Fruits & Vegetables Herbs & Plants

Monstera Delicisiosa

Botanical Name: Monstera Delicisiosa
Family: Araceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Alismatales
Genus: Monstera
Species: M. deliciosa

Common Names:Ceriman, Windowleaf, Swiss cheese plant, or just Cheese plant
Monstera deliciosa, delicious monster, monstera plant, monster plant, monster fruit, monsterio delicio, monstereo, hurricane plant, fruit salad plant, fruit salad tree, Swiss cheese plant, cheese plant, Mexican breadfruit, Penglai banana, ceriman, windowleaf, balazo, split leaf philodendron, and other localized names

Other common names: Fruit salad plant, Fruit salad tree (in reference to its edible fruit, which tastes similar to a fruit salad), Ceriman, Monster fruit, Monsterio delicio, Monstereo, Mexican breadfruit, Windowleaf, balazo, Penglai banana and (inaccurately) Split leaf philodendron. The names in Spanish (costilla de Adán), Portuguese (costela-de-adão), and French (plante gruyère) refer to the change of the leaves from entire to fenestrated (comparing it in the first two cases with the ribs of Adam and in the third with the hole-filled gruyère cheese). In Mexico, the plant is sometimes referred to as Piñanona. In coastal regions of Sicily, especially Palermo, it is called Zampa di leone (lion’s paw).

Habitat: Monstera Delicisiosa is native to tropical forests of southern Mexico, south to Panama. It has been introduced to many tropical areas, and has become a mildly invasive species in Hawaii, Seychelles, Ascension Island and the Society Islands. It grows in C. America – Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico. An epiphytic vine, growing in the branches of trees in moist or wet, mountain forests at elevations of 900 – 1,500 metres.

Description:……...CLICK & SEE
Monstera deliciosa, or Split-leaf Philodendron,it is vigorous, evergreen epiphytic climber from Central America and Mexico. It has a glossy green leaves that are pinnately split and perforate with rectangle holes. Leaves reach up to 3 feet in length and the stems will reach up to 30 feet or more. Stems are short and jointed, with cordlike arial roots that help support the plants as they climb.

Flowers…. .CLICK & SEE

: The flowers are a white spathe that will be reaching up to 12 inches long. The spadix is about 10 inches long and will mature into an edible fruit. The fruit has a pleasant aroma and tastes, to me, like a cross between banana and pineapple.

Fruits:…...CLICK & SEE
The fruit of Monstera deliciosa is up to 25 cm (10 in) long and 3–4 cm (1.2–1.6 in) diameter, and it looks like a green ear of maize covered with hexagonal scales. As the fruit ripens, these scales or platelets fall off the fruit, releasing a strong and sweet scent. The smell has been compared to a combination of pineapples and bananas. The fruit is edible and safe for humans.

The delicious title comes from the fully matured fruit. When the fruit of the monstera plant is ready to eat, it is said to smell wonderful and to have a flavor evocative of fruit salad. A mixture of pineapple and banana. Some other names for the plant are Mexican Breadfruit and Locusts and Wild Honey.

Monstera deliciosa is commonly grown outdoors as an ornamental plant in the tropics and subtropics. The plant requires a lot of space and a rich and loose soil (ideally garden soil and compost in equal parts). If it grows in the ground it is better to plant it near a tree, where it can climb, if not against a trellis. It is moderately greedy and needs to be watered just to keep the soil slightly moist. Its hardiness is 11 (that is to say the coldest at ?1 °C or 30 °F). It cannot withstand these temperatures for more than a few hours, but it can live outside in certain regions (Mediterranean coast, Britanny). A steady minimum temperature of at least 13–15 °C (55–59 °F) is preferable, allowing continuous growth. Growth ceases below 10 °C (50 °F) and it is killed by frost. It needs very bright exposure, but not full sun.

Forcing a M. deliciosa to flower outside of its typical tropical habitat proves to be difficult. Specific conditions need to be met for the plant to flower. However, in its tropical and subtropical habitat, the plant flowers easily. In ideal conditions it flowers about three years after planting. The plant can be propagated by taking cuttings of a mature plant or by air layering.

Propagation: Monstera deliciosa can be propagated from seed, cuttings, division or air layering.

Edible Uses:
The Fruit is edible. The monstrous fruit part is not hard to have a figure out. The unripened fruit of the plant contains oxalic acid with easy way to eat the fruit. This is evocative of the Alien monsters in a Sigourney Weaver movie-acid for blood. The delicious designation comes from the fully matured fruit. When the fruit of the plant is ready to eat, it is always said to smell heavenly and to have a flavor evocative of fruit salad. A fruit having a taste mixture of pineapple and banana.

