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Dry Fruit Herbs & Plants

Behada or India Behara

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Botanical Name : Terminalia belerica
Family: Combretaceae
Genus: Terminalia
Species: T. bellirica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Myrtales

Synonyms: Beleric Myrobalan

Common Names ;Bahera” or Beleric or bastard myrobalan, (Sanskrit: Vibhitaka, Aksha )
Indian Name:Behada.

Other Names: Amandier Indien, Amandier Tropical, Arjan des Indes, Arjuna, Axjun Argun, Badamier, Badamier Géant, Baheda, Bahera, Bala Harade, Balera, Behada, Beleric Myrobalan, Belleric Myrobalan, Belliric Myrobalan, Bhibitaki, Bibhitak, Bibitaki, Carambole

Habitat: Terminalia belerica is native to the tropical regions of the world.

Description:
Terminalia belerica is a large deciduous tree.The leaves are about 15 cm long and crowded toward the ends of the branches,  comprising around 100 species distributed in tropical regions of the world….CLICK & SEE  THE  PICTURES

Leaves are alternate, broadly elliptic or elliptic-obovate, puberulous when young but glabrous on maturity and the nerves are prominent on both surfaces. Flowers are in axillary, spender spikes longer than the petioles but shorter than the leaves. Calyx lobes are pubescent outside. The fruits are green and inflated when young and yellowish and shrink (nearly seen as ribbed) when mature. The nut is stony…...CLICK &  SEE

A tall tree, with characteristic bark. The stems are straight, frequently buttressed when large; the leaves, broadly elliptic, clustered towards the ends of branches; the flowers are solitary, simple, axillary spikes; the fruits, are globular and obscurely 5-angled.
Medicinal Uses:
The fruit possesses antibacterial properties. It is employed in dropsy, piles and diarrhea. While using herbal eye drops containing T.bellirica, encouraging results have been obtained in cases of myopia, corneal opacity, pterigium, immature cataract, chronic and acute infective conditions. The fruit possesses myocardial depressive activity.

Uses & Benefits of Baheda:

*Beleric is a rejuvenative and laxative. It proves beneficial for hair, throat and eyes.
*Beleric seed oil or fruit paste is applied on swollen and painful parts.
*The seed oil gives excellent results in skin diseases and premature graying of hair.
*Fruit pieces are baked and chewed for cough, cold, hoarseness of voice and asthma.
*Beleric fruit is powdered and used to dress wounds to arrest the bleeding.
*Beleric fruits and kernels are used in making medicated hair oil, used to alleviate pain and burning sensation, boost hair growth and impart black color to the hair.
*The paste of the fruit is applied on eyelids, in case of conjunctivitis.
*The herb is used in various eye ailments, such as myopia, corneal opacity, pterigium, immature cataract, chronic and acute infective conditions.
*Beleric helps in loss of appetite, flatulence, thirst, piles and worms.
*The ripened fruit acts as an astringent and anti-diarrheal.
*The decoction of the kernels is used in case of excessive thirst and vomiting.
*Beleric plant alleviates cough, relieves blocked phlegm, controls bleeding in the sputum and eases bronchospasms.
*It prevents ageing, imparts longevity, boosts immunity, improves mental faculties and enhances the body resistance against diseases.
*It helps in lowering cholesterol and blood pressure.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminalia_bellirica
http://terminaliabelerica.blogspot.in/
http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-811-TERMINALIA.aspx?activeIngredientId=811&activeIngredientName=TERMINALIA

 

 

 

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Suppliments our body needs

Honey

Queen bee with attendants on a honeycomb
Image 

Honey is a sweet and viscous fluid produced by Honeybees from the Necter of Flowers.Honey is sigficantly Sweeter than table Sugar and has attractive chemical properties for baking. Honey has a distinctive flavor which leads some people to prefer it over sugar and other sweeteners.Liquid honey does not spoil. Because of its high sugar concentration, it kills most Bacteria by Plamolysis . Natural airborne yeasts cannot become active in it because the moisture content is too low. Natural, raw honey varies from 14% to 18% moisture content. As long as the moisture content remains under 18%, virtually no organism can successfully multiply to significant amounts in honey, though, importantly, enough bacteria survive to make honey dangerous for infants.

The study of Pollen and Spores in raw honey (Melissopalynology) can determine floral sources of honey. Because bees carry an Electrical Charges , and can attract other particles, the same techniques of melissopalynn raw honeyology can be used in area environmental studies of Radioactive particles,Dust , or particulate Pollution .

A main effect of bees collecting nectar to make honey is Pollination , which is crucial for Flowering plants .

