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Herbs & Plants

Ephedra procera

Botanical Name: Ephedra procera
Family: Nymphalidae
Kingdom: Animalia
Genus: Euphaedra
Species: E. procera

Synonyms : Euphaedra (Euphaedrana) procera
Common Names: Ma huang

Habitat :Ephedra procera is native to the southern part of the Central African Republic, the northern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and western Uganda. It grows in Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor, Armenia, Kurdistan, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan (Baluchistan), Himalaya, Greece. In Greece, in the southern mountains (Ali and Qaiser 1987, Vidakovic 1991).

Description:
Ephedra procera is a shrubs up to 2 m tall. Branches and branchlets slender, striate, smooth. Leaves up to 3 mm long, leathery. Male cones sessile, subglobose, 4-5 mm long; anthers 6-8. Female cones erect, solitary, petiolated, with 2-3 pairs of bracts, the inner connate below the middle. Tubillus c. 2.5 mm long, straight. Berry red or yellow, ovoid to subglobose, 5-7 mm long; seeds ovate to oblong, c. 5 mm long. Heartwood red-brown (Ali and Qaiser 1987, Vidakovic 1991).

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Cultivation & propagation:
The best time of year for this is in the spring when it’s warm out, and there hasn’t been any rain recently because it needs to be planted right away after taking the cutting.
Step two: Fill a pot with the soil.
The pot should be at least eight inches in diameter and about five inches deep, but it can get as large as you want or need to accommodate your plant’s size when it grows up.
Step three: Place your cutting into the dirt to bury half of it and water well.
Step four: Place your plant in an area where it will get at least six hours of sunlight per day and keep watered regularly.
Keep a close eye on your new plant’s health to make sure it grows up healthy and strong.
The easiest way to propagate ephedra plants is by cuttings. You can also root leafy tip cuttings in a glass of water, but they need to be planted into the soil as soon as possible for them to develop roots and survive. A cutting should have at least one of three leaves from the top. Make sure that your cutting is at least two to three inches long.

Medicinal Uses:
Ephedra procera is used to treat bronchial asthma, hay fever and heart stimulant. Once a major supply of E. Procera to the world originated from Baluchistan Pakistan.
Withania coagulans: Fresh fruit is emetic, Dried fruit is sedative, diuretic and stomachic. Moreover, it contains anti-cancerous compounds that have already been identified and also the local people drink its fruits extract for Hepatitis C


Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euphaedra_procera
https://www.conifers.org/ep/Ephedra_procera.php
https://shuncy.com/article/grow-ephedra-plant#how-to-grow-ephedra-plant

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Taxus bacatta

Botanical Name: Taxus bacatta
Family: Taxaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Genus: Taxus
Species: T. baccata

Common Names: Common yew, English yew,or European yew.

Habitat: Taxus baccata is native to all countries of Europe (except Iceland), the Caucasus, and beyond from Turkey eastwards to northern Iran. Its range extends south to Morocco and Algeria in North Africa. A few populations are also present in the archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira. The limit of its northern Scandinavian distribution is its sensitivity to frost, with global warming predicted to allow its spread inland. It has been introduced elsewhere, including the United States.

Descriiption:
Taxus bacatta is small to medium-sized evergreen tree, growing 10–20 m (35–65 ft) (exceptionally up to 28 m or 92 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 2 m (6 ft 7 in) (exceptionally 4 m or 13 ft 1 in) in diameter. The bark is thin, scaly brown, and comes off in small flakes aligned with the stem. The leaves are flat, dark green, 1–4 centimetres (1?2–1+1?2 in) long, 2–3 mm (3?32–1?8 in) broad, and arranged spirally on the stem, but with the leaf bases twisted to align the leaves in two flat rows on either side of the stem, except on erect leading shoots where the spiral arrangement is more obvious. The leaves are poisonous.

The seed cones are modified, each cone containing a single seed, which is 4–7 mm (3?16–1?4 in) long, and partly surrounded by a fleshy scale which develops into a soft, bright red berry-like structure called an aril. The aril is 8–15 mm (5?16–9?16 in) long and wide and open at the end. The arils mature 6 to 9 months after pollination, and with the seed contained, are eaten by thrushes, waxwings and other birds, which disperse the hard seeds undamaged in their droppings. Maturation of the arils is spread over 2 to 3 months, increasing the chances of successful seed dispersal. The seeds themselves are poisonous and bitter, but are opened and eaten by some bird species, including hawfinches, greenfinches, and great tits. The aril is not poisonous; it is gelatinous and very sweet tasting. The male cones are globose, 3–6 mm (1?8–1?4 in) in diameter, and shed their pollen in early spring. Yews are mostly dioecious, but occasional individuals can be variably monoecious, or change sex with time.

