Categories
Herbs & Plants

Afraegle paniculata

Botanical Name: Afraegle paniculata
Family:Rutaceae

Synonyms:

  • Aegle barteri Hook.f. ex Oliv.
    *Balsamocitrus paniculata (Schum. & Thonn.) Swingle
    *Balsamocitrus paniculata (Schumach. & Thonn.) L.D.Swingle
    *Citrus paniculata Schumach. & Thonn.
    *Limonia warneckei Engl.

Common Names: Nigerian Powder-Flask Fruit. African afraegle

Habitat: Afraegle paniculata is native to west tropical Africa – Senegal to Nigeria. It grows on lowland secondary thickets and fringes of the dense forest. Savannah, (rarely) dry forest and edges; gallery forest; secondary thickets on coastal plains at elevations up to 500 metres.

Description:
Afraegle paniculata is an evergreen, spiny shrub or tree growing up to 15 metres tall. The short bole usually branches within 150 – 200cm from the ground, it can be 25 – 40cm in diameter. The tree has a rounded canopy comprised of numerous branches bearing very sharp, straight spines.
The tree is harvested from the wild for local use as a food, medicine and source of wood. It is often planted for its medicinal uses in the villages of Dahomey and Nigeria.

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Cultivation:
In the quasi-tropical coastal region near Miami, Florida, which has an unusual type of soil consisting largely of porous-limestone rock intermingled with fine sand or very sandy loam, this species, when well fertilized, makes extraordinary growth – a specimen growing near Coconut Grove, when only four or five years old and only 1.6 – 1.8 metres tall, had a lateral spread of 4.5 – 6 metres. As it grew older, it became much taller but still had long branches.

Propagation: Through seeds.

Edible Uses:
Edible oil is produced from the seeds. Leaves – cooked. The leaves are only used rarely. The globose or obovoid fruit is as large as a big orange (6 – 8cm in diameter when mature), wrinkled on the surface, without odorous glands. Fruits are not directly edible.

Medicinal Uses:
The plant has a range of medicinal uses.

Other Uses:
Agroforestry Uses: This species is being tested as a rootstock for the bael fruit, Aegle marmelos, a species which often does not grow well on its own roots. Other Uses The leaves are sometimes macerated and added to the water used for bathing. The wood is used to make household, domestic and personal item.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Afraegle+paniculata
https://www.google.com/search?safe=active&rlz=1C1CHBH_enIN800IN800&sxsrf=ALeKk03hmPHb2ibt9tgysNlZXnVJhoRrsQ%3A1600264959801&ei=_xpiX5XKMNSR9QPa2pRg&q=scientific+clasifications+of+Afraegle+paniculata&oq=scientific+clasifications+of+Afraegle+paniculata&gs_lcp=CgZwc3ktYWIQAzoECCMQJzoHCCMQsAIQJzoECCEQClCNwAJYldcDYKzcA2gAcAB4AIAB_wSIAbJWkgEKMi0xMC45LjYuNZgBAKABAaoBB2d3cy13aXrAAQE&sclient=psy-ab&ved=0ahUKEwjVxebD6-3rAhXUSH0KHVotBQwQ4dUDCA0&uact=5.

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Aethusa cynapium

Botanical Name: Aethusa cynapium
Family: Apiaceae
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Apiales
Tribe: Selineae
Genus: Aethusa
Species:A. cynapium

Common Names: Fool’s parsley, Fool’s cicely, or Poison parsley

Habitat : Aethusa cynapium is native to Most of Europe, including Britain, to the Caucasus and south to Algeria. It grows in waste places and is also a common weed of cultivated ground but rarer in the north of Britain.

Description:
Aethusa cynapium is an annual (rarely biennial) herb in the plant family Apiaceae, growing to 1.2 m (4ft). It is in flower from July to August, and the seeds ripen from August to September. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile. It has a fusiform root(The root is swollen in the middle and narrow towards both its base) and a smooth hollow branched stem growing to about 80 cm (31 in) high, with much divided (ternately pinnate) smooth leaves with an unpleasant smell, and small compound umbels of small irregular white flowers.

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Edible Uses:
Leaves are eaten raw or cooked. It is very inadvisable to eat this plant, see the notes below on toxicity.

Medicinal Uses:
Although fairly toxic, fool’s parsley has occasionally been used in folk medicine. The herb is sedative and stomachic. It has been used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal problems, especially in children, and also to treat convulsions and summer diarrhoea. Extreme caution in the use of this herb is advised, see the notes above on toxicity.