Taste-“On the first day of the fruit, when picked, its flavour is like guava, and the second day it is like mangosteen, and the third day it is like lychee, the fourth is passion fruit taste, the fifth is sweetsop fruit; the sixth up to the eighth is grape fruit nature of taste.”‘The best flavour is on the ninth day where the fruit becomes perfectly ripe which tastes sweet and smells good.


Fruit comparison tables. Overview of vitamin and mineral content including nutrition charts of the Monstera Deliciouso.

Nutritive value per 100 g of Monstera Deliciouso:

Principle Nutritive value:

Fat…… 1 g
Protein. 23 g
Carbohydrates 32 g
Calcium. 16 g
Thiamin. 0.01 mg
Phosphorus 10 g
Fiber… 0.4 g
Vitamin C 60 mg
Calories 10g

Medicinal Uses:
Parts used are roots,leaves and fruits.

Other Uses:
The aerial roots of these plants, as well as those of some other aroids, particularly Philodendron, often attain a great length, reaching from the branches of fairly high trees almost or quite to the ground. They are much used in Guatemala for making the so-called mimbre furniture, similar to the light rattan furniture made commonly in the United States. The dried roots, of uniform diameter, or sometimes the fresh ones, are wound tightly and evenly about a wooden frame, forming handsome and durable articles of furniture. The roots are also used to make strong baskets.

The long tendril-like aerial roots traditionally are used for ropemaking in Peru. They’re also worked into baskets in portions of southern Mexico.

Known Hazards:All parts of the plant contain calcium oxalate crystals. This substance is toxic fresh and, if eaten, makes the mouth, tongue and throat feel as if hundreds of small needles are digging in to them. However, calcium oxalate is easily broken down either by thoroughly cooking the plant or by fully drying it and, in either of these states, it is safe to eat the plant. People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones and hyperacidity should take especial caution if including this plant in their diet.(All parts of plant are poisonous if ingested Handling plant may cause skin irritation or allergic reaction)

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Fruits & Vegetables Herbs & Plants


Botanical Name: Sclerocarya birrea
Family: Anacardiaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales
Genus: Sclerocarya
Species: S. birrea

Poupartia birrea (A. Rich.) Aubrév
Spondias birrea (A. Rich.)

Common Name : Marula, Jelly plum, Cat thorn, Cider tree, Maroola nut/plum, and in Afrikaans, Maroela.

Marula tree is indigenous to the miombo woodlands of Southern Africa, the Sudano-Sahelian range of West Africa, and Madagascar.

The tree is a single stemmed tree with a wide spreading crown. It is characterized by a grey mottled bark. The tree grows up to 18 m tall mostly in low altitudes and open woodlands. The distribution of this species throughout Africa and Madagascar has followed the Bantu in their migrations. There is some evidence of human domestication of marula trees, as trees found on farm lands tend to have larger fruit size….CLICK & SEE

The fruits, which ripen between December and March, have a light yellow skin (exocarp), with white flesh (mesocarp). They fall to the ground when unripe and green in color, and then ripen to a yellow color on the ground. The fruits are drupes with a single seed encased within their endocarp, although up to four seeds can be present. They are succulent and tart with a strong and distinctive flavour. Inside is a walnut-sized, thick-walled stone (endocarp). These stones, when dry, expose the seeds by shedding 2 (sometimes 3) small circular plugs at one end. The seeds have a delicate nutty flavour and are much sought-after, especially by small rodents who know to gnaw exactly where the plugs are located.

The trees are dioecious, meaning that there are male and female trees. Male trees produce multiple male flowers on a terminal raceme. These have red sepals and petals, and about 20 stamens per flower. On rare occasion a male flower can produce a gynoecium, turning it bisexual. Female flowers grow individually on their own pedicel and have staminodes….CLICK & SEE

Sclerocarya birrea is divided into three subspecies: subsp. birrea, subsp. caffra and subsp. multifoliolata. These subspecies are differentiated by changes in leaf shape and size. They also grow in different areas in Africa. Subsp. birrea is found in northern Africa, subsp. caffra is found in southern Africa, and subsp. multifoliolata is only found in Tanzania. The leaves are alternate, compound, and imparipinnately divided. The leaflet shapes range from round to elliptical

Edible Uses:
Traditional uses:
The fruit is traditionally used for food in Africa, and has considerable socioeconomic importance. The fruit juice and pulp are mixed with water and stored in a container over 1-3 days of fermentation to make marula beer, a traditional alcoholic beverage. The alcoholic distilled beverage (maroela-mampoer) made from the fruit is referenced in the stories of the South African writer Herman Charles Bosman. Marula oil is used topically to moisturize the skin, and as an edible oil in the diet of San people in Southern Africa.