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HONEY FORMATION:Honey is laid down by bees as a food source. In cold weather or when food sources are scarce, bees use their stored honey as their source of energy. By contriving for the bee swarm to make its home in a hive, mankind has been able to semi-domesticate the insects. In the hive there are three types of bee: the single queen bee, a seasonally variable number of drone bees to fertilize new queens and some 20,000 to 40,000 worker bees. The worker bees raise larvae and collect the nectar that will become honey in the hive. They go out, collect the sugar-rich flower nectar and return to the hive. As they leave the flower, bees release nasonov pheromones. These enable other bees to find their way to the site by smell. Honeybees also release nasonov pheromones at the entrance to the hive, which enables returning bees to return to the proper hive. In the hive the bees use their honey stomachs to ingest and regurgitate the nectar a number of times until it is partially digested. It is then stored in the honeycomb. Nectar is high in both water content and natural yeasts which, unchecked, would cause the sugars in the nectar to ferment. After the final regurgitation, the honeycomb is left unsealed. Bees inside the hive fan their wings, creating a strong draft across the honeycomb. This enhances evaporation of much of the water from the nectar. The reduction in water content, which raises the sugar concentration, prevents fermentation. Ripe honey, as removed from the hive by the beekeeper, has a long shelf life and will not ferment.

The beekeeper encourages overproduction of honey within the hive so that the excess can be taken without endangering the bees. When sources of foods for the bees are short the beekeeper may have to feed the bees other forms of sugar so they can survive.

HONEY COMPOSITION:Honey is a mixture of sugars and other compounds. The specific composition of any batch of honey will depend largely on the mix of flowers consumed by the bees that produced the honey. Honey has a density of about 1500 kg/m3 (50% denser than water), which means about 12.5 pounds per US gallon.

Typical honey analysis
Fructose: 38%
Glucose: 31%
Sucrose: 1%
Water: 17%
Other sugars: 9% (maltose, melezitose)
Ash: 0.17%
Source: Sugar Alliance
The analysis of the sugar content of honey is used for detecting adulteration

TYPES OF HONEY
:
Blended
Most commercially available honey is blended, meaning that it is a combination of honeys from different sources. China is the world’s largest producer of honey (256,000 tonnes in 2001), followed by the United States (100,000 tonnes), Argentina (90,000 tonnes), Turkey (71,000 tonnes), Mexico, Ukraine and India (HERE WE CAN SEE )

Polyfloral

Polyfloral honey is derived from the nectar of many types of flowers.
Monofloral
Main article: Monofloral honey
Different monofloral honeys have a distinctive flavor and color due to differences between their principal nectar sources. Beekeepers keep monofloral beehives in an area where the bees have access to only one type of flower, because of that flower’s properties. In practise, because of the difficulties in containing bees, a small proportion of any honey will be from additional nectar from other flower types.

Some of the main types of monofloral honey (and their main countries of production) include: apple blossom (United Kingdom), acacia (Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania), cherry blossom (United Kingdom), clover (Canada, New Zealand), eucalyptus (Australia), heather (United Kingdom), lavender (France, Spain), lime blossom (China, Poland), orange blossom (France, Spain), wild thyme (France, Greece, New Zealand) and sunflower (France, Spain) .
Honeydew
Honeydew producer (barklice) on a Silver FirInstead of taking nectar, bees can take honeydew, which appears similar to honey and consists of the sweet secretions of aphids or other plant sap-sucking insects. Most important of these is the aphid Marchalina hellenica which feeds on the sap of the Turkish Pine. Honeydew from pine forests has a piney taste and is prized for medicinal use in Europe and Turkey. Bees collecting this resource have to be fed protein supplements, as honeydew lacks the protein-rich pollen accompaniment gathered from flowers.

In New Zealand honeydew nectar is produced from a small, scaled insect (Ultracoelostoma assimile) living in the bark of two of New Zealand’s beech forests, mostly black beech (black from the sooty mold growing on the surplus nectar covering the trunks and branches) and, to a lesser extent, red beech. In the early morning sunlight, the droplets of nectar glisten like the morning dew, giving the name honeydew.

Germany’s Black Forest is a well known source of honeydew-produced honeys.

Honeydew honey has a full aroma, is heady, almost pungent, and malty with a thick red amber color.

Honeydew has strong markets in some areas, but in many areas beekeepers are disappointed with a honeydew crop, as they are unable to market the stronger flavored product. Honeydew has a much larger proportion of indigestibles than light honeys, which can cause dysentery, resulting in the death of colonies in areas with cold winters. Good beekeeping management requires the removal of honeydew prior to winter in colder areas.

USES OF HONEY IN GENERASL:
The main uses of honey are in cooking, baking, spreading on bread or toast, and as an addition to various beverages such as tea. Because honey is hygroscopic (drawing moisture from the air), a small quantity of honey added to a pastry recipe will retard staling. Raw honey also contains enzymes that help in its digestion, several vitamins and antioxidants.

Honey is the main ingredient in the alcoholic beverage mead, which is also known as “honey wine” or “honey beer” (although it is not wine or beer), and metheglin. It is also used as an adjunct in beer. Beer brewed with greater than about 30% honey as a source of sugar by weight, or mead brewed with malt (with or without hops), is known as braggot.

