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Herbs & Plants

Elaeagnus macrophylla

Botanical Name: Elaeagnus macrophylla
Family: Elaeagnaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales
Genus: Elaeagnus
Species: E. macrophylla

Common Name : Broad-leaved oleaster

Habitat: Elaeagnus macrophylla is native to E. Asia – Japan, Korea. It grows in the thickets in lowland, especially near the sea.

Description:
Elaeagnus macrophylla is a large, bushy, rounded shrub that typically grows to 8-10′ tall and as wide. Branchlets lack spines. Leaves are evergreen in warm winter climates, but semi-evergreen to deciduous near the northern edge of its growing range. When young, its leathery, elliptic, leaves (to 4″ long) are green with silver scales. With age, leaf surfaces turn lustrous dark green above but remain silver gray beneath. Apetalous creamy white flowers (to 1/4″ long) bloom in axillary clusters in late fall. Flowers are not particularly showy, but are intensely fragrant. Small, one-seeded, reddish-brown fruits (drupes to 1/2″ long) typically ripen in spring. The fruit is up to 30mm long and contains a single large seed.

A potentially very valuable crop, ripening as it does in April and May.

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Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils that are well-drained. Prefers a soil that is only moderately fertile, succeeding in poor soils and in dry soils. Succeeds in sun or shade. Plants are very tolerant of maritime exposure. This species is hardy to about -15°c, succeeding in the warmer counties of Britain. This is a plant with a very big potential as a commercial fruit crop. The fruit ripens outdoors in Britain in April, a season where traditionally there is no fresh fruit available. The fruit is of a reasonable size, has a very nice flavour when fully ripe and also has a fairly large edible seed. Some research needs to be carried out in order to find the conditions that are necessary to ensure good crops – some plants fruit very heavily whilst others have very light or no crops. This is the second of the evergreen Elaeagnus species to ripen in the spring, about a week or 10 days later than E. cordifolia. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus. Plants can succumb to wind-rock in very wet seasons. Plants are sometimes damaged by voles. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. An excellent companion plant, when grown in orchards it can increase yields from the fruit trees by up to 10%. Allied to E. pungens and E. glabra. The flowers are very aromatic, their aroma pervading the garden on calm days.

Propagation:
Through sweeds – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. It should germinate freely within 4 weeks, though it may take 18 months. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate, often taking more than 18 months. A warm stratification for 4 weeks followed by 12 weeks cold stratification can help[98]. The seed usually (eventually) germinates quite well. Prick out the seedlings into individual pot as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant out when they are at least 15cm tall. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 – 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Good percentage. It is best to take the cuttings in June. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, 10 – 12cm with a heel, November in a frame. Leave for 12 months. Fair to good percentage. Layering in September/October. Takes 12 months.

Edible Uses:
Fruits are edible, eaten – raw or cooked. A very acceptable rich flavour when fully ripe, though it is somewhat astringent before then. Seeds are also edible, eaten – raw or cooked. A mild flavour, that has a hint of peanut, it can be eaten in quantity. It can be eaten together with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous.

Medicinal Uses:
The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.

Other Uses:
Plants can be grown as a hedge in exposed positions, they are very tolerant of maritime exposure. Reasonably fast-growing and providing a dense cover, it gives a very good protection from the wind. Plants are very tolerant of regular trimming, they can also be cut back almost to the ground and will resprout from the base.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaeagnus_macrophylla
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Elaeagnus+macrophylla
https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?taxonid=246007&isprofile=1&gen=Elaeagnus

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Herbs & Plants

Elaeagnus latifolia

Botanical Name: Elaeagnus latifolia
Family: Elaeagnaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales
Genus: Elaeagnus
Species: E. latifolia

Common Names: Bastard oleaster,or Soh-sang

Habitat: Elaeagnus latifolia is native to E. Asia – India. It grows on Swamps, to elevations of 1500 metres in the Himalayas. Forest openings at elevations of 1500 – 2600 metres in Nepal.

Description:
Elaeagnus latifolia is an evergreen shrub that can grow up to ten feet tall. It has alternate pinnately compound leaves. The plant gives off a bright red and speckled berry around the size of a grape or ~0.75 cm in diameter. The ripe fruit is pulpy with a sweet and slightly sour taste.The fruit has seed which is also edible.

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Cultivation:
The cultivation of Elaeagnus latifolia is mostly done in well drained soils. E. latifolia prefers soil that is moderately fertile which causes it to succeed in poor soils and dry soils.E. latifolia requires to grow in a position where there is plenty of sunlight. Outside of the native regions, E. latifolia is also cultivated in United Kingdom, however it is unlikely to succeed outdoors in the milder areas of the country. E. latifolia is known to be resistant to honey fungus, and it can also grow with orchards which increases yield from the fruit trees.

