Cobia Fish

Binomial name: Rachycentron canadum
Family: Rachycentridae
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Carangiformes
Genus: Rachycentron
Species: R. canadum

*Gasterosteus canadus Linnaeus, 1766
*Elacate canada (Linnaeus, 1766)
*Scomber niger Bloch, 1793
*Apolectus niger (Bloch, 1793)
*Elacate nigra (Bloch, 1793)
*Naucrates niger (Bloch, 1793)
*Centronotus gardenii Lacepède, 1801
*Centronotus spinosus Mitchill, 1815
*Rachycentron typus Kaup, 1826
*Elacate motta Cuvier, 1829
*Elacate bivittata Cuvier, 1832
*Elacate atlantica Cuvier, 1832

Common Names: Cobia Black kingfish, Black salmon, Ling, Lemonfish, Crabeater, Prodigal son and Black bonito.

Cobia is found in warm-temperate to tropical waters of the West and East Atlantic Ocean, throughout the Caribbean, and in the Indian Ocean off the coast of India, Australia, and off the Pacific coast of Japan.

This fish is normally solitary except for annual spawning aggregations, and it sometimes congregates at reefs, wrecks, harbours, buoys, and other structural oases. It is pelagic, but it may enter estuaries and mangroves in search of prey.

Cobia fish attaining a maximum length of 2 m (78 in) and maximum weight of 78 kg (172 lb), It has an elongated, fusiform (spindle-shaped) body and a broad, flattened head. The eyes are small and the lower jaw projects slightly past the upper. Fibrous villiform teeth line the jaws, the tongue, and the roof of the mouth. The body of the fish is smooth with small scales. It is dark brown in color, grading to white on the belly with two darker brown horizontal bands on the flanks. The stripes are more prominent during spawning, when they darken and the background color lightens.

The large pectoral fins are normally carried horizontally, perhaps helping the fish attain the profile of a shark. The first dorsal fin has six to nine independent, short, stout, sharp spines. The family name Rachycentridae, from the Greek words rhachis (“spine”) and kentron (“sting”), was inspired by these dorsal spines. The mature cobia has a forked, slightly lunated tail, which is usually dark brown. The fish lacks a swim bladder. The juvenile cobia is patterned with conspicuous bands of black and white and has a rounded tail. The largest cobia taken on rod and reel came from Shark Bay, Australia, and weighed 60 kg (135 lb).


Food Uses:
Cobia Fish has successfully made its way to the worldwide market and oftentimes served in sushi and sashimi platters, fish buffet service, and retail packages but very few people know about how this sweet flavored, versatile and succulent fish are produced and cultured to perfection. The following information about cobia fish may give us an idea why this savory fish has captured the distinctive palate of fish lovers and health advocates.

The Ten Nutritional Benefits Of Cobia Fish:

1.-Good source of Omega 3.

2.-Provides the Recommended dietary allowance and saturated fat.

3.-Low fat Protein source (about 19 gms per serving).

4.-High riboflavin and Vitamin B6 nutrients.

5.-Low cholesterol content.






Raw cobia meat is light tan. Cooked, it turns snowy white. The sweet, richly flavored meat is firm with a nice flake. The oil content is similar to that of coho salmon, making for moist flesh.

Saturated Fat:,,0.12 g
Cholesterol:….40 mg
Sodium:……..135 mg
Protein:……..19 g

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only.




Binomical Name: Stromateidae
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Clade: Percomorpha
Order: Scombriformes
Suborder: Stromateoidei

Common Names: Butterfish,

Habitat : . Butterfishes is native to New Zealand. It is also avaible in coastal waters off the Americas, western Africa and in the Indo-Pacific.

Butterfish is thin, deep-bodied, more or less oval and silvery fishes of the family Stromateidae. They are found in warm and temperate seas and are characterized by a small mouth, forked tail, and a single dorsal fin. Like the related rudderfishes (Centrolophidae) and man-of-war fishes (Nomeidae), they also have peculiar, toothed outpocketings in the esophagus. (The Centrolophidae and Nomeidae have sometimes been included in Stromateidae.)

The Colors of the fish is Leaden bluish above, pale on the sides, with numerous irregular dark spots which fade after death. The belly is silvery.
And the Shapes is about 12 inches long; the general run are about 6 to 9 inches long.

Certain butterfishes, such as the dollarfish (Poronotus triacanthus), are noted for taking shelter when young among the tentacles of jellyfishes. The dollarfish and several other species of butterfishes are commonly used as food. Among these are the harvest fish (Peprilus alepidotus), an Atlantic species that usually grows to about 20 cm (8 inches) long; the Pacific pompano (Peprilus simillimus), a silvery Californian fish; and Pampus argenteus, a black-spotted, Oriental fish.


The rock gunnel, family Pholidae, is sometimes also called a butterfish (see gunnel).

Food Uses:
Major nutrients

Vitamin B-12 (25.42%)
Selenium (21.27%)
Isoleucine (15