Key attributes of homeopathic single remedy Aethusa Cynapium are Brain-fag, Cough, Delirium, Dyspepsia, Intolerance to milk, Mental Weakness, Vomiting.

*Over the Counter (OTC) homeopathic medicine that works naturally
*No side effects; no drug interactions
*Can be safely used along with other medications
*Lactose free pellets dissolve instantly

All product variants are listed below; 30C is the lowest homeopathic potency or drug strength. The smallest pack size available is 400 pellets which has approx 80 doses (4-5 pellets make one dose)

Known Hazards: The entire plant is poisonous though less so than Conium maculatum (q.v.). Small amounts can cause pain, confusion of vision and vomiting. The dried plant might be safe to eat.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aethusa_cynapium
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aethusa+cynapium
https://www.rxhomeo.in/aethusa-cynapium-homeopathic-remedy.html

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Aesculus x carnea

Botanical Name: Aesculus x carnea
Family: Sapindaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales
Genus: Aesculus
Species: A. × carnea

Common Names: Red Horse Chestnut, Ruby Red Horsechestnut

Habitat: The origin of the tree is not known yet, but it probably first appeared in Germany before 1820. A cultivated hybrid of garden origin, A. hippocastanum x A. pavia. The hybrid is a medium-size tree to 20–25 m tall, intermediate between the parent species in most respects, but inheriting the red flower color from A. pavia. It is a popular tree in large gardens and parks.

Description:
Aesculus x carnea is a deciduous Tree growing to a height 30.00 to 40.00 feet and Spread 25.00 to 35.00 feet at a slow rate.
It is not frost tender. It is in flower in July, and the seeds ripen in September. The flower color is red. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees.

Aesculus × carnea is the result of a cross between A. hippocastanum and A. pavia that was discovered in Europe in 1812. It is a small, oval to rounded, deciduous tree that grows 30-40’ tall, and is perhaps best noted for its attractive red flowers. It features dark green palmate compound leaves with 5 (less frequently 7) spreading ovate-oblong leaflets (6-10” long). Leaflets have doubly-toothed margins. Fall color is somewhat undistinguished. Very showy red flowers appear in upright terminal panicles (to 6-8” long) in mid-spring (May in St. Louis). Flowers are followed by slightly prickly husky capsules (1.5” diameter), each typically containing two or three nuts. Nuts are poisonous.

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Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Pest tolerant, Pollard, Specimen, Street tree. Prefers a deep loamy well-drained soil but is not too fussy. The dormant tree tolerates temperatures down to at least -15°c, though the young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts. It prefers a continental climate, growing best in eastern and south-eastern England. There are some named forms selected for their ornamental value. Most members of this genus transplant easily, even when fairly large. Abnormal cell development in this species may result in eruptions on trunks over 30cm in diameter – these ultimately decay[200]. Although a hybrid species, it breeds true from seed due to a doubling of the chromosomes. Special Features:Attractive foliage, Not North American native, Blooms are very showy.

Edible Uses:
Seed – cooked. It can be dried, ground into a flour and used as a gruel. The seed is quite large, about 20mm in diameter, and is also easily harvested. Unfortunately, it is rich in saponins and these toxins need to be removed before the seed can be eaten. See also the notes above on toxicity. The following notes apply to A. californica, but are probably also relevant here:- The seed needs to be leached of toxins before it becomes safe to eat – the Indians would do this by slow-roasting the nuts (which would have rendered the saponins harmless) and then cutting them into thin slices, putting them into a cloth bag and rinsing them in a stream for 2 – 5 days. Most of the minerals etc would also have been leached out by this treatment.

Medicinal Uses:
The plant is used in Bach flower remedies – the keywords for prescribing it are ‘Excessive fear’ and ‘Anxiety for others

Other Uses:
Saponins in the seed are a soap substitute. The saponins can be easily obtained by chopping the seed into small pieces and infusing them in hot water. This water can then be used for washing the body, clothes etc. Its main drawback is a lingering odour of horse chestnuts.