Propagation:
Through seeds – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. It should germinate in late winter or early spring, though it may take 18 months. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate, often taking more than 18 months. A warm stratification for 4 weeks followed by 12 weeks cold stratification can help. (This information on stratification is probably not appropriate to this species since it does not experience much frost in its native habitat). The seed usually (eventually) germinates quite well. Prick out the seedlings into individual pot as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant out when they are at least 15cm tall. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 – 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, 10 – 12cm with a heel, October/November in a frame. The cuttings are rather slow and difficult to root, leave them for 12 months. Layering in September/October. Takes 12 months.

Edible Uses:
Fruits are edible, eaten – raw or cooked. Acid and somewhat astringent, it is mainly used in preserves, pies etc. Another report describes it as acid and pleasantly refreshing. The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent. The fruit contains a single large seed. Seeds are also edible, eaten – raw or cooked. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous.

Medicinal Uses:
The flowers are astringent and cardiac. The fruit is astringent. The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancer.

Local physician’s uses it for curing tumours, cancer, and viral diseases (Matthews, 1994 ). In folkoric medicine, the fruit and flower have been used as a tonic and antipyretic agent.

The leaves and the stems are concocted and used in the treatment of asthma, cough, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids; the root is astringent and is applied to sores or itchy skin.

Other Uses:
E. latifolia can thrive in both moist and dry conditions, it can tolerate the most intense droughts. E. latifolia shares a symbiotic relationship with soil-dwelling bacteria that perform nitrogen fixation.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaeagnus_latifolia
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Elaeagnus+latifolia

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Herbs & Plants

Elaeagnus gonyanthes

Botanical Name: Elaeagnus gonyanthes
Family: Elaeagnaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales
Genus: Elaeagnus
Species: Elaeagnus gonyanthes

Habitat: Elaeagnus gonyanthes is native to E. Asia – China. It grows on the mountain forests at elevations below 1000 metres in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, and Yunnan Provinces.

Description:
Elaeagnus gonyanthes is an evergreen Shrub growing to 4 m (13ft 1in) at a medium rate.
It is in leaf all year, in flower from September to December, and the fruits ripen from April to June. The fruit is up to 22mm long and is yellowish-red when fully ripe.The fruit contains a single large seed. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees.

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Cultivation:
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid, neutral and basic (mildly alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

Succeeds in most soils that are well-drained. Prefers a soil that is only moderately fertile, succeeding in poor soils and dry soils. Requires a sunny position (but if it is an evergreen it should be shade tolerant). Tolerates maritime exposure. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. An excellent companion plant, when grown in orchards it can increase yields from the fruit trees by up to 10%.

Propagation:
Through seeds – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. It should germinate in late winter or early spring, though it may take 18 months[K]. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate, often taking more than 18 months. A warm stratification for 4 weeks followed by 12 weeks cold stratification can help. The seed usually (eventually) germinates quite well[78]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pot as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant out when they are at least 15cm tall. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 – 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, 10 – 12cm with a heel, October/November in a frame. The cuttings are rather slow and difficult to root, leave them for 12 months. Layering in September/October. Takes 12 months.

Edible Uses:
Fruits are edible, eaten – raw or cooked. The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent. Seeds are also eaten – raw or cooked. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous.

Medicinal Uses:
The expressed oil from the seeds is used in the treatment of pulmonary affections. The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavonoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.

Other Uses: An essential oil obtained from the flowers is used in perfumery.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaeagnus
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Elaeagnus+gonyanthes

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Herbs & Plants

Elaeagnus glabra

Botanical Name: Elaeagnus glabra
Family: Elaeagnaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales
Genus: Elaeagnus

Common Names: Goat nipple

Habitat: Elaeagnus glabra is native to East Asia – China, Japan. It grows on thje thickets in hills.(Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; not Deep Shade; Hedge;)

Description:
Elaeagnus glabra is an evergreen Shrub growing to 6 m (19ft 8in) at a medium rate. The upper surfaces of the leaves are dark green, sometimes appearing metallic; the lower surfaces are silvery and scaly. Small fragrant tubular white flowers appear in autumn. It is in leaf all year, in flower from October to November, and the fruits ripen in May. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees.

