Hope is an emotion characterized by positive feelings about the immediate or long-term future and often coupled with high motivation, optimism, and a generally elevated mood.Hope is a partially subjective term, and both psychologists and philosophers have struggled to define it. Some argue that hopefulness is a relatively stable personality trait, others believe that hope depends on external circumstances and previous experience, and some people view hope as a choice. Hope is commonly associated with warm feelings about the future, an increased willingness to work toward a goal, and an upbeat mood.
Hope therapy is a fairly recent idea with a fairly basic point. The main way this therapy is practiced is by teaching people in a group class setting to become more oriented toward positive thinking . Positive thinking with positive goals and behavior will help people toachieve their goals. It is separate from the idea of optimism, which is generally having a pervasive belief that good things are likely to happen. Instead, researchers believe that people can be taught to improve their outlook and minor depression in class settings, instead of through traditional talk therapy, which may tend to focus on negative experiences.
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It is observed that Hope therapy helps a lot to the people with severe macular degeneration, and people with mild depression, who were not classed as having a mental illness. Most people learn how to create goals, how to determine ways to reach goals and also how to use positive self-talk. Instead of focusing on negative incidents. Hope therapy relied on positive goal-based training. Many people in the groups noted significant elevation of mood, were able to absorb the training and became more goal oriented and were successfully able to use positive self-talk to diminish negative thinking patterns.
Hope therapy is not just about the “power of positive thinking.” Instead it is based somewhat on the cognitive behavioral model of therapy which works to replace old or negative “hot thoughts” or core beliefs with new ones that are more truthful and positive. However, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) does spend at least some time analyzing how negative thoughts or experiences have influenced thoughts and behavior patterns in the here and now. Hope therapy appears to differ from this by focusing more on simply learning to change mindset, without much examination of what caused negative mindset in the past.
People who are facing personal and emotional conflicts, it is not that everything is lost for them. There is HOPE for them, they can also leave beautiful and happy life if some goal is set for them and with proper mental training they start exerting to reach the goal. The Hope Therapy Center (HTC) is a place where disheartened people may find healing and an opportunity to talk with a trained pastoral psychotherapist.
Hopelessness can also affect physical health. People who are not optimistic about their health or about their medical treatment are more likely to remain sick, more likely to report high levels of pain, and less likely to see an improvement in their overall health. Some mental health practitioners, aware of the role hope plays, encourage clients to work on thinking positively about life developments and finding things to be hopeful about. Many mental health professionals believe that hope is an indispensable key to happiness and that people cannot be happy without hope.
Hope therapy will be very much active and successful if this therapy is done along with Yoga exercise with Pranayama & Meditation under the guide line of some expert.
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT), sometimes called photochemotherapy, is a form of phototherapy using nontoxic light-sensitive compounds that are exposed selectively to light, whereupon they become toxic to targeted malignant and other diseased cells (phototoxicity). PDT has proven ability to kill microbial cells, including bacteria, fungi and viruses. PDT is popularly used in treating acne. It is used clinically to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including wet age-related macular degeneration and malignant cancers, and is recognised as a treatment strategy which is both minimally invasive and minimally toxic.
Most modern PDT applications involve three key components: a photosensitizer, a light source and tissue oxygen. The combination of these three components leads to the chemical destruction of any tissues which have either selectively taken up the photosensitizer or have been locally exposed to light. The wavelength of the light source needs to be appropriate for exciting the photosensitizer to produce reactive oxygen species. These reactive oxygen species generated through PDT are free radicals (Type I PDT) generated through electron abstraction or transfer from a substrate molecule and highly reactive state of oxygen known as singlet oxygen (Type II PDT). In understanding the mechanism of PDT it is important to distinguish it from other light-based and laser therapies such as laser wound healing and rejuvenation, or intense pulsed light hair removal, which do not require a photosensitizer.
Why it is done:
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was first used in 1905 for the treatment of skin cancers. Since then, it has been further developed and used for the treatment of many kinds of cancers (lung, colon, etc.) as well as certain kinds of blindness. PDT combines a drug (called a photosensitizer) that is preferentially absorbed by certain kinds of cells and a special light source. When used together, the photosensitizer and the light destroy the targeted cells. More recently, however, PDT has been used for photorejuvenation, wrinkles, discoloration, visible veins, and acne. When used for these conditions, the photosensitizer is applied to the face and then the skin is exposed to a light source. Rapidly growing cells, oil glands, and other structures in the skin absorb the photosensitizer and are destroyed by a reaction caused by the light. Cosmetic improvement in wrinkling, age spots, and visible veins has been documented after PDT treatment.
It is a new advance in facial rejuvenation and there are currently different methods in use. For example some physicians use blue light, red light, or intense pulse light. The photosensitizer is applied to the skin and is left on for a variable period of time. The skin is then exposed to the light source and the photosensitizer is then removed. Reported side effects include transient burning, stinging, swelling, and redness. Side effects are variable depending on what is being treated, how long the photosensitizer is left on, and which light source is used. No long-term studies have been performed to evaluate long term side effects. Procedure:
In order to achieve the selective destruction of the target area using PDT while leaving normal tissues untouched, either the photosensitizer can be applied locally to the target area, or photosensitive targets can be locally excited with light. For instance, in the treatment of skin conditions, including acne, psoriasis, and also skin cancers, the photosensitizer can be applied topically and locally excited by a light source. In the local treatment of internal tissues and cancers, after photosensitizers have been administered intravenously, light can be delivered to the target area using endoscopes and fiber optic catheters....CLICK & SEE
Photosensitizers can also target many viral and microbial species, including HIV and MRSA. Using PDT, pathogens present in samples of blood and bone marrow can be decontaminated before the samples are used further for transfusions or transplants. PDT can also eradicate a wide variety of pathogens of the skin and of the oral cavities. Given the seriousness that drug resistant pathogens have now become, there is increasing research into PDT as a new antimicrobial therapy.
In air and tissue, molecular oxygen occurs in a triplet state, whereas almost all other molecules are in a singlet state. Reactions between these are forbidden by quantum mechanics, thus oxygen is relatively non-reactive at physiological conditions. A photosensitizer is a chemical compound that can be promoted to an excited state upon absorption light and undergo intersystem crossing with oxygen to produce singlet oxygen. This species rapidly attacks any organic compounds it encounters, thus being highly cytotoxic. It is rapidly eliminated: in cells, the average lifetime is 3 µs.
A wide array of photosensitizers for PDT exist. They can be divided into porphyrins, chlorophylls and dyes. Some examples include aminolevulinic acid (ALA), Silicon Phthalocyanine Pc 4, m-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC), and mono-L-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6).
Several photosensitizers are commercially available for clinical use, such as Allumera, Photofrin, Visudyne, Levulan, Foscan, Metvix, Hexvix, Cysview, and Laserphyrin, with others in development, e.g. Antrin, Photochlor, Photosens, Photrex, Lumacan, Cevira, Visonac, BF-200 ALA. Amphinex. Also Azadipyrromethenes.
Although these photosensitizers can be used for wildly different treatments, they all aim to achieve certain characteristics:
*High absorption at long wavelengths
*Tissue is much more transparent at longer wavelengths (~700–850 nm). Absorbing at longer wavelengths would allow the light to penetrate deeper, and allow the treatment of larger tumors.
*High singlet oxygen quantum yield
*Low photobleaching to prevent degradation of the photosensitizer
*Many optical dosimetry techniques, such as fluorescence spectroscopy, depend on the drug being naturally fluorescent
*High chemical stability
*Low dark toxicity
*The photosensitizer should not be harmful to the target tissue until the treatment beam is applied.
*Preferential uptake in target tissue
The major difference between different types of photosensitizers is in the parts of the cell that they target. Unlike in radiation therapy, where damage is done by targeting cell DNA, most photosensitizers target other cell structures. For example, mTHPC has been shown to localize in the nuclear envelope and do its damage there. In contrast, ALA has been found to localize in the mitochondria and Methylene Blue in the lysosomes.
To allow treatment of deeper tumours some researchers are using internal chemiluminescence to activate the photosensitiser.
PUVA therapy is using psoralen as photosensitiser and UVA ultraviolet as light source, but this form of therapy is usually classified as a separate form of therapy from photodynamic therapy.
Some photosensitisers naturally accumulate in the endothelial cells of vascular tissue allowing ‘vascular targeted’ PDT, but there is also research to target the photosensitiser to the tumour (usually by linking it to antibodies or antibody fragments). It is currently only in pre-clinical studies.
Compared to normal tissues, most types of cancers are especially active in both the uptake and accumulation of photosensitizers agents, which makes cancers especially vulnerable to PDT. Since photosensitizers can also have a high affinity for vascular endothelial cells.
Usage in acne:
PDT is currently in clinical trials to be used as a treatment for severe acne. Initial results have shown for it to be effective as a treatment only for severe acne, though some question whether it is better than existing acne treatments. The treatment causes severe redness and moderate to severe pain and burning sensation. A phase II trial, while it showed improvement occurred, failed to show improved response compared to the blue/violet light alone Advantages:
There are several advantages of photodynamic therapy over other forms of facial rejuvenation. For example, PDT is less destructive (and therefore less painful) than many of the deeper peels and lasers. There is also minimal recovery time. It is also a proven technique for the treatment of precancerous lesions. Thus, depending on the technique used, there may be an additional benefit of preventing skin cancer.
The disadvantage of photodynamic therapy is that it is new. Long-term side effects are unknown, and the benefits are not as well studied. For example, PDT is not known how long the benefits last.
Although PDT is a promising new therapy, you need to discuss the risks, benefits, and alternatives with your physician to decide if PDT is right for you. Modern development of PDT in Russia:
Of all the nations beginning to use PDT in the late 20th century, the Russians were the quickest to advance its use clinically and to make many developments. One early Russian development was a new photosensitizer called Photogem which, like HpD, was derived from haematoporphyrin in 1990 by Professor Andrey F. Mironov and coworkers in Moscow. Photogem was approved by the Ministry of Health of Russia and tested clinically from February 1992 to 1996. A pronounced therapeutic effect was observed in 91 percent of the 1500 patients that underwent PDT using Photogem, with 62 percent having a total tumor resolution. Of the remaining patients, a further 29 percent had a partial tumor resolution, where the tumour at least halved in size. In those patients that had been diagnosed early, 92 percent of the patients showed complete resolution of the tumour.
Around this time, Russian scientists also collaborated with NASA medical scientists who were looking at the use of LEDs as more suitable light sources, compared to lasers, for PDT applications.
Modern development of PDT in Asia:
PDT has also seen considerably development in Asia. Since 1990, the Chinese have been developing specialist clinical expertise with PDT using their own domestically produced photosensitizers, derived from Haematoporphyrin, and light sources. PDT in China is especially notable for the technical skill of specialists in effecting resolution of difficult to reach tumours Resources:
Dance therapy, also referred to as Movement therapy, is the psychotherapeuticemotional, cognitive, social, behavioural and physical conditions, essentially a combination of creative arts and therapy. The belief is that movement and dance can encourage the healing of the body and mind. The therapy explores the nature of all movement with the idea that body and mind are interconnected. The therapy is based on the notion that everything in the universe is in constant motion and the basic unit of motion is through our own bodies.
Societies around the world have used the therapy since the beginning of time to express feelings, promote fertility, and to create personal well being. This type of therapy is still practiced widely throughout the world and is an essential part of many traditions, although these cultures may not identify the activity as a therapy.
The therapy is used in clinical settings as well. Certified therapists often provide the therapy after achieving a master’s level of training in aiding physical, mental, behavioral and emotional healing. It is also used among psychotherapists with a variety of clients including the elderly, and abused or autistic children and adults.
There are numerous approaches to the therapy; some emphasize awareness to inner sensations and ease of bodily movement, while others are used to express deep emotional issues. Some therapies use specific sequence movements, which correlate with gravity, and others use spontaneous movement, which is believed to promote healing of the body or mind.
The therapy with an Eastern influence began as a spiritual movement and included self-defense practices. Yoga, Taichi and Qigong, were taught among Taoist monks with an emphasis on meditation and specific breathing patterns. A key component of the discipline was to focus attention inward. These practices are still widely practiced today and are believed to promote increased health and longevity.
Many traditional Western movement therapies focus on physical healing and strength and were patterned after sports and physical therapies. This type of therapy is also used to aid in healing and avoiding injury, and was mainly created by dancers and choreographers. Pilates, a method popular with a broad range of people, is done on the floor or with specialized equipment. It focuses on developing a strong inner core and physical strength as well as balance.
The physical benefits to the therapy include increased muscle tone, joint strength, increased coordination and flexibility, enhanced circulation, cardiovascular benefits and the prevention of injuries. The mental benefits include peace of mind, increased self-awareness, improved overall attitude and increased self-esteem.
