Category Archives: Herbs & Plants

Setaria italica

Botanical Name : Setaria italica
Family: Poaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Genus: Setaria
Species: S. italica

Synonyms:
Alopecurus caudatus Thunb.
Chaetochloa germanica (Mill.) Smyth
Chaetochloa italica (L.) Scribn.
Chamaeraphis italica (L.) Kuntze

Common Names: Foxtail millet, Dwarf setaria, Chinese Millet, Foxtail bristle-grass, Giant setaria, Green foxtail, Italian millet, German millet, and Hungarian millet.

Habitat: Setaria italica was first naturalized in China. The evidence shows the domestication of Foxtail millet in the Middle East and Europe which dates about 4000 years BP. The phylogenetic analyses show the green millet and foxtail millet is associated and the Foxtail millet is naturalized derivative of the green millet. Currently, Foxtail millet is sophisticated in Europe, America, Asia, Africa and Australia.

Description:
Setaria italica is an annual grass with erect and robust culms, grown for human food. It grows upto the height of 60-150 cm. Leaves are 20-40 cm long and 1.5-3 centimeters wide with lanceolate shape. Leaf sheaths are small, glabrous or pubescent and 1-3 mm. Leaf lamina is dense, erect or pendent, lobed and 6-40 × 0.5-5 cm. It has elliptic, ovate or subglobose spikelets of 2-3 mm.

The seedhead is a dense, hairy panicle 5–30 cm (2.0–11.8 in) long.

The small seeds, around 2 millimetres (3?32 in) in diameter, are encased in a thin, papery hull which is easily removed in threshing. Seed color varies greatly between varieties.

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Edible Uses:
Foxtail millets are rich in calories that provide energy and strength to the body to perform activities. It is widely cultivated in India, Africa and China. It is considered as the perfect substitute for the healthy diets.

Medicinal Uses:
Setaria italica has different health bebefits. It has very good neutricinal value. It is an Antioxidant

This helps Proper function of cardiac, reducing Alzheimer’s disease, Cures muscle weakness, It helps proper maintenance of skin & hair .

Freshly prepared root decoction (ca. 10 ml) mixed with a pinch of table salt (ca. 2 gm) is given at
early morning in empty stomach to cure dyspepsia by the Lodhas. Tender stem is given as fodder to increase lactation of the cattle by
the Santals. Fresh root paste (ca. 5 gm) mixed with the root paste of ‘Gandhar’ (Paederia scandens) and ‘Sital’ (Sida cordata) (ca. 3
gm and 2 gm each respectively) is given twice a day to cure blood dysentery by the Oraons.

Other Uses: Dry hays are used for cattle food.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foxtail_millet
https://www.healthbenefitstimes.com/foxtail-millet/
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf

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Sacciolepis interrupta

Botanical Name : Sacciolepis interrupta
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Panicoideae
ingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Supertribe: Panicodae
Tribe: Paniceae
Genus: Sacciolepis

Synonyms:

Common Names: Polla kala, Cupscale grass, Nardual.

Habitat : Sacciolepis interrupta is native to Guinea-Bissau, Chad, Tanzania to Botswana, China (Yunnan) to Tropical Asia.It grows mainly on wet land.It is distributed on tropics of South East Asia and Africa.

Growing Localities: Sivaloda, Swamikkayam, Chalakkudy, Guruvayur, Konni, Ranni, Manjeswar, Taliparamba, Cheruvathur, Thekkadi, Olavakkot, Pulimath, Thakarapramba, Ayiramthengu, Alleppey town, Nedumudy, Pulinkunnu, Vandanam, Nedumkayam, Karimpuzha, Thekara-Mannarghat, Thenma

Description:
Sacciolepis interrupta is an annuals grass. It’s main culms 25-90 cm long, erect, creeping or geniculate, spongy and floating, rooting at the nodes below; nodes glabrous. Leaves 5-30 x 0.3-1.2 cm, lanceolate or linear, base rounded, apex acute or acuminate; sheaths to 16 cm long; ligules ovate, membranous. Panicles 4-25 cm long, spiciform, interrupted. Spikelets 3-5 mm long, ovate-lanceolate. Lower glume 1-1.5 x 1 mm, ovate-oblong. Upper glume 3-5 x 1-2 mm, ovate-lanceolate. Lower floret male or barren. Upper floret bisexual. First lemma similar to the upper glume. Palea 2-3 mm olong, oblong, hyaline. Second lemma 2-3 x 1-1.5 mm, ovate-oblong, subcoriaceous. Palea 2-3 mm long, elliptic, 2-keeled, hyaline. Stamens 3; anthers violet. Stigmas pink. Grains c. 2 mm long, ovoid. It is flowring & fruiting throughout the year.