It can fix Nitrogen.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: mildly acid and neutral soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

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Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils that are well-drained. Prefers a soil that is only moderately fertile, succeeding in poor soils and dry soils. Requires a lime-free soil. A very shade tolerant plant, it can be grown under other trees and will eventually climb up into them. Plants are not reliably hardy in the colder areas of the country. This species has some potential as a commercial crop in temperate areas. It does not always carry a good crop, and research needs to be carried out to find the reasons for it, but the fruit is of a reasonable size and, when fully ripe, of a reasonable flavour. It seems to be the latest to ripen in spring of the evergreen Elaeagnus. Closely related to E. pungens, differing in its unarmed branches and thinner more glossy leaves. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. An excellent companion plant, when grown in orchards it can increase yields from the fruit trees by up to 10%. The small flowers are deliciously scented, their aroma pervading the garden on calm days.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. It should germinate freely within 4 weeks, though it may take 18 months. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate, often taking more than 18 months. A warm stratification for 4 weeks followed by 12 weeks cold stratification can help. The seed usually (eventually) germinates quite well. Prick out the seedlings into individual pot as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant out when they are at least 15cm tall. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 – 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Good percentage. It is best to take the cuttings in June. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, 10 – 12cm with a heel, November in a frame. Leave for 12 months. Fair to good percentage. Layering in September/October. Takes 12 months.

Edible Uses:
Fruits are edible,eaten – raw or cooked. The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent. The oval fruit is about 15mm long and contains a single large seed. Seed – raw or cooked. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous.

Medicinal Uses:
The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers[

Other Uses:
Plants can be grown as a hedge in exposed positions, tolerating maritime exposure. They form a good wind-break, though they are somewhat slow to reach an effective size. They succeed when planted under trees that have become bare at the base, in time they will scramble up into the tree and fill out the bottom.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaeagnus
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Elaeagnus+glabra

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Herbs & Plants

Elaeagnus fragrans

Botanicalo Name: Elaeagnus fragrans
Family: Elaeagnaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales
Genus: Elaeagnus

Synonyms: E. umbellata rotundifolia. Makino.

Common Name (s): Silverthorn Thorny Elaeagnus Thorny Olive Phonetic Spelling el-ee-AG-nus PUN-gens, Autumn Olive

Local Name: Ghayain

Habitat:Elaeagnus fragrans is native to E. Asia – C. and S. Japan. It grows abundant near seashores.

Description:
Elaeagnus fragrans is a deciduous, thorny shrubs or small tree up to 3.5-meter-tall, bearing a bunch of flowers and a cluster of leaves.Shoots and young branches covered with silky scales.

Leaves are alternate, shorty- petioled, oblong- elliptic, acute or obtuse, 2.5- 7.5 cm long, glabrous or pubescent above, silvery- scaly beneath.

Flowers are yellowish- white, fragrant, shortly stalked arranged in axillary clusters. Perianth- tube 8- 10 mm long, silvery- scale outside, white or pale yellow inside; lobes 4, ovate, acute. Stamens are 4 slightly exserted.

The fruit is about 6 – 8mm long and contains a single large seed.

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Cultivation:
Prefers a soil that is only moderately fertile, succeeding in poor soils and dry soils. Requires a sunny position. Tolerates maritime exposure. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[88, 200]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. An excellent companion plant, when grown in orchards it can increase yields from the fruit trees by up to 10%.

Propagation:
Through seeds- best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. It should germinate in late winter or early spring, though it may take 18 months. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate, often taking more than 18 months. A warm stratification for 4 weeks followed by 12 weeks cold stratification can help. The seed usually (eventually) germinates quite well. Prick out the seedlings into individual pot as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant out when they are at least 15cm tall. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 – 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, 10 – 12cm with a heel, October/November in a frame. The cuttings are rather slow and difficult to root, leave them for 12 months. Layering in September/October. Takes 12 months.

Edible Uses:
Fruits are edible, eaten- raw or cooked. The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent. The fruit is about 6 – 8mm long and contains a single large seed. Seed – raw or cooked. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous.

Medicinal Uses:
The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.

Other Uses:
Plants can be grown as a hedge in exposed positions, tolerating maritime exposure.Except fruits Ghayain wood is used as fuel and its leaves are eaten by sheep and goats. It is generally harvested from the wild by the inhabitants of Western Himalayas for their local use of fuel, fodder, food and medicine. Ghayain is a very attractive plant because of its silvery foliage and fragrant flowers so, it is sometime grown on boundaries as a shelter hedge for its edible fruit and beauty.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Elaeagnus_fragrans
http://himalayanwildfoodplants.com/2020/02/elaeagnus-umbellata-thunb-ghayain-%E0%A4%98%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%88%E0%A4%82/

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