Medicinal Usage:
*The green leaves of this tree are believed to be able to relieve heartburn.
*Their bark is used in the treatment of several diseases like dysentery, diarrhea and malaria

Other Usage:
*These fruits are used as pesticides.
*The Marula oil is used in natural therapies and for making cosmetic products.
*The wood of these trees is used for making furniture.

Commercial uses
On an industrial level the fruit of the marula tree is collected from the wild by members of rural communities on whose land the trees grow. This harvest and sale of fruit only occurs during two to three months but is an important income to poor rural people. This can be an important source of income for poor rural women. The fruit is delivered to processing plants where fruit pulp, pips, kernels and kernel oil are extracted and stored for processing throughout the year.

The fruit is used to make the cream liqueur Amarula and also sold as a frozen puree used in juice blends. Marula oil is used as an ingredient in cosmetics.

Uses by other species:
The marula fruit has been suggested to be the food of choice for the ancestral forest-dwelling form of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which was much more selective about which fruit they preferred as opposed to the flies that have self-domesticated themselves to live in near proximity to humans. The ancestral fruit flies are triggered by the marula ester ethyl isovalerate in the marula fruit. The marula fruit is also eaten by various animals in Southern Africa. In the documentary Animals Are Beautiful People by Jamie Uys, released in 1974, some scenes portray elephants, ostriches, warthogs and baboons becoming intoxicated from eating fermented marula fruit. While the fruit is commonly eaten by elephants, the animals would need a huge amount of fermented marulas to have any effect on them, and other animals prefer the ripe fruit. The amount of water drunk by elephants each day would also dilute the effect of the fruit to such an extent that they would not be affected by it. Giraffes, rhinoceroses and elephants all browse on the marula tree, with elephants in particular being a major consumer. Elephants eat the bark, branches and fruits of the marula, which may limit the spread of the trees. The damaged bark, due to browsing, can be used to identify marula trees as elephants preferentially target them. Elephants distribute marula seeds in their dung.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Herbs & Plants


Botanical Name:Manoao colensoi
Family: Podocarpaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Genus: Manoao
Species:M. colensoi

Synonyms: Dacrydium colensoi Hook., Lagarostrobos colensoi (Hook.) Quinn, Dacrydium westlandicum Hook.f., Lepidothamnus colensoi (Hook.) de Laub.

Common Name: Manoao (M?ori), Silver pine, Westland pine, or White silver pine, Kirk’s pine

Habitat:Manoao can be found in the North Island from Te Paki southwards to Mt Ruapehu. However it is common only in the central North Island. It is also found in the western South Island.

Lowland to montane. Typically associated with older, poorly drained surfaces with leached infertile soils, and in acid swamps and peats, notably the pakihi lands of western South Island.

Manoao is a evergreen trees up to 20 m tall and 1 m diameter, with uniformly erect stems, branches, and branchlets, and strong sucker shoots from horizontal underground stems. Bark on mature trees forming thick irregular scales and vertical scale complexes, shedding slowly, leaving behind distinct hammer marks and wave patterns; outer surface of scales silvery-grey to grey-brown, undersurface crimson, glistening with fresh resin, hard, with silvery-grey, weathered, often scalloped margins; shed bark forming a small raised mound of litter filled with fine roots at base of tree. Roots of mature trees oblique, peg-like, deeply descending; mycorrhizal nodules simple or in extensive branched complexes, epidermal hairs absent. Roots and underground stems of shrubs and sucker shoots forming dense red-brown entanglements; aerenchyma universally present in roots and underground stems under anaerobic conditions. Cotyledons c.12.0 × 2.0 mm, submembranous, spreading horizontally, epistomatic. Primary axis of seedlings and juveniles erect. Leaves polymorphic; on adult branchlets c.3.0 × 1.5 mm, rhomboid, scale-like, keeled, closely imbricate and whipcord-like, decurrent at base, spirally arranged, amphistomatic; Florin ring distinct though sunken; marginal frill distinct, continuous; older leaves very persistent, brown, semi-woody. Leaves on seedlings at first 5.0-10.0 mm long, subulate, bristle-like, spreading, decurrent at base, spirally arranged, amphistomatic; successive leaves initially longer, becoming progressively shorter, bilaterally flattened, falcate to triangular, graded in size, and secondarily 3-ranked and spiralled; ultimately scale-like, keeled, imbricate. Male cones solitary or rarely paired, terminal on foliage branchlets, sessile, with up to 12 sporophylls each with 2 sporangia; pollen with a thin-walled, finely tuberculate cappa and 2 prominent sacci. Female cones solitary, terminal on foliage branchlets, erect by curvature of cone axis, consisting of 2-6 spoon-shaped ± spreading fertile bracts separated by short internodes, sometimes with a sterile cap; ovules borne in a median position on adaxial surface of fertile bract, initially obliquely inclined towards cone axis and partially inverted, becoming erect at maturity; bracts in distal region of cone sterile, reduced in size. Seeds l-5, erect, crowded if more than one; c.3.5 × 2.5 mm, narrowly oblong, rounded in cross-section, with a small rounded recurved micropyle; seed coat purple to black with a glaucous sheen, finely striated; epimatium swollen, fleshy, greenish-yellow, ± smooth-margined, forming a split keeled asymmetrical sheath around base of seed…..CLICK & SEE