It is a complete body workout which can burn more calories than walking, swimming or riding a bicycle besides correcting the posture. So if you want to shake your blues away and lose a few kilos then check into a dance class
Dance can be emotionally therapeutic too. In many forms of meditation dance is used to bring about a peaceful mental state and to usher in positive energy. Dancing makes you feel good, is a worthwhile hobby and also easy on the pocket. So go ahead, dance your blues away.
Continuum Movement blends a range of subtle intrinsic movements with dynamic expression and a rich variety of breaths and sounds, to awaken the experience of the Mystery of the Body.
How Hypnotherapy compares with other treatments for bedwetting and one boy’s story click & see Illustration showing spending difference between men and women during possible recession:-
Andrew Tan, 9, arrived at most early childhood milestones at a young age, and with ease. He walked at 9 months old. He was stringing sentences together and was potty trained when he was 2 years old. But when it came to being dry at night, Andrew had a different story. “We just thought that he’d come to it sooner or later,” says Joanna Tan, Andrew’s mum. “But at 6, he was still wetting the bed at night.”
According to the NHS, bedwetting when asleep, also known as nocturnal enuresis, is very common in children, especially those under 7. About one five-year-old in seven, and one child in 20 children aged 10 wet the bed, and it is more common in boys than girls. It can be caused by medical conditions such as cystitis or diabetes, or by some children’s inability to produce enough of the antidiuretic hormone, ADH, which controls the production of urine at night, or just by the fact that some children develop bladder control later than others. It may also have a psychological cause, because of problems at school or at home, for example.
Andrew overcame his bedwetting by means of hypnotherapy, which involves using hypnosis to treat medical and psychological problems. “He was approaching his seventh birthday and desperately wanted to go to Cub camp and sleepovers,” says Joanna. “He was still wetting the bed, though, and felt embarrassed, ashamed and even angry with himself. I’ve always wanted my son to believe he can accomplish anything he set his mind to, but with his bedwetting, his confidence levels were low. He was a bright chap, with a reading age of 9 or 10 when he was only 7, yet because of his bed-wetting, he felt like a failure. Then I read an article on hypnotherapy, which ended up being Andrew’s route to feeling good about himself again.”
According to the British Society of Clinical Hypnosis, being hypnotised feels like being in a trance state, similar to daydreaming, or like the moment before we fall asleep, in which there’s a deep sense of relaxation. During hypnosis, beneficial corrections may be given directly to the unconscious mind, which is a reservoir of unrecognised potential and knowledge, and the unwitting source of many of our problems.
“We discovered hypnotherapy after trying several conventional treatments from the age of 3, including sedatives,” Joanna says. “When Andrew was nearly 7 we saw the school nurse, who did a bladder test and told us that he had a small bladder. He was given the enuresis alarm, which wakes a child as he begins to wet the bed, but it soon woke everyone else but him!
“After four months with very little success, Andrew was then prescribed Desmopressin, a drug that inhibits the production of urine through the night. This had little effect either. Meanwhile, Andrew continued to be more and more demoralised.”
Waking up with a smile:-
Then Joanna came across Lynda Hudson, a clinical hypnotherapist with 15 years’ experience, who specialises in treating children as well as adults. Having trained at the London College of Clinical Hypnosis, Hudson also has an honours degree in psychology, teaches hypnotherapy to medical students and is currently writing a book on hypnotherapy for children. She is one of the few hypnotherapists in the country who treats them. “About 40-45 per cent of children I see come to me for bedwetting or other anxiety-based problems, which is why I produced a CD called I’m Dry at Night. This aims to change the mindset of a child who wets the bed, telling them that they can take control at the unconscious level. They can also listen to the CD in the safety of their own bedroom before they go to sleep at night,” says Hudson. Although Joanna knew a bit about hypnotherapy, she was a little apprehensive about Andrew being treated person-to-person.
“Using a CD felt different, though. I listened to it myself first, and it seemed so positive. Andrew was keen to give it a go, so he started to listen to it before he went to sleep. By the third night, he slept right through and was dry in the morning. Within a month, he was continuously dry but continued to fall asleep to the CD for the next three months because he found it so relaxing. He started to wake up with a smile on his face and rapidly regained his confidence,” she says.