Known Hazards:
The seed is rich in saponins. Although poisonous, saponins are poorly absorbed by the human body and so most pass through without harm. Saponins are quite bitter and can be found in many common foods such as some beans. They can be removed by carefully leaching the seed or flour in running water. Thorough cooking, and perhaps changing the cooking water once, will also normally remove most of them. However, it is not advisable to eat large quantities of food that contain saponins. Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in streams, lakes etc in order to stupefy or kill the fish.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesculus_%C3%97_carnea
http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=b984
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aesculus+x+carnea

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Aesculus turbinata

Botanical Name: Aesculus turbinata
Family: Sapindaceae/Hippocastanaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales
Genus: Aesculus
Species: A. turbinata

Synonyms:
*Aesculus turbinata f. pubescens (Rehder) Ohwi ex Yas Endo
*Aesculus turbinata var. pubescens Rehder
*Aesculus dissimilis Blume
*Pawia dissimilis Kuntze
*Pawia turbinata Kuntze

Common Names: Japanese horse-chestnut

Habitat: Aesculus turbinata is native to Japan but cultivated elsewhere. It grows on mountains, especially in ravines, all over Japan. In deciduous forests, especially in moist slopes along streams.

Description:
Aesculus turbinata is a deciduous Tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 12 m (39ft) at a medium rate.
It is not frost tender. It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen in September. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees.

The bark is dark brown and the surface is peeled off and waved. The leaves are palmate compound leaves. Stems, flowers and leaves are big. In early summer, it produces an upright inflorescence from the branch tip and blooms a flower mixed with small male flowers and bisexual flowers. At the base of the white four-petaled flower there is a crimson mottle. Seven long male persimmons stick out of the flower. The flowers are the source of honey, the fruits are similar to chestnuts, and the starch is often used as a material for mulberry or dumpling.

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Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Specimen. Prefers a deep loamy well-drained soil but is not too fussy. The dormant plant is very cold-hardy, though the young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts. It prefers growing in a continental climate, doing best in eastern and south-eastern England. Most members of this genus transplant easily, even when fairly large. Special Features:Attractive foliage, Not North American native, Blooms are very showy.

Edible Uses:
Young leaves cooked. Some caution is advised on this entry since the leaves are likely to contain toxic saponins (see notes above on toxicity). Seed – cooked. It can be dried, ground into a flour and used as a gruel. The starch is extracted and eaten. The seed is quite large, about 25 – 30mm in diameter, and is easily harvested. Unfortunately it is also rich in saponins and these need to be removed before the seed can be eaten. See also the notes below on toxicity. The following notes apply to A. californica, but are probably also relevant here:- The seed needs to be leached of toxins before it becomes safe to eat – the Indians would do this by slow-roasting the nuts (which would have rendered the saponins harmless) and then cutting them into thin slices, putting them into a cloth bag and rinsing them in a stream for 2 – 5 days. Most of the minerals etc would also have been leached out by this treatment.

Medicinal Uses:
Natural seeds of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata Blume) contain large amounts of mixed triterpenoidal saponins called escins. Recent studies have shown that escins have several biological activities including anti-inflammatory action and inhibitory effects on the absorption of ethanol and glucose. For the edible utilization of the seeds, natural seeds are usually treated with wooden ashes to remove harshness. Here, we found the novel compounds derived from escins in the edible seeds after the food processing with wooden ashes. The instrumental analyses revealed the chemical structures of escins and the derivatives. These compounds are identified as four types of deacetylescins Ia, IIa, Ib, and IIb as well as two types of desacylescins I and II. To determine their biological activity, the purified compounds were tested for their potential nutraceutical activity. The oral glucose tolerance test in mice revealed that a single oral administration of the isolated components of deacetylescins at a dose of 100 mg/kg was clearly effective in attenuating the elevation of blood glucose levels. The inhibitory effects of escins and their derivatives were in the order of escins>deacetylescins>desacylescins. Moreover, we found the inhibitory activity of those compounds on pancreatic lipase. Escins were the most potent in inhibiting the enzyme activity, and followed by desacylescins and then deacetylescins. Taken together, our results suggest the potential usefulness of novel saponins including deacetylescins and desacylescins from edible seeds as novel sources for nutraceutical foods with anti-obese effects.

Other Uses:
Saponins in the seed are a soap substitute. The saponins can be easily obtained by chopping the seed into small pieces and infusing them in hot water. This water can then be used for washing the body, clothes etc. Its main drawback is a lingering odour of horse chestnuts. Wood – weak, nicely grained. Used for house fittings, domestic items etc.