With three distinct growth stages defined by the foliage, flowering and fruiting happens throughout the year. As far as male and female cones are concerned, it transpires in abundance on either separate trees or the same tree. With 12-15 scales, the male cones are 5 mm long, while the female cones have 6-7 scales with 1-2 lush scales at the tip. As it gets ripe, the bluish black seed is open to the elements in a fleshy green cup formed by enlargement of the fruitful scale.

Simply said, it has some resemblances to a young Kahikatea, but the yellow-green undergrowth shows a discrepancy from the bright green or blue-green of kahikatea. Exuding a slow but sure transition from narrow immature leaves to scale-like adult leaves, when the plant reaches semi-adult stage, the leaves appear to be smaller, flattened and sub falcate. Unlike other conifers, young silver pine can crop up as suckers from the roots of old trees. Coming to the adult tree, its leaves are 1-2.5 mm. long, thick, coriaceous, keeled and scale-like, with ultimate branchlets c. 1.5 mm in diameter. The silver pine tree during its younger stages will feature a cone-shaped tree, but later develops a tall, fairly spreading crown.


As aforesaid, they are a good source of timber and its yellow-white wood is believed to be used by European settlers for railway sleepers, telegraph poles and fence posts. Moreover, they are a good source of manool and manoyl oxide, two chemicals used in perfumes.

Easily grown from seed. Can also be grown from hardwood cuttings. A slow growing, attractive small tree, which is tolerant of a wide range of growing conditions.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Fruits & Vegetables Herbs & Plants


Botanical Name:Hancornia speciosa
Family: Apocynaceae
Subfamily: Rauvolfioideae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Tribe: Willughbeieae
Subtribe: Lacmelleinae
Genus: Hancornia
Species:H. speciosa

Echites glaucus Roem. & Schult.
Hancornia pubescens Nees & Mart.
Willughbeia pubescens (Nees & Mart.) Mart.
Hancornia gardneri (A.DC.) Miers

Common Names: Mangaba Rubber Tree, Mangabiera, name of the fruit is Magaba

Habitat:Mangaba is native to South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay)Although Mangaba is a native fruit species of Brazil, but also occurs in Paraguay, Bolivia and Peru. The genus is monotypic, and there are six botanical varieties. H. speciosa var. speciosa is the most widely distributed occurring in the Cerrado, coastal tablelands and lowlands of Brazil.

It grows naturally in regions with average temperatures between 24-26°C. The rainfall is 1,400 mm per year. It can grow in the temperature range of 15-43°C. It grows in sandy soils.

Hancornia speciosa is a deciduous tree growing to 7 m (23ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a slow rate, with a low, globose crown. The crooked bole is profusely branched and around 20 – 30cm in diameter. The plant provides an edible fruit that is popular and commonly used locally, as well as a latex that has been exported in the past as a source of rubber. It is usually harvested from the wild, but is also sometimes cultivated for its fruit, which are often sold in local markets....CLICK & SEE

Climate: tropical. Humidity: semi-arid to humid. A plant of the ‘Caatinga’ dry forest region of northeast Brazil. The climate is hot and dry, there are usually 6 to 11 months without rain each year. The mean annual rainfall varies from 250 – 1,000mm, and the mean annual temperature is from 24 – 26°c. Requires a sunny position to be at its best. Grows best in a sandy soil, often growing in quite poor soils in the wild. Established plants are drought tolerant. Young plants grow slowly and are difficult to cultivate. A very variable plant, a number of varieties have been described. Plants grow slowly. Carbon Farming – Cultivation: regional crop. Management: standard.