On the CD, Hudson uses guided imagery. “I have used the idea of locking up the bladder with a large, strong and colourful key and standing sentry outside it. I’ve also included powerful suggestions for signals to be sent from the bladder (via the sentry) to the brain for the child to wake if necessary, or to keep those muscles tightly closed until morning. I can’t promise that this approach will work for every child, but it does for the vast majority,” she says.
It worked well for Andrew. “He’s a thinking child, who wanted it to work, and the fact that hypnotherapy gave him back control of the situation was the catalyst for change,” says Joanna.
Where Andrew was once withdrawn at school and in social situations, he now has high self-esteem, and even put himself up for school council this year. “But the best testament to his new-found confidence is that he agreed to be featured and photographed for this article,” says Joanna. “I warned him that he might be ridiculed for being a bedwetter, but he said, ‘Well, I did it, Mum. I don’t wet the bed any more’.”
Hypnotherapy It clearly worked for Andrew Tan and there is some limited support from clinical trials to suggest that it is an effective treatment. A 2005 review by the Cochrane Collaboration concluded that there is some weak evidence that hypnosis could treat bedwetting, but it was less effective on children between 5 and 7. Effectiveness 2/5
Drugs There are two broad drug-based approaches: a category of antidepressants called tricyclics, and synthetic antidiuretic hormones, normally desmopressin. It’s not clear how the tricyclics work, but the desmopressin reduces the amount of urine produced overnight. There is good evidence that both produce quick results, but a review of 22 clinical trials, published in 2000, found that children tended to relapse when the drugs were stopped. These are available only on prescription and must be taken under medical advice. Effectiveness 3/5
Acupuncture There is some evidence to suggest that acupuncture might help, but again that evidence is weak. The same Cochrane review that examined hypnotherapy concluded that there was similar, weak evidence for acupuncture. A more recent report, published in 2006, describes treating 56 children with 96 per cent effectiveness. However, this was not a clinical trial and, while it might suggest further exploration, it should not be taken as strong evidence. Contact the British Acupuncture Council (020-8735 0400), acupuncture.org.uk, for practitioners in your area; from £35. Effectiveness 2/5
Alarm A bedwetting alarm is one of the commonest treatments used and it seems to work for many children. A 2005 review of all studies carried out between 1980 and 2002 showed that alarms were successful in anything up to 80 per cent of cases, but that up to 50 per cent of children showed some degree of relapse. However, the evidence suggests that an alarm has a greater long-term effect than the common drug treatments. A Cochrane review suggests that as well as an alarm, giving your child additional tasks such as changing his bedsheets and getting him to go to the toilet repeatedly is better than an alarm alone. There are also suggestions that other combinations, such as drugs and alarm, are also more effective than single interventions, but the data is insufficient to draw firm conclusions. The Enuresis Resource and Information Centre can help, from £65. Effectiveness 3.5/5
Osteopathy is a system and philosophy of health care that separated from traditional (allopathic) medical practice about a century ago. It places emphasis on the musculoskeletal system, hence the name—osteo refers to bone and path refers to disease. Osteopaths also believe strongly in the healing power of the body and do their best to facilitate that strength. During this century, the disciplines of osteopathy and allopathic medicine have been converging.
It is a system of therapy founded in the 19th century based on the concept that the body can formulate its own remedies against diseases when the body is in a normal structural relationship, has a normal environment and enjoys good nutrition.
While osteopathy takes a “holistic” approach to medical care, it also embraces modern medical knowledge, including medication, surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy when warranted. Osteopathy is particularly concerned with maintaining correct relationships between bones, muscles, and connective tissues. The practice of osteopathy often includes chiropractic-like adjustments of skeletal structures. Craniosacral therapy, a practice in which the bones and tissues of the head and neck are manipulated, also arose in osteopathy. CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Osteopathy shares many of the same goals as traditional medicine, but places greater emphasis on the relationship between the organs and the musculoskeletal system as well as on treating the whole individual rather than just the disease.
Pain is the chief reason patients seek musculoskeletal treatment. Pain is a symptom, not a disease by itself. Of critical importance is first to determine the cause of the pain. Cancers, brain or spinal cord disease, and many other causes may be lying beneath this symptom. Once it is clear that the pain is originating in the musculoskeletal system, treatment that includes manipulation is appropriate.