Honey is used in traditional folk medicine and apitherapy, and is an excellent natural preservative, it also has a low glycemic index.

Most vegans consider honey to be an animal product and avoid using it, instead choosing sweetening alternatives such as agave nectar, rice syrup or stevia.

Without commercial beekeeping, large-scale fruit and vegetable farming and some of the seed industry would be incapable of sustaining themselves, since many crops are pollinated by migratory beekeepers who contract their bees for that purpose.

In ancient history, the Ancient Egyptian and Middle-Eastern peoples also used honey for embalming the dead. However, only rich and powerful people had the luxury of this type of funeral. Scythians, and later the other Central Asian nomadic people, for many months drove a wagon with a deceased ruler around the country in their last rites mourning procession, carrying the body in a casket filled with honey.

MEDICAL USES OF HONEY:
For around 2000 years, honey has been used to treat a variety of ailments through topical application, though it was not until modern times that the cause of infection was understood. Now, has shown that the folk remedy of using honey to treat wounds has a scientific explanation: it acts as an antiseptic/antibacterial agent. As an antimicrobial agent honey has potential for treating a variety of ailments. Antibacterial properties of honey are the result of the low water activity causing osmosis, hydrogen peroxide effect, and high acidity.
OSMOTIC EFFECTS:
Honey is primarily a saturated mixture of two monosaccharides. This mixture has a low water activity; most of the water molecules are associated with the sugars and few remain available for microorganisms, so it is a poor environment for their growth.
Hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide in honey is activated by dilution. However, unlike medical hydrogen peroxide, commonly 3% by volume, it is present in a concentration of only 1 mmol/l in honey. Iron in honey oxidizes the oxygen free radicals released by the hydrogen peroxide.

glucose + H2O + O2 → gluconic acid + H2O2
When used topically (as, for example, a wound dressing), hydrogen peroxide is produced by dilution with body fluids. As a result, hydrogen peroxide is released slowly and acts as an antiseptic. Unlike 3% medical hydrogen peroxide, this slow release does not cause damage to surrounding tissue.
Acidity
The pH of honey is commonly between 3.2 and 4.5 This relatively acidic pH level prevents the growth of many bacteria responsible for infection.


OTHER MEDICAL APPLICATIONS:

The most common use of honey is as an anti-microbial agent used for dressing wounds, burns and skin ulcers. This application has a long history in traditional medicine. Additionally, the use of honey reduces odors, reduces swelling, and reduces scarring; it also prevents the dressing from sticking to the healing wound .

Some claim that one drop of honey directly on the eye can treat mild forms of conjunctivitis.

Due to it’s antiseptic properties, honey (especially when combined with lemon) can be taken orally by Pharyngitis and Laryngitis sufferers, in order to soothe them.

Though widely believed to alleviate allergies, local honey has been shown to be no more effective than placebos in controlled studies. This may be due to the fact that most seasonal allergies are caused by tree and grass pollens, which honeybees do not collect.

In Ayurveda Honey has various application in curing different kind of disease. (1)
(2)

(3)

In Home Remedies HONEY has various uses.

HONEY AND INFANTS:
Giving honey to infants can be hazardous because some infants can develop the disease known as infant botulism. This occurs because there is a natural bacterium in the honey which cannot be filtered out. The bacteria then produces a toxin, known as botulin, in the infant’s intestines. After the child is more than a year old, the intestine has matured and the bacteria cannot grow. Even the honey in some processed foods can cause botulism. After an infant ingests this bacterium, the disease can occur within a few hours or even up to a week.

(Help taken from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honey)

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News on Health & Science

Agents that regulates appetite identified

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Scientists in Japan have identified a molecule responsible for making mammals feel full, a discovery that could lead to new ways to treat obesity in humans.

Scientists believe appetite is controlled in a region of the brain called the hypothalamus, and the group of researchers claims to be the first to pinpoint an agent that triggers an increase or decrease in appetite.

In an article published on Sunday in the online version of the journal Nature, the scientists identified the molecule as nesfatin-1, which is produced naturally in the brain.

After injecting the molecule into the brains of rats, the scientists observed that the rodents began to eat less and lose weight.

The researchers also were able to induce the rats to eat more, by blocking nesfatin-1

After we injected anti-nesfatin-1 antibody, these rats showed increased appetite and finally showed a progressive increase in body weight,” Masatomo Mori of the medicine and molecular science department at Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine told Reuters in a telephone interview.

Mori said the finding could pave the way for treating obesity, which has become a major health problem in the developing world as well as in economically advanced countries.

There are at least a billion overweight adults across the world, 300 million of them considered obese, according to the World Health Organization.

Obesity has been linked to chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke, and some forms of cancer.

