is commonly found at elevations up to 1,500 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 24 – 30°c, but can tolerate 12 – 36°c. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,500 – 3,000mm, but tolerates 700 – 4,200mm.
Prefers a well-drained, sandy soil and a position in full sun to partial shade. Succeeds in a wide range of soils. Prefers a pH in the range 5 – 6.5, tolerating 4.3 – 7. Established plants are very drought tolerant. Plants can withstand salt-laden winds.
Plants have a deep taproot.

Flowering and fruiting start in the third year of growth from seed and continue throughout the year.
Yield of the bark for use as a dye is reported to be 500 – 1,000 kilos per hectare.
The plant can live for at least 25 years.
The ability of the seeds to float explains its wide distribution and occurrence on many seashores

Through Seed – sow in nursery beds. Germination takes place 3 – 9 weeks after sowing. After germination, seedlings are transplanted at ca. 1.2 m x 1.2 m in well-tilled soil. The seeds remain viable for at least 6 months.

Edible Uses:
Noni leaves are best eaten cooked. … Noni leaves are also commonly dried, then used as tea.
The unripe fruit is used in Indian cooking in sambals and curries. Despite the smell of putrid cheese when ripe, the fruits are eaten raw or are prepared in some way.
The ripe fruit is made into a beverage with sugar or syrup.
The ovoid fruit is 3 – 10cm long and 2 – 3cm wide.

The juice of the fruit is used in Australian bushfoods for dressings, sauces and marinades.

Young leaves and blanched shoots – raw or steamed, added to curries etc. They contain 4.5 – 6% protein. The leaves are a rich source of vitamin A.

The seeds of some forms are roasted and eaten.

Medicinal Uses:
Most parts of noni have been widely used medicinally since ancient times. It was first mentioned in literature in China during the han dynasty (206BC – 23AD). Nowadays, single trees are encouraged or cultivated in gardens mainly for medicinal purposes.
The curative properties of the plant parts are ascribed to the presence of medicinally active anthraquinone derivates. The fruit contains rancid smelling capric acid and unpleasant tasting caprylic acid. It is thought that antibiotically active compounds are present.

The roots are febrifuge, tonic and antiseptic. They are used to treat stiffness and tetanus and have been proven to combat arterial tension. An infusion of the root is used in treating urinary disorders. The bark is used in a treatment to aid childbirth.
Externally, the root is crushed and mixed with oil and is used as a smallpox salve. An infusion of the root bark is used to treat skin diseases.
The roots are harvested as required and used in decoctions.

The wilted or heated leaf is applied as a poultice to painful swellings in order to bring relief. A poultice of the leaves is applied to wounds or to the head in order to relieve headaches. The crushed leaves, mixed with oil, are applied to the face for the treatment of neuralgia.
The leaves are harvested as required during the growing season.

The fruits are used as a diuretic, a laxative, an emollient and as an emmenagogue, for treating asthma and other respiratory problems, as a treatment for arthritic and comparable inflammations, in cases of leucorrhoea and sapraemia and for maladies of the inner organs.
Liquid pressed from young fruit is snuffed into each nostril to treat bad breath and raspy voice. It is also used in the treatment of mouth ulcers, haemorrhoids, hernia or swollen testicles, headaches, pain caused by barb of poisonous fish, removal of a splinter, childbirth, diabetes, diarrhoea and dysentery, fever, intestinal worms, filariasis, leprosy, and tuberculosis.
Young fruits are used to treat high blood pressure.
The fruits can be harvested ripe or unripe and are sometimes charred and mixed with salt for medicinal use.

The roots, leaves and fruits may have anthelmintic properties. In traditional medicine the parts used are administered raw or as juices and infusions or in ointments and poultices.

Othjer Uses:
A red dye is obtained from the root bark.
The basis of the morindone dyeing matter, called Turkish red, is the hydrolysed (red) form of the glycoside morindin. This is the most abundant anthraquinone which is mainly found in the root bark which reaches a concentration of 0.25 – 0.55% in fresh bark in 3 – 5 years. It is similar to that found in Rubia tinctorum.
High-yielding bark may be expected after 3 – 5 years. Yield of bark is reported to be 500 – 1,000 kg/ha, containing about 0.25% morindin.
Traditionally, Symplocos racemosa (a plant that accumulates aluminium) was used as the mordant to fix the red dye.

The fruit pulp can be used to cleanse hair, iron and steel.

The yellow-brown wood is soft and splits excessively in drying. Its uses are restricted to fuel and poles.

he plant is a natural pioneer species, rapidly appearing in cultivated ground, after bush fires, deforestation or volcanic activity. It can be used in reforestation projects and, with its wide range of uses, would make a good pioneer species when establishing a woodland garden. It tends to persist, so should only be used within its native range if restoring native woodlan.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Herbs & Plants

Eugenia jambusa

Botanical Name: Eugenia jambusa
Order: Myrtales
Kingdom: Plantae
Rank: Species

Common Names: Jamun or Jamoon, Guljamun , Madhura nelli, Malabar Plum, Panineer Champakka.

Habiitat: Eugenia jambosa is widely distributed in warm countries such as Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Malaya, Australia, and tropical America.

Eugenia jambosa is a large ever-green tree of approximately 3.6 m girth and 30 m high. Generally two main
varieties of Eugenia jambosa are distinguished based on the type of fruit. The raa Jamun fruit has sweet flesh
with a central cavity containing small seeds. While desi Jamun fruit has relatively large seeds and acidic flesh.


Generally this tree is cultivated on the main boundaries of fruit gardens.

THrough cutting mathod.
The major methods of asexual propagation are cuttings, layering, division, budding and grafting. Cuttings involve rooting a severed piece of the parent plant; layering involves rooting a part of the parent and then severing it; and budding and grafting is joining two plant parts from different varieties.

Medicinal Uses:
Different parts such as barks, fruits and seeds of Eugenia jambosa possess verious medical and therapeutic values . Present study on Eugenia jambosa (desi Jamun) fruit deals with minerals, vitamins as well as the identification of free sugars and amino acids.

During literature survey, it was observed that little attention has been focused on the analysis of nutritive value of common vegetables and fruits produced in this country where a tremendous potential exists to explore the nutritive value of commonly cultivated or wild type vegetables and fruits. Few laboratories have carried
out work of various aspects on these vegetables and fruits.

Willmar Schwabe India Eugenia Jambosa Dilution is a homeopathic dilution. The formulation is indicated for the treatment of sore throat, cough, and catarrhal fevers as well. The dilutions are useful in preventing looseness in bowels, abdominal pain as well and the treatment.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Herbs & Plants

Punica granatum

Botanical Name: Punica granatum
Family: Lythraceae
Subfamily: Punicoideae
Order: Myrtales
Genus: Punica
Species: P. granatum

*Punica florida Salisb.
*Punica grandiflora hort. ex Steud.
*Punica nana L.
*Punica spinosa Lam

Common Names: Pomegranate

Habitat: Punica granatum (pomegranate) is native to the region that covers territories from a part of Iran to northern India. Wild P. granatum L. types have their natural distribution in central Asia from Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, to northern India, and this region is considered the center of origin of pomegranate

The pomegranate plant is a large deciduous shrub or small tree that has smooth, evergreen leaves and showy orange to red flowers. It grows between 5 and 10 m (16 and 33 ft) tall. It has rounded fruit with a dry outer covering (husk) made up of two layers: a hard-outer layer called an epicarp, a soft inner layer called a mesocarp.


For best results, grow Punica granatum in well-drained soil in full sun. Pomegranates need a long, hot summer to produce fruit and a temperature between 13ºC and 16ºC in autumn for the fruit to ripen. Try growing plants against a warm, south- or west-facing wall, either free-standing or trained against the wall.

Punica granatum is highly amenable for clonal propagation by stem cuttings using low-cost non-mist propagator and 0.4% IBA treatment may be recommended for mass production of quality planting stocks for the cultivation of the species in homestead agroforestry or in fruit orchards.

Edible Uses:
Pomegranate seeds and juice have myriad culinary uses throughout the traditional cuisines of the Mediterranean and Middle East. Typically, pomegranate arils are consumed fresh or used for preparing juice, canned beverages, jelly, jam, and as a natural flavor and colorant.

Medicinal Uses:
Pomegranates can have up to three times more antioxidants than green tea or red wine. Antioxidants protect cells from damage, prevent diseases — such as cancer — and reduce inflammation and the effects of aging. The fruit is used for Cancer, Osteoarthritis and Other Diseases. The pomegranate has been used in natural and holistic medicine to treat sore throats, coughs, urinary infections, digestive disorders, skin disorders, arthritis, and to expel tapeworms.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.