Osteopathy was founded in the 1890s by Dr. Andrew Taylor, who believed that the musculoskeletal system was central to health. The primacy of the musculoskeletal system is also fundamental to chiropractic, a related health discipline. The original theory behind both approaches presumed that energy flowing through the nervous system is influenced by the supporting structure that encase and protect it—the skull and vertebral column. A defect in the musculoskeletal system was believed to alter the flow of this energy and cause disease. Correcting the defect cured the disease. Defects were thought to be misalignments—parts out of place by tiny distances. Treating misalignments became a matter of restoring the parts to their natural arrangement by adjusting them.
As medical science advanced, defining causes of disease and discovering cures, schools of osteopathy adopted modern science, incorporated it into their curriculum, and redefined their original theory of disease in light of these discoveries. Near the middle of the 20th century the equivalance of medical education between osteopathy and allopathic medicine was recognized, and the D.O. degree (Doctor of Osteopathy) was granted official parity with the M.D. (Doctor of Medicine) degree. Physicians could adopt either set of initials.
However, osteopaths have continued their emphasis on the musculoskeletal system and their traditional focus on “whole person” medicine. As of 1998, osteopaths constitute 5.5% of American physicians, approximately 45,000. They provide 100 million patient visits a year. From its origins in the United States, osteopathy has spread to countries all over the world.
Osteopaths, chiropractors, and physical therapists are the experts in manipulations (adjustments). The place of manipulation in medical care is far from settled, but millions of patients find relief from it. Particularly backs, but also necks, command most of the attention of the musculoskeletal community. This community includes orthopedic surgeons, osteopaths, general and family physicians, orthopedic physicians, chiropractors, physical therapists, massage therapists, specialists in orthotics and prosthetics, and even some dentists and podiatrists. Many types of headaches also originate in the musculoskeletal system. Studies comparing different methods of treating musculoskeletal back, head, and neck pain have not reached a consensus, in spite of the huge numbers of people that suffer from it.
The theory behind manipulation focuses on joints, mostly those of the vertebrae and ribs. Some believe there is a very slight offset of the joint members—a subluxation. Others believe there is a vacuum lock of the joint surfaces, similar to two suction cups stuck together. Such a condition would squeeze joint lubricant out and produce abrasion of the joint surfaces with movement. Another theory focuses on weakness of the ligaments that support the joint, allowing it freedom to get into trouble. Everyone agrees that the result produces pain, that pain produces muscle spasms and cramps, which further aggravates the pain.
Some, but not all, practitioners in this field believe that the skull bones can also be manipulated. The skull is, in fact, several bones that are all moveable in infants. Whether they can be moved in adults is controversial. Other practitioners manipulate peripheral joints to relieve arthritis and similar afflictions.
Manipulation returns the joint to its normal configuration. There are several approaches. Techniques vary among practitioners more than between disciplines. Muscle relaxation of some degree is often required for the manipulation to be successful. This can be done with heat or medication. Muscles can also be induced to relax by gentle but persistent stretching. The manipulation is most often done by a short, fast motion called a thrust, precisely in the right direction. A satisfying “pop” is evidence of success. Others prefer steady force until relaxation permits movement.
Return of the joint to its normal status may be only the first step in treating these disorders. There is a reason for the initial event. It may be a fall, a stumble, or a mild impact, in which case the manipulation is a cure. On the other hand, there may be a postural misalignment (such as a short leg), a limp, or a stretched ligament that permits the joint to slip back into dysfunction. Tension, as well as pain, for emotional reasons causes muscles to tighten. If the pain has been present for any length of time, there will also be muscle deterioration. The osteopathic approach to the whole person takes all these factors into account in returning the patient to a state of health.
Other repairs may be needed. A short leg is thought by some to be a subluxation in the pelvis that may be manipulated back into position. Other short legs may require a lift in one shoe. Long-standing pain requires additional methods of physical therapy to rehabilitate muscles, correct posture, and extinguish habits that arose to compensate for the pain. Medications that relieve muscle spasm and pain are usually part of the treatment. Psychological problems may need attention and medication.
Manipulation has rarely caused problems. Once in a while too forceful a thrust has damaged structures in the neck and caused serious problems. The most common adverse event, though, is misdiagnosis. Cancers have been missed; surgical back disease has been ignored until spinal nerves have been permanently damaged.
Many patients find that one or a series of manipulations cures long-standing pain. Other patients need repeated treatments. Some do not respond at all. It is always a good idea to reassess any treatment that is not producing the expected results.
Sources:http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/osteopathy-1 and http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=4684