In a separate study, it has been found that the hormone leptin could help keep the body from producing too much insulin, according to a study in mice with type 2 diabetes.

People with type 2 diabetes often become resistant to the effects of insulin, causing to much of it to build up in the body.

Reporting in the September issue of the journal Peptides, researchers from the University of Florida injected a gene into the brains of diabetic mice, hoping to increase the production of the appetite-controlling hormone leptin in the hypothalamus.

Insulin levels in mice that received gene therapy returned to normal — even when they were fed a high-fat diet, the
researchers found. High-fat diets typically help trigger or worsen type 2 diabetes.

Mice that ate a high-fat diet but did not receive gene therapy, however, continued to overproduce insulin and have high blood-sugar levels.

“This was totally unexpected. Until now, there way no evidence that leptin action in the hypothalamus had control on insulin secretion.

With leptin gene therapy, we can re-impose that control,” senior author Satya Kalra, a University of Florida, Gainesville, professor of neuroscience, said.

(As published in the Times Of India)

Categories
Dry Fruit Herbs & Plants

Haritaki(Chebulic myroblan)

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Botanical Name: Terminalia Chabula
Family: Combretaceae
Genus: Terminalia
Species: T. chebula
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Myrtales

Common Names: Hadrida,Harar,Chebulic myroblan,Black myroblan,Harada, Yellow- or chebulic myrobalan

Habitat : Terminalia Chabula is native to South Asia from India and Nepal east to Southwest China (Yunnan), and south to Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Vietnam. There appears to be no common name in English but harad which seems to be a variant of the Hindi name haritaki has been used in publications. It is found in the deciduous forests of Indian subcontinent, dry slopes up to 900 m (3000 ft) in elevation

Description:
Terminalia chebula is a medium to large deciduous tree growing to 30-metre (98 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 1-metre (3 ft 3 in) in diameter. The leaves are alternate to subopposite in arrangement, oval, 7–8-centimetre (2.8–3.1 in) long and 4.5–10-centimetre (1.8–3.9 in) broad with a 1–3-centimetre (0.39–1.18 in) petiole. They have an acute tip, cordate at the base, margins entire, glabrous above with a yellowish pubescence below.[citation needed. The fruit is drupe-like, 2–4.5-centimetre (0.79–1.77 in) long and 1.2–2.5-centimetre (0.47–0.98 in) broad, blackish, with five longitudinal ridges. The dull white to yellow flowers are monoecious, and have strong unpleasant odour. They are borne in terminal spikes or short panicles. The fruits are smooth ellipsoid to ovoid drupes, yellow to orange brown in colour, single angled stone.

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Terminalia Chebula is a tree with a rounded crown and spreading branches. Its principal constituents are chebulagic, chebulinic acid and corilagin. Its fruits have laxative, stomachic, tonic and alterative properties.

Terminalia chebula is called the “king of medicines” and always listed first in Ayurveda because of its extraordinary healing power. In Ayurveda it is known to prevent and cure of many diseases and eliminate all waste from the body.At the same time it is known to promote tissue growth and health.

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Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) is a common herbaceous plant, which is very extensively used in the preparation of many ayurvedic medicines.Terminalia chebula is a tree with a rounded crown and spreading branches. Its principal constituents are chebulagic, chebulinic acid and corilagin. Its fruits have laxative, stomachic, tonic and alternative properties and helps in removing toxins and fats from the body, resulting in their reduced absorption.It is also known as an adaptogen, and hepatoprotective drug.
Historical Ayurvedic uses suggest to be used in cough conditions, asthma, abdominal distention, tumors, heart disease, skin disease, and itchin.

Cultivation & Uses:
This tree yields smallish, ribbed and nut-like fruits which are picked when still green and then pickled, boiled with a little added sugar in their own syrup or used in preserves. The seed of the fruit, which has an elliptical shape, is an abrasive seed enveloped by a fleshy and firm pulp. It is regarded as a universal panacea in Ayurveda and in the Traditional Tibetan medicine.

Fruit; seven types are recognized (i.e. vijaya, rohini, putana, amrita, abhaya, jivanti and chetaki), based on the region the fruit is harvested, as well as the colour and shape of the fruit. Generally speaking, the vijaya variety is preferred, which is traditionally grown in the Vindhya Range of west-central India, and has a roundish as opposed to a more angular shape.

Chemical composition:

Researchers have isolated a number of glycosides from Haritaki, including the triterpenes arjunglucoside I, arjungenin, and the chebulosides I and II. Other constituents include a coumarin conjugated with gallic acids called chebulin, as well as other phenolic compounds including ellagic acid, 2,4-chebulyl-?-D-glucopyranose, chebulinic acid, gallic acid, ethyl gallate,punicalagin, terflavin A, terchebin, luteolin, and tannic acid.[6][5] Chebulic acid is a phenolic acid compound isolated from the ripe fruits.   Luteic acid can be isolated from the bark.