Known Hazards:
The seed is rich in saponins. Although poisonous, saponins are poorly absorbed by the human body and so most pass through without harm. Saponins are quite bitter and can be found in many common foods such as some beans. They can be removed by carefully leaching the seed or flour in running water. Thorough cooking, and perhaps changing the cooking water once, will also normally remove most of them. However, it is not advisable to eat large quantities of food that contain saponins. Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in streams, lakes etc in order to stupefy or kill the fish.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesculus_turbinata
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aesculus+turbinata
https://www.flower-db.com/en/flower:849
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7159679_Identification_of_novel_saponins_from_edible_seeds_of_Japanese_horse_chestnut_Aesculus_turbinata_BLUME_after_treatment_with_wooden_ashes_and_their_nutraceutical_activity

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Aesculus flava

Botanical Name: Aesculus flava
Family: Sapindaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales
Genus: Aesculus
Species: A. flava

Common Names: Sweet Buckeye, Yellow buckeye

Habitat: Aesculus flava is native to the Ohio Valley and Appalachian Mountains of the Eastern United States. It grows in mesophytic forest or floodplains, generally in acid to circumneutral soil, reaching a height of 20m to 48m (65 ft to 154 ft) Rich river-bottoms and mountain slopes. Woodland on moist rich soils.

Description:
Aesculus flava is a deciduous tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a medium rate.
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen in September. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees.

The leaves are palmately compound with five (rarely seven) leaflets, 10–25 cm long and broad. The flowers are produced in panicles in spring, yellow to yellow-green, each flower 2–3 cm long with the stamens shorter than the petals (unlike the related A. glabra (Ohio buckeye), where the stamens are longer than the petals). The twigs have a faintly rank odor, but much less so than the Ohio buckeye, A. glabra. The fruit is a smooth (spineless), round or oblong capsule 5–7 cm diameter, containing 1-3 nut-like seeds, 2.5-3.5 cm diameter, brown with a whitish basal scar. The fruit is poisonous to humans but can be made edible through a leaching process.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Pest tolerant, Pollard, Specimen. Prefers a deep loamy well-drained soil but is not too fussy. Grows best in eastern and south-eastern areas of England probably needing a continental climate in order to thrive. Although the trees are very hardy when dormant, the new growth can be damaged by late spring frosts. Plants grow well in a woodland situation, tolerating shading by larger trees. Seedlings grow away quickly, the plants reaching maturity when about 60 – 80 years old. The form Asculus flava vestita (Sarg.)Fern. is growing well at Kew Gardens. It has been seen with large crops of fruit on a number of occasions, even in cooler summers. These fruits have only been tried when immature (harvested at the end of August) but were then very tasty with no bitterness. Fruits are produced more abundantly in warm summers. Most members of this genus transplant easily, even when fairly large. Special Features:Attractive foliage, North American native, Blooms are very showy.

Edible Uses:
Seed – cooked. Said to be as sweet as a chestnut. We have only eaten the immature seed, harvested in late August, but these were very tasty with no noticeable bitterness. The seed can be up to 45mm in diameter and is easily harvested. It can be dried, ground into a flour and used as a gruel. The seed contains saponins and needs to be leached of these toxins before it becomes safe to eat – the North American Indians would do this by slow-roasting the nuts (which would have rendered the saponins harmless) and then cutting them into thin slices, putting them into a cloth bag and rinsing them in a stream for 2 – 5 days. The resulting product is said to be tasty and nutritious, though most of the minerals etc would have been leached out. The flowers contain a sweet nectar which is delicious when sucked out.

Medicinal Uses: Not known.

Other Uses:
Saponins in the seed are used as a soap substitute. The saponins can be easily obtained by chopping the seed into small pieces and infusing them in hot water. This water can then be used for washing the body, clothes etc. Its main drawback is a lingering odour of horse chestnuts. Wood – very soft, light, close grained, difficult to split. It weighs 27lb per cubic foot. It is used for making artificial limbs, wooden ware, pulp etc, and is occasionally sawn into lumber.

Known Hazards:
The seed is rich in saponins. Although poisonous, saponins are poorly absorbed by the human body and so most pass through without harm. Saponins are quite bitter and can be found in many common foods such as some beans. They can be removed by carefully leaching the seed or flour in running water. Thorough cooking, and perhaps changing the cooking water once, will also normally remove most of them. However, it is not advisable to eat large quantities of food that contain saponins. Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in streams, lakes etc in order to stupefy or kill the fish.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesculus_flava
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aesculus+flava