Edible Uses:
The fruit is eaten raw or cooked. The fruit needs to be very ripe and soft (fallen to the ground) to be free of any latex or bitterness. Fully ripe fruits have a delicious, succulent, viscous, sweet, aromatic pulp. A pleasant subacid flavour. The fruit can also be made into a juice, sherbet, preserves etc. It is much esteemed as a marmalade in parts of Brazil. The fruit is 3 – 6cm in diameter.

Medicinal Uses: The plant is an excellent remedy for bilious complaints.

Other Uses:
The tree is a source of mangabeira rubber, which is of good quality and has in the past been exported from parts of Brazil. The wood is light, spongy, soft and easy to work with. It has little durability, even when protected from the weather. It is only used for making boxes and for fuel. Carbon Farming – Industrial Crop: hydrocarbon.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Fruits & Vegetables Herbs & Plants

Batuan Fruit (Garcinia morella)

Botanical Name: Garcinia morella
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Clusiaceae
Genus: Garcinia
Species: G. morella

*Garcinia gaudichaudii
*Mangostana morella Gaertn.
*Garcinia elliptica Wall.
*Garcinia gutta Wt.

Common names:
*Assamese: K?zi Thekera
*English: gamboge (Sri Lanka), gamboge (India)
*Tamil: iravasinni, makki
*Malayalam: iravi, chigiri
*Kannada: ardala, devana huli, jirigehuli, murina huli, ponpuli, ‘dirakala hannu’
*Sinhalese: kokatiya, gokatiya, goraka
*Visayan languages: batuan

Habitat: Batuan trees are native to the south eastern region of Asia and these trees are found copiously in forests that are located in low altitudes, mostly in Vietnam and the Philippines. Grows in India,Sreelanka. Grows in lowland to lower montane forest, sometimes on limestone, at elevations up to 1,500 metres

Garcinia morella is an evergreen tree, grows to a height of 18 m , bark 3-10 mm thick, brownish-grey or brown to dark brown, smooth; blaze dark yellow; exudation dark yellow or orange yellow, sticky; branchlets quadrangular, glabrous. Leaves simple, opposite, decussate, estipulate; petiole 6-15 mm, stout, glabrous, grooved above, thickened, very shortly ligulate at base; lamina 6-16 x 2.5-9 cm, elliptic-obovate or elliptic-oblanceolate, base acute or cuneate, apex obtuse, obtusely acuminate or caudate-acuminate, margin entire, glabrous, coriaceous; lateral nerves 8-16 pairs, pinnate, arched towards the margin forming intramarginal nerve, slender, prominent, intercostae reticulate, faint. Flowers polygamodioecious, reddish, sessile; male flowers: 2-4 in axillary fascicles or on old wood; sepals 4 orbicular, decussate, outer pairs smaller than the inner, glabrous; petals 4, little larger than sepals, orbicular, veined, concave; stamens 10-12, monadelphous, the filaments combined in to a subquadrangular central column, anthers red, orbicular, plurilocular; pistillode absent; female flowers: axillary, solitary, larger than male flowers; staminodes 10-12 in a ring round the ovary, connate at the base; ovary superior, greenish, globose, smooth, 4-celled, ovule one in each cell; stigma peltate, sessile, irregularly lobed, tubercled, persistent, margin dentate. Fruit a berry, 1.5-2.5 cm long, subglobose, or globose, smooth, yellowish or light pink, surrounded at the base by persistent sepals, crowned by flat tuberculate round stigmas, pulp sweet, acidic; seeds 2-4, kidney shaped, laterally compressed, dark brown, testa muriculate.


Seed – the seed of most members of the genus can be slow to germinate, even if sown fresh, often taking 6 months or more.

Edible Uses:
Ripe fruits can be eaten but they are very acidic. Just like other garcinia varieties such as kokum (which is prevalent in the Indian west coast) or garcinia pedunculata, the fruit can be preserved by slicing into thin pieces and then drying under sun. It can be made into pickles. Bodos cook the unripe fruit as vegetable with fish. A chutney can be made by boiling the fruit. In Assam, dried and preserved slices are added to black green pulses to make a popular slightly acidic curry. In Malnad region of Karnataka, Tirtahalli and Chikkamagalore this is widely used in name of ‘odduli’, especially in fish recipes. Odduli is prepared by boiling the fruit to get a thick black liquid which can be stored for years without adding preservatives.

Medicinal Uses: Dried up fruit slices are valued as a traditional remedy for dysentery. In Ayurveda the fruits are used in the treatment of dysentery, gastritis, etc. and is said to have anti inflammatory properties. When the bark is cut it exudes a yellow resin called gamboge that is used in food, paints and medicines. It can be used as a rootstock for the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana).

.Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.