T. chebula also contains terflavin B, a type of tannin while chebulinic acid is found in the fruits

Medical Uses:

It is useful in asthma, sore throat, vomiting, eye diseases, heart diseases, hiccup etc. It is also useful in healing of wounds and scalds. It is used as gargle against inflammation of mucous membrane of mouth. It is also used in tanning of leather and purification of petroleum.

Many ayurvedic medicinal formulations are prepared from the fruits of the Haritaki plant. The extract obtained from Haritaki fruit contains a substance which has antibacterial and anti fungal properties. This substance inhibits the growth of bacteria and fungi such as E. coli. Escherichia coli is the most common organism, which is responsible for many types of infections such as infections of the urinary tract. Haritaki extract is very useful in the treatment of infections caused by E.coli. Haritaki is also believed to have powerful effect on parasites such as Amoeba giardia and many others.

The extract for the Haritaki plant is used widely in many ayurvedic formulations. It is used in the preparation of medicines for the treatment of infectious diseases like leucorrhoea, chronic ulcers, pyorrhea and other types of fungal infections of the skin. Many research studies indicated that the oil obtained from the kernel of the Haritaki plant had certain substances, which increased the motility of the gastro intestinal tract. This type of action was similar to that of castor oil. Haritaki is used as a natural cleanser of the digestive system. It improves the functioning of the liver spleen and the colon and hence it is widely used as a digestive tonic.

Many clinical trials were undertaken on patients with chronic constipation problem. From these studies it was evident that the extract obtained from Haritaki has the property of evacuating the bowel and increasing the frequency of stools. Haritaki is also used in combination with other herbs to prepare a formulation called Triphala. This medicine is widely used as Anti aging formula. It is also used for increasing the immunity of the body.

Haritaki is also used as a purgative in ayurvedic treatments. It is also used as a tonic and expectorant. Haritaki is also known to pocess strong anti-mutagenic properties. Haritaki is used in the treatment of mouth ulcers, stomatitis, asthma, cough, candidiasis, gastroenteritis, skin diseases, leprosy ect. It is also used for treatment of intermittent fever, rheumatic pain and fever, wounds and arthritis. Haritaki is one of the best herbs for treatment of Vatadosha. It is used as a natural remedy for Vata disturbances like flatulence, indigestion ect. Haritaki is contradicted in person with weak digestion and also in pregnancy. Haritaki is also believed to improve intelligence and alertness in a person.

Like Chinese rhubarb, chebulic myrobalan may be used as a treatment for diarrhea and dysentery. The fruit’s tannins protect the gut wall from irritation and infection, and tend to reduce intestinal secretions.  Likewise, the fruit helps to counter acidic indigestion and heartburn.  A decoction of chebulic myrobalan may be used as a gargle and mouthwash, as a lotion for sore and inflamed eyes, and as a douche for vaginitis and excessive vaginal discharge.  The dried fruits and seeds are prescribed in Ayurvedic medicine for such illnesses as dermatosis, edema, and urinary infections.  It is also considered an excellent blood purifier.  Finely powdered, it is used as a dentifrice, and for bleeding or ulcerated gums. Coarsely powdered and smoked in a pipe, it is used to relieve asthma.  TCM: Indications: Chronic diarrhea and dysentery; prolapse of rectum; asthma and coughs due to empty lungs; leukorrhea; menorrhagia

Variour uses in Ayurveda:
Terminalia Chebula & The Three Humors:
Haritaki is useful in vitiation of all the three humors. It is better esp. in Vata disorders.

Topical Use Of Terminalia Chebula:
Its paste with water is found to be anti-inflammatory, analgesic and having purifiying and healing capacity for wounds. Its decoction as a lotion is surgical dressing for healing the wound earlier.

Equal parts of three myrobalans and catechu are made in a paste with clarified butter or some bland oil work as an ointment in chronic ulcerations, ulcerated wounds and other skin diseases with discharge. These ointments could be a substitute for Gall ointments used in Britain.

These are used for astringent purpose in hemorrhoids as well. Its decoction is used as gargle in oral ulcers, sore throat. Its powder is a good astringent dentrifice in loose gums, bleeding and ulceration in gums.

Terminalia Chebula & Abdominal Disorders:
It is good to increase the appetite, as digestive aid, Liver stimulant, as stomachic, as gastrointestinal prokinetic agent, and mild laxative.

Haritaki has proven gastrokinetic effect i.e. it helps in moving the contents of stomach earlier. So it can be used after surgeries and as adjuvant with other drugs that interfere with gastric motility as antihistaminics, atropine like drugs.

Base on its comprehensive properties, it promotes appetite and helps in digestion.

It stimulates the liver and protects it further by expelling the waste excretory products from the intestines.

The powder of Haritaki has been used in chronic diarrhea, sprue with good results. It should be used as hot infusion in these disorders. It is indicated in Protracted diarrhea with hematochezia and prolapse of rectum.