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Cultivation:
Grow yew in moist but well-drained soil in full sun to full shade. Water well as the plant establishes and then you shouldn’t need to water again – yews do best in slightly drier soils as they can succumb to root rot in damper conditions. Trim established hedges in summer. Standard yew trees need very little care.
Prepare the soil by digging it over and incorporating well-rotted manure or garden compost. Yew trees are available as potted or bare-root plants. Bare-root plants are cheaper to buy, especially when planting a hedge. Plant in autumn or spring, spacing hedging plants 60cm apart. Firm gently around the rootball and water well. Water during dry spells in the first year, until established.

Yew does well in containers and makes an ideal shrub for a formal display such as on either side of a front door. Additional watering is necessary in pots as the roots have much less soil to search for moisture.

Propagation:
Taxus baccata ’Green Diamond’ is currently propagated by grafting in Western European ornamental tree nurseries, which is however a costly and slow propagation method. As part of our work, we set the aim to work out the propagation method for Taxus baccata ’Green Diamond’ by cuttings. As part of our work, we examined the propagation of Taxus baccata ’Green Diamond’ by cutting in various plant growth mediums with the application of root stimulants in different concentrations.

Medicinal Uses:
Certain compounds found in the bark of yew trees were discovered in 1967 to have efficacy as anti-cancer agents. The precursors of the chemotherapy drug paclitaxel (taxol) were later shown to be synthesized easily from extracts of the leaves of European yew,] which is a much more renewable source than the bark of the Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) from which they were initially isolated. This ended a point of conflict in the early 1990s; many environmentalists, including Al Gore, had opposed the destructive harvesting of Pacific yew for paclitaxel cancer treatments. Docetaxel can then be obtained by semi-synthetic conversion from the precursors.

Other Uses:
Yew wood was historically important, finding use in the Middle Ages in items such as musical instruments, furniture, and longbows. The species was felled nearly to extinction in much of Europe. In the modern day it is not considered a commercial crop due to its very slow growth, but it is valued for hedging and topiary. When grown as a hedge, yew provides dense shelter for birds. Its fruit is eaten by birds and small mammals such as squirrels and dormice. Its leaves are a foodplant for the caterpillars of the satin beauty moth.

Known Hazards:
All parts of the yew tree are poisonous, but it’s the berries (in particular the seeds) that contain the highest concentrations of taxine alkaloids. Birds and grey squirrels are able to eat the fruit, either eating only the flesh or passing the seed intact through their digestive system. However, it’s important to ensure that you, your children and pets do not to consume yew berries or needles, as they could cause severe illness if eaten in sufficient quantities. Yew poisoning symptoms can include:

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxus_baccata
https://www.gardenersworld.com/how-to/grow-plants/how-to-grow-taxus-baccata-yew/
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/356739391_Propagation_of_Taxus_baccata_’Green_Diamond’_by_cutting

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Vallerine Wallichii

Botanical Name: Vallerine Wallichii
Family : Caprifoliaceae/Valerianaceae (Valerians)
Kingdom : Plantae
Order : Dipsacales
Genus : Valeriana

Synonyms :Valeriana Hardwickii, Valeriana Himalayana
Common Names: Tagara

English Name : Indian Valerian
Gujarati Name: Tagar Ganthoda
Kannada Name:bMushkabala
Marathi Name: Tagaramool
Punjabi Name: Sugandha Bala
TamilName: Tagarai

Habitat:
Vallerine Wallichii is native to temperate Himalayas, from Kashmir to Bhutan and Khasi Hills. It grows naturally at altitudes of 1800–3000 m in north- western Himalayas and between 1200 m and 1800 m in Assam and North-East India.

Description:
Valeriana wallichii is a hairy perennial herb herb that grows up to 50 cm high. The plant has several stems, that are 15–45 cm long. Leaves are of two types, radical and cauline. Radical leaves are cordate–ovate, 2.5–8 cm, toothed or sinuate, long stalked, while cauline leaves are few, small, entire or lobulate. Rootstock is thick, with 6–10 cm thick, long fibrous roots knotted by uneven circular ridges.
Flowers are white or tinged with pink and occur in flat-topped corymbose clusters on erect, nearly leafless peduncles. Flowers are unisexual; male and female flowers appear on different plants. Corolla is funnel shaped with five lobes. Fruits are crowned with a persistent pappus-like calyx. Flowering and fruiting occur in March–April. Seeds ripen in April–May.

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Cultivation & propagation:
Moist and partial sunny areas are found suitable for cultivation. Further moist rough wall surface provide suitable microhabitat for better growth. At lower altitude (1800- 2200m) plain beds with slight tilt (5-100C) were found suitable for cultivation unlike horizontal and ertical beds at alpine site.
Vallerine Wallichii can be propagated through seeds or by using portions of the root- stock, preferably during rainy season. It is normally advisable to raise the crop through suckers because crop raised through seeds takes more time to mature. Seeds can be collected in April–May and sown immediately in nursery.


Medicinal Uses:
Valeriana Wallichii benefits include its use in neurological, psychological, and digestive disorders. In low dosage, it calms the mind, strengthens nerves and prevents convulsions. Therefore, it is used in the treatment of disturbed sleep (insomnia), epilepsy, and paralysis. It has analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions. So, it is used to treat osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. It acts as an appetizer, carminative and antispasmodic. So, it helps to treat abdominal pain, flatulence, gas, bloating, abdominal heaviness and loss of appetite. It also improves the strength of the heart muscles and reduces blood pressure. Therefore, it is also included in ayurvedic antihypertensive medicines.
• It calms the mind
• It corrects sleep cycle
• It supports better sleep
• It helps to reduce stress, anxiety & irritability
• It removes obstruction from the nerves. It gives relief in pain
• It is hot potency & reduces kapha
• Provides sedative & sleep enhancing properties.

Known Hazards: Tagara Side effects include hypotension, lightheadedness, hiccup, nausea, and vomiting.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:

https://www.ayurtimes.com/tagara-valeriana-wallichii/
https://www.google.com/search?q=edible+uses+of+Valeriana+Wallichii&rlz=1C1JZAP_enIN944IN944&ei=fl14Y6P8E4OPseMPjLi8gAw&ved=0ahUKEwijs-OEtrn7AhWDR2wGHQwcD8AQ4dUDCA8&oq=edible+uses+of+Valeriana+Wallichii&gs_lcp=Cgxnd3Mtd2l6LXNlcnAQDDIFCAAQogQyBQgAEKIEMgUIABCiBDIFCAAQogQyBQgAEKIEOgcIABAeEKIESgQIQRgASgUIQBIBMUoECEYYAFAAWJ8nYPdlaABwAHgAgAHUAogBgRKSAQcwLjguMi4xmAEAoAEBwAEB&sclient=gws-wiz-serp
https://vikaspedia.in/agriculture/crop-production/package-of-practices/medicinal-and-aromatic-plants/valeriana-jatamansi

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Sanssurian lappa

Botanical Name: Sanssurian lappa
Family: Asteraceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales
Genus: Dolomiaea

Synonyms:
*Aplotaxis lappa Decne.
*Aucklandia costus Falc.
*Aucklandia lappa (Decne.) Decne.
*Dolomiaea costus
*Theodorea costus (Falc.) Kuntze

Common Names: Costus, Indian costus, Kuth, or Putchuk
Names in other languages, including ku??ha in Sanskrit; kust or qust in Arabic and Persian; kut, kur, and pachak in Hindi and Bengali, kostum, gostham, and potchuk in Tamil; upaleta and kur in Gujarati; kot or kust in Punjabi; changala in Telugu; sepuddy in Malayalam; kostha in Kannada; kuth or postkhai in Kashmiri; and kosht (???) in Hebrew; koto in Swahili; mu xiang in Chinese.

Habitat: Sanssurian lappa is native to India. It grows at elevations of 2,500 to 3,000 m (8,200 to 9,800 ft) asl in India; including the Himalayas, Kashmir, Jammu, Western Ghats, and the Kishenganga Valley.

Description:
Sanssurian lappa is a strong perennial herb with a typical growth of 1–2 m (3.3–6.6 ft) tall by 1 m (3.3 ft) wide. Its outer surface appear yellowish brown – grayish brown having rough longitudinal furrows, fine netted wrinkles, and root branches. It has long lyrate leaves and heads of purple florets. The leaves take the shape of being auricled at base, with jagged, toothed patterns running down the sides of the leaves and are an average of 0.50–1.25 m (1.6–4.1 ft) long. The roots of the plant are stout and can travel up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. It has thick cylindrical roots 5-20 cm long, 1-6 cm in diameter, some with slight curve that sometimes split . Its typical flowering season spans from July to August, with the seeds ripening from August to September.

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Cultivation:
The plant is cultivated as a medicinal plant. Its growing region occurs mainly within India-Himachal Pradesh, Jammu-Kashmir- its native place of origin.[17] A study by Parmaret. al. 2012 explored the effect of altitude on seed germination and survival percentage, proving that high altitudes favoured high survival and seed germination percentages.[18] This is why they thrive so abundantly in the Himalayan Region which is very mountainous. Cultivation is primarily focused upon the roots of the plants. Most of the roots are exported to China and Japan and as they serve as a big commodity for commerce in Kashmir. However, this type of trade is now being controlled by the state due to it being over-exploited. This plant has been greatly over-collected and has been placed on Appendix I of CITES
The plant can be grown in a wide variety of soils, ranging from light sandy, medium to heavy clay soils that are acid, neutral or basic, alkaline soils, preferring soils that are moist. The amount of sunlight the plant thrives upon can vary from semi-shaded (light woodland) areas or areas with no shade.

Propagation:
Low germination potential has limited the application of breeding approaches in this herb; however, promising OMICS strategies are being explored for understanding molecular networks underlying biosynthesis of industrially valuable secondary metabolites.

Medicinal Uses:
Saussurea lappa helps to treat asthma as it is an effective expectorant. It makes breathing easier by relaxing and clearing bronchiole. It is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and dermatitis. This herb treats many skin diseases if applied externally in the form of juice or poultice. It is effective remedy against foul smell, chronic ulcers, headache, toothache, synovitis, rheumatoid arthritis and dermatitis .

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolomiaea_costus

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Rauwolfia Serpentina

Botanical Name: Rauwolfia Serpentina
Family: Apocynaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Genus: Rauvolfia
Species: R. serpentina

Synonyms:
*Ophioxylon album Gaertn.
*Ophioxylon obversum Miq.
*Ophioxylon salutiferum Salisb.
*Ophioxylon serpentinum L.
*Ophioxylon trifoliatum Gaertn.
*Rauvolfia obversa (Miq.) Baill.
*Rauvolfia trifoliata (Gaertn.) Baill.

Common Names: Indian snakeroot, Devil pepper, or Serpentine wood
English Name: Indian Snake Wood, Serpentine Wood
Hindi Name: Sarpagandha, Chandrabagha, Chota chand
Sanskrit Name: Sarpagandha, Chandarmar
Ayurvedic Name: Sarpagandha
Bengali : Chandra
Kannada: Sutranavi, Patalagondhi, Shivavabhiballi, Sarpagandhi
Malayalam: Suvapavalforiyan, Chuvanna-vilpori
Tamil : Chivan amelpodi
Indonesia: pule pandak
Telugu : Paataala goni, Paataala garuda
Urdu: Asrel
Oriya: Sanochada, Patalgarur

Habitat: Rauwolfia Serpentina is native to the Indian subcontinent and East Asia (from India to Indonesia). It grows in India in the sub-Himalayan regions up to 1,000 metres.

Description:
Rauwolfia Serpentina is a perrinal undershrub. IIt grows up to around 2 feet in height, leaves are oval present in whorl of 3 with paler green below and dark green above, tip is acuminate and base is slender and tapering.. Flowers are Irregular corymbose white flowers with violet tinge and fruits are oval and fleshy of around 1 cm long, on ripening color turns to shiny purple black. The plant has milky sap.

. The plant has milky sap.

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Medicinal Uses:
Rauwolfia Serpentina roots are used for the medicinal purposes. Its roots contain the highest amount of active substances, which are beneficial as anti-anxiety, sedative, antihypertensive, and relaxing effects.
Ayurvedic Uses:
Sarpagandha mainly works on VATA DOSHA and KAPHA DOSHA. Therefore, Sarpagandha is most suitable for individuals with VATA and KAPHA dominant symptoms. Sarpagandha may not be suitable for patients with PITTA DOSHA manifestations or should be used with a proper care if required especially with milk. For decreasing its side effects, which occurs due to its effects on the Pitta Dosha, other medicines like Mukta Pishti, Praval Pishti, Rose Flowers or Gulkand, Kushta Zamurd or Panna Pishti, Centella Asiatica, Shankhpushpi, etc. should be used along with it.
Rauwolfia serpentina, also known as Sarpagandha or Indian Snakeroot, is used in Ayurveda as a medicine for hypertension, high blood pressure (bp), anxiety, insomnia (sleeplessness), and central nervous system disorders. It is a natural and effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic Ayurvedic medicinal herb.


Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rauvolfia_serpentina
https://www.ayurtimes.com/rauwolfia-serpentina-sarpagandha/

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