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Edible Uses: The seeds are used as femene food.

Medicinal Uses: Plant decoction with common salt is given for the treatment of stone in gall-bladder by the Lodhas.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sacciolepis
http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:420088-1
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf
http://keralaplants.in/keralaplantsdetails.aspx?id=Sacciolepis_interrupta

Saccharum bengalense

Botanical Name: Saccharum bengalense
Family: Poaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Genus: Saccharum
Species: S. bengalense

Synonyms: munj; munja; Saccharum bengalense; Saccharum munja

Common Names: Munj sweetcane, Baruwa sugarcane or Baruwa grass, Ban Kashia.

Habitat: Saccharum bengalense is native to northeastern India, particularly in Assam within the Terai-Duar grasslands in the foothills of the Himalayas.

Description:

Saccharum bengalense is a tall caespitose perennial sugarcane bamboo grass, culms up to 4 m high. The plant is colored pinkish-green. Leaf-blades up to 90 cm long, 3-10 mm wide, flat or markedly channelled, the midrib occupying the greater part of the width, glaucous. Panicle 20-75 cm long, the peduncle glabrous; racemes 2-4(-5) cm long, considerably shorter than the supporting branches, the internodes and pedicels hirsute with hairs up to 7 mm long. Spikelets slightly heteromorphous, 3.8-5.5 mm long, the callus bearded with whitish or greyish hairs up to 2.5 mm long; glumes equal, membranous, lower glume of sessile spikelet hairy on the back, the upper glume glabrous, both glumes of pedicelled spikelet hairy, the hairs at least 4 mm long, often up to 9 mm; lower lemma oblong-elliptic, hairy on the back; upper lemma ovate-lanceolate, ciliate on the margins, acute or very shortly awned, the awn not visible beyond the glumes.

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Uses:
It is a food source for animals such as the Indian rhinoceros and the pygmy hog.

Medicinal Use: The straw of the plants is used as thatching materials for construction of huts by the Rabhas

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saccharum_bengalense
https://www.audioenglish.org/dictionary/saccharum_bengalense.htm
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=250072300
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf

Itch grass

Botanical Name: Rottboellia exaltata
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Panicoideae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Supertribe: Andropogonodae
Tribe: Andropogoneae
Subtribe: Rottboelliinae
Genus: Rottboellia

Synonyms:
*Cymbachne Retz.
*Robynsiochloa Jacq.-Fél.
*Stegosia Lour.

Common Names: Itch grass, Bara-swali

Habitat : Rottboellia exaltata is native to African, Asian, and Australian. It grows in the warm-climate countries.

Description:
Rottboellia exaltata is an annual grass. The stem rises up to 3 m high, supported below by stilt-roots, the basal sheaths painfully hispid; leaves up to 45 x 2 cm. Racemes 3–15 cm long, glabrous, terminating in a tail of reduced spikelets, gathered into a leafy false panicle. Sessile spikelet oblong-elliptic, pallid; lower glume 3.5–5 mm long. Pedicelled spikelet narrowly ovate, 3–5 mm long, herbaceous, green; pedicel shorter than the internode.

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Medicinal Uses: Root paste is applied on the boils for early suppuration by the Lodhas.

Known Hazards: Itchgrass infestations can result in up to 80 percent crop loss, or even abandonment of agricultural lands. Farmers usually regard itchgrass as a troublesome weed.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rottboellia
https://plants.jstor.org/compilation/Rottboellia.exaltata
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf

Pearl millet

Botanical Name: Pennisetum glaucum
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Panicoideae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Supertribe: Panicodae
Tribe: Paniceae
Subtribe: Cenchrinae
Genus: Pennisetum

Synonyms:
Penicillaria Willd.
Gymnotrix P.Beauv.
Catatherophora Steud.
Sericura Hassk.

Common Names: Pearl-millet, Gangai, Bajrai, Turn, Bajra
In Africa: gero (Hausa), N!u-khwaba (Khwe language, Botswana), Arum (Borno Kanuri), Uwele (Kiswahili), Oka (Yoruba), mahangu (Mbukushu, Oshiwambo language), sa?o (Bambara), gawri (Fula), babala, nyoloti, dukkin, souna, petit mil (French), heyni (Zarma), masago (Somali), mexoeira (Mozambique), biltug (Tigrinya), biltug (Blin), mhunga (Shona, Zimbabwe), inyawuthi (Northern Ndebele, Zimbabwe), lebelebele (Setswana, Botswana), zembwe (Ikalanga, Botswana), dro’o (Tunisian Arabic), ???? dokhn (Yemeni Arabic) mahangu (Namibia, Oshiwambo)

In Australia: bulrush millet

In Brazil: milheto

In Europe: candle millet, dark millet

In India: (Kambu in Tamil); (“Kambam” in Malayalam); (Bajri or Bajro in Gujarati); (Bajri in Rajasthani and Marathi), (Sajje/kambu in Kannada); (Bajra in Hindi, Urdu and Punjabi and (sajjalu in Telugu) and (“bajra:” in Bengali).