For persons with excessive gas in intestine, flatulence, it is a good herb that can be taken daily. it will relieve these conditions smoothly.

One compound Chebulagic acid from Haritaki has shown antispasmodic action like that of Papaverine.

Being a mild laxative, it is a mild herbal colon cleanse. With its other properties, it provides some help in conditions with Liver and Spleen enlargement and in Ascites. It is not a strong purgative like other herbs as Senna. It does the cleansing action very smoothly. Further it can be taken for a long time without any ill effects.

In Ayurveda haritaki is the best for ‘Srotoshodhana’ or purifying the channels of body.

Terminalia Chebula & Central Nervous System:
It is a good nervine. It is used in nervous weakness, nervous irritability. It promotes the receiving power of the five senses.

Terminalia Chebula For Heart & Blood Vessels:
It is adjuvant in hemorrhages due to its astringent nature. It helps in edema and various inflammations.

Terminalia Chebula For Lungs & Airways:

It is good for Chronic cough, coryza, sorethroat and asthma. It is used with other herbs in many holistic herbal formulations in Ayurveda.

Haritaki For Reproductive Or Sexual Health:
Being anti-inflammatory, and astringent, it is useful in urethral discharges like spermatorrhea, vaginal discharges like leucorrhea. It can be given as adjuvant in atonic conditions of Uterus.

Haritaki For Kidney & Urinary Bladder:

It is helpful in Renal calculi, dysurea, and retention of urine.

Haritaki For Skin Disorders:
It is useful in skin disorders with discharges like allergies, urticaria and other erythematous disorders.

General Uses Of Terminalia Chebula:

It is given as adjuvant herb in Chronic fever. On long term use it is helpful in gaining weight in the emaciated persons and in losing weight in obese persons.

When taken with meals it sharpens the intellect, increases strength, stimulates the senses, expels the urine, stool and other waste materials from the body. It saves the person from the vitiating effects of bodily humors. Thus it is considered as an alterative and adaptogen.

Haritaki reduces the ill effects of fat rich, creamy and oily food. T. chebula is the definite aid for persons who habitually overeat. Further it can supplement the Cholesterol normalizing drugs.

Haritaki is reputed for its alterative, adaptogenic and tonic effect when used throughout the year with different substances in different six seasons of the year. Want to follow more about Seasonal use of Haritaki – Ritu Haritaki.

You will find the graphics for personal use to get help and motivation for such use of haritaki.

Terminalia Chebula With Other Herbs:
If we review all the herbal formulations in Ayurveda’s all classical texts, we will find haritaki to be one of the most frequently used ayurvedic herbs. In most of the compounds it is used as minor adjunct. In many others it is used as the foundation base of the entire formula – like in most of the electuaries or jams. It is the one of the prominent herb in formulations for asthma, cough, tonics, skin diseases, abdominal disorders.

Ayurvedic Holistic Approach With Terminalia Chebula:

The author Bhava Prakash in his Materia Medica relates haritaki to be used with sugar in Pitta disorders, with salt in Vata disorders, with dried ginger in Kapha disorders.

Modern Clinical Research & Terminalia Chebula:

Haritaki can serve to act as an effective alternative to modern prokinetic drugs like metaclopramide.

anti-bacterial and antioxidant properties

Some preliminary evidence of its capability to be useful in HSV Herpes simplex virus.

Some anti-tumor activity and effect in inhibiting the HIV virus.

Anthraquinone and Sennoside like purgative activity. Ability to evacuate the bowel.

Wide antibacterial and antifungal activity, esp. against E. coli.

We may learn some home remedies for digestive disorder from haritaki from this site.

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Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminalia_chebula

http://www.ayurvedic-medicines.com/herbs/haritaki.html,

http://www.iloveindia.com/indian-herbs/terminalia-chebula.html

http://www.holistic-herbalist.com/terminalia-chebula.html

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

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Herbs & Plants Herbs & Plants (Spices)

Saffron,the Costly Spice

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Botanical Name :Crocus sativus
Family: Iridaceae
Subfamily: Crocoideae
Genus: Crocus
Species: C. sativus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Common Name :Saffron

Habitat :Saffron  is native to Greece or Southwest Asia and was first cultivated in Greece. As a genetically monomorphic clone, it was slowly propagated throughout much of Eurasia and was later brought to parts of North Africa, North America, and Oceania.

Description:
The domesticated saffron crocus, Crocus sativus, is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. Its progenitors are possibly the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus, which is also known as “wild saffron” and originated in Greece. The saffron crocus likely resulted when C. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. C. thomasii and C. pallasii are other possible sources

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Saffron crocus grows to 20–30 cm (8–12 in) and bears up to four flowers, each with three vivid crimson stigmas, which are the distal end of a carpel. Together with the styles, or stalks that connect the stigmas to their host plant, the dried stigmas are used mainly in various cuisines as a seasoning and colouring agent. Saffron, long among the world’s most costly spices by weight,

Saffron : is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. The flower has three stigmas, which are the distal ends of the plant’s carpels. Together with its style, the stalk connecting the stigmas to the rest of the plant, these components are often dried and used in cooking as a seasoning and colouring agent. Saffron, which has for decades been the world’s most expensive spice by weight, is native to Southwest Asia. It was first cultivated in the vicinity of Greece.

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Saffron is characterised by a bitter taste and an iodoform- or hay-like fragrance; these are caused by the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal. It also contains a carotenoid dye, crocin, that gives food a rich golden-yellow hue. These traits make saffron a much-sought ingredient in many foods worldwide. Saffron also has medicinal applications.

The word saffron originated from the 12th-century Old French term safran, which derives from the Latin word safranum. Safranum is also related to the Italian zafferano and Spanish azafrán. Safranum comes from the Arabic word aá¹£far (أَصْفَر‎), which means “yellow,” via the paronymous zaÊ»farān (زَعْفَرَان‎), the name of the spice in Arabic. Yet, some others believe it has a Persian root, i.e “Zarparan”زَرپَران. Zarزر meaning gold + parپر meaning feather, or stigma. Proponents of this theory cite the cultivation in the plateau of Iran as evidence.

The most precious and expensive spice in the world is saffron. The Saffron
filaments, or threads, are actually the dried stigmas of the saffron flower, “Crocus Sativus Linneaus”. Each flower contains only three stigmas. These threads must be picked from each flower by hand, and more than 75,000 of these flowers are needed to produce just one pound of Saffron filaments, making it the world’s most precious spice.
But, because of saffron’s strong coloring power and intense flavor, it can be used sparingly. Saffron is used both for its bright orange-yellow color and for its strong, intense flavor and aroma.
“Crocus Sativus Linneaus” contains crocin, the source of its strong coloring property, bitter-crocin, which offers the distinctive aroma and taste and essential oils, which are responsible for its therapeutic properties.
Saffron is available both in filaments and powder, though the long, deep red filaments are usually preferable to the powder as the latter can be easily adulterated.
Today, the greatest saffron producing countries are Greece, Spain, Turkey, Iran, India, and Morocco. The largest saffron importers are Germany, Italy, U.S.A., Switzerland, U.K., and France.

Cultivation:
Prefers a well-drained sandy or loamy soil that is free from clay. Prefers a sunny position. Grows well on calcareous soils and on hot sheltered stony banks. Plants are very frost hardy. They also thrive in areas with poor summers, though they usually fail to flower in such conditions. Plants produce less saffron when grown on rich soils. They do not flower very freely in Britain. Saffron has been cultivated for over 4,000 years for the edible dye obtained from the flower stigmas. It was at one time commercially grown in Britain and the town Saffron Walden obtained its name because of this. There is at least one named form. ‘Cashmirianus’ comes from Kashmir and has large high quality corms. It yields about 27 kilos of rich orange stigmas per hectare. When inhaled near to, the flowers have a delicate perfume. Unlike most members of this genus, the flowers do not close of a night time or in dull weather. The flowers are only produced after hot, dry summers. Plants tend to move considerably from their original planting place because of their means of vegetative reproduction, it is therefore wise not to grow different species in close proximity. Any planting out is best done in late spring or early summer. Plants take 4 – 5 years to come into flowering from seed.
Propagation:
Seed – according to some reports this species is a sterile triploid and so does not produce fertile seed. However, if seed is obtained then it is best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed can be sown in the spring in a cold frame. Germination can take 1 – 6 months at 18°c. Unless the seed has been sown too thickly, do not transplant the seedlings in their first year of growth, but give them regular liquid feeds to make sure they do not become deficient. Divide the small bulbs once the plants have died down, planting 2 – 3 bulbs per 8cm pot. Grow them on for another 2 years in a greenhouse or frame and plant them out into their permanent positions when dormant in late summer. It takes 3 years for plants to flower from seed. Division of the clumps in late summer after the plant has died down. The bulbs can be planted out direct into their permanent positions.
A brief Histry:
It was not defined well when saffron cultivation began, but it is believed that this might have happened during Prehistoric Greek times. The excavations in Knossos, Crete, and Akrotiri in the island of Santorini brought to light some frescoes where saffron is depicted.
The most famous of these frescoes is the ’saffron gatherer’, where it was depicted that there was a monkey amongst the yellow saffron flowers. Etymologically, the word crocus has its origin from the Greek word “croci” which means the weft, thread used for weaving on a loom. Mythologically, according to Ovidius, the plant took its name from the youth Crocus, who after witnessing in despair the death of fair Smilax was transformed into this flower.

Known since antiquity, saffron it was one of the most desired and expensive spices of ancient Greeks, Egyptians and Romans for its aroma, color and aphrodisiac properties. It was quite popular among the Phoenician traders, who carried it wherever they traveled. The ancient Assyrians used saffron for medical purposes.

Hippocrates and other Greek doctors of his time, like Dioskourides and Galinos mention crocus as a drug or a therapeutical herb. From the writings of Homer who calls dawn, “crocus veil”, Aeschylus, Pindaros, and others, we know that the crocus was considered a rare pharmaceutical plant of ancient Greece with unique properties. It is referred throughout ancient history and in the course of many medical writings of the classical Greek and Roman times all the way to the Middle Ages. Another saffron use in ancient Greece was that of perfumery. The history of red saffron in modern Greece starts in the 17th century when red saffron was cultivated in the area of Kozani in Macedonia. For more than 300 years, Greek red saffron is systematically cultivated under the warmth of the Greek sun, in the rich soil of a unique area including many small towns of Kozani in West Macedonia
USES:
As a therapeutical plant, saffron it is considered an excellent stomach ailment and an antispasmodic, helps digestion and increases appetite. It is also relieves renal colic, reduces stomachaches and relieves tension. During the last years it was used as a drug for flu-like infections, depression, hypatomegaly and as a sedative for its essential oils. It is also considered that in small quantities it regulates women’s menstruation, and helps conception.

It is a fact that even since antiquity, crocus was attributed to have aphrodisiac properties. Many writers along with Greek mythology sources associate crocus with fertility. Crocus in general is an excellent stimulant.
SAFFRON IN DYEING
The basic ingredient of crocus is crocin, the source of its strong coloring property. In antiquity it was a very rare and expensive substance and the color it produced and signified a high status or royalty. Romans used it to dye their hair and the “purple carpet” of saffron of Irish kings was such impressive examples.
.SAFFRON IN COOKING
As a spice it is used for colouring and flavor improving while giving a distinct aroma and a beautiful golden color. There is a great list of foods where saffron is added including cheese products such as cottage cheese and parmesan, soups, chicken and meat, various spirits, pasta and rice. To use saffron, either infuse a few threads in a cup of hot water and add the coloured liquid towards the end of cooking, or crumble the threads and add directly to the pot.

Alternatively, dry roast, crumble and then steep the crumbled threads. Unlike other spices, a good pinch will suffice to add flavor and color most dishes. Cook with red Greek saffron and indulge in its excellent flavor.
Greek Red Saffron, is distinguished for its excellent quality, which places it in the top quality of Saffron in the world. A small quantity of saffron adds an exquisite flavor, color and aroma in all your dishes such as pasta, rice, soups, sauces, poultry, meat, fish. Krokos Kozanis is perfectly pure and combined with coffee or tea forms an excellent beverage.
Here you can find some indicative recipes where the use of Greek Saffron adds its special characteristics to your dish.
Medicinal Uses:
Saffron is a famous medicinal herb with a long history of effective use, though it is little used at present because cheaper and more effective herbs are available. The flower styles and stigmas are the parts used, but since these are very small and fiddly to harvest they are very expensive and consequently often adulterated by lesser products. The styles and stigmas are anodyne, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, appetizer, carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, sedative and stimulant. They are used as a diaphoretic for children, to treat chronic haemorrhages in the uterus of adults, to induce menstruation, treat period pains and calm indigestion and colic. A dental analgesic is obtained from the stigmas. The styles are harvested in the autumn when the plant is in flower and are dried for later use, they do not store well and should be used within 12 months. This remedy should be used with caution, large doses can be narcotic and quantities of 10g or more can cause an abortion.
SAFRON IN AYURVEDA:
The legendary ayurvedic physician Charaka compiled the first Indian medical and botanical encyclopaedia in the first century AD. Since then voluminous documentation has been done on herbal medicine as well as saffron’s therapeutic properties. Both the Ayurvedic and Unani schools of medicine propagate the use of saffron:

* For curing respiratory problems
* To treat alcoholism
* To treat acne and skin diseases
* Used in medicines that reduce inflamation
* For treatment of enlarged liver and infection of urinary bladder and kidneys
* As an ingredient in recipes for treating menstrual disorders
* For strengthening the heart and as a refrigerant for the brain
* As a diuretic
* For treating diabetic patients
* As an anti-depressant and relaxant
* As aphrodisiac for impotency
* Prolonging vitality

Other Uses: …Dye…..The yellow dye obtained from the stigmas has been used for many centuries to colour cloth. It is the favoured colouring for the cloth of Indian swamis who have renounced the material world. A blue or green dye is obtained from the petals.

Known Hazards:  The plant is poisonous. The plant is perfectly safe in normal usage but 5 – 10 grams of saffron has been known to cause death.

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Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saffron

Safron has many other uses in Ayurveda
(Partly extracted from: http://www.saffron.gr/recipes.html)

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Crocus+sativus