In Pakistan.?(Ba’ajra, in Urdu, Kashmiri, Balochi, Pashto, Punjabi, Saraiki); Sindhi.

In USA: cattail millet (Pennisetum americanum)

In Nepal: ( junelo)

Habitat :
Pearl millet is thought to have originated from the Sahel region in Africa (Hannaway and Larson, 2004). It is an obligate upland or facultative upland plant, depending on the region where it is grown. It almost never occurs in wetlands in the arid West, but may occasionally occur in a wetland in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, Eastern Mountains and Piedmont, and Great Plains. It grows well on sandy and acidic soils.
It is the most widely grown type of millet. Now it is growing in several countries of the world.

Description:
Pearl millet is an introduced, annual, warm-season crop widely grown throughout the United States for grazing, hay, cover crop, and wildlife. It is a bunch grass growing 4–8 ft tall, on smooth ½–1 inch diameter stems, with upright side shoots (tillers). Compared to sorghum, it will produce more tillers and has a woodier stem (Kajuna, 2001). The inflorescence (4–20 in) is a terminal spike, resembling that of cattail. Seeds are cylindrical, typically white, or yellow, but there are varieties with colors ranging from brown to purple. Leaf blades are long and pointed.

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Pearl millet’s deep root system grows relatively fast (Hannaway and Larson, 2004), and can scavenge residual nutrients. It is a good choice for low-input sustainable agricultural systems.

Medicinal Uses:
The plant is appetiser and tonic. It is useful in the treatment of heart diseases. The fruits have been rubbed on open facial pimples in order to get rid of them.

Freshly prepared root decoction (ca. 10 ml) mixed with ‘Ada’ (rhizome of Zingiber officinale) paste (ca. 4 gm) and ‘Konjee’
(stale rice water) (ca. 1 ml) is given to cure rural dropsy by the Lodhas. Root paste (ca. 5 gm) is given to children as purgative by the
Lodhas. Mature roots (ca. l0 gm) are made into paste and are applied to cure body and leg swelling by the Mundas. Grain decoction
(ca. 8 ml) mixed with ‘Ada’ (rhizome of Zingiber officinale) paste (ca. 5 gm) and honey (ca. 10-15 drops) is given to promote sexual
desire by the Santals.

Edible Uses:
Pearl millet seed is eaten raw or cooked. It can be used like rice in sweet or savoury dishes, or can be ground into a powder and used as a flour for making bread, porridge etc. The grain is often fermented to make various foods The sweet tasting grains are eaten raw by children. Very nutritious.

Other Different Uses:
Pearl millet is used by livestock producers for grazing, silage, hay, and green chop (Newman et al., 2010). It is the preferred choice for forage when compared to similar warm-season millets such as browntop, Japanese, and proso millet. Pearl millet production for grain is mainly used for poultry feed (Myers, 2002). It is considered equal to or better than typical corn-soybean broiler chicken feed (Gulia et al., 2007). Unlike sorghum, pearl millet does not produce prussic acid or have tannins, so is safe to feed to horses (Newman et al., 2010). Swine have been shown to reach slaughter weight earlier on pearl millet than on a corn diet (Gulia et al., 2007). Terrill et al. (1998) found pearl millet could be effectively used as a substitute for corn feed in goat diets.

Pearl millet has a high potential for accumulating toxic levels of nitrate, especially on the lower 6 in (15 cm) of the stalks (Strickland et al., 2007). It is best to avoid grazing younger plants and to avoid overgrazing. Droughty or cold weather can stress plants and increase nitrate levels. Pearl millet may contain higher levels of nitrate than sorghum-sudangrass after hot weather, however nitrate returns to safe levels 7–14 days after a drought-ending rain (Strickland et al., 2007). Pearl millet feed can be diluted by mixing with low nitrate feeds. Newman et al. (2010) observe that haying material does not reduce nitrate concentrations, but ensiling the forage can decrease nitrate levels 40–60%.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pearl_millet
https://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_pegl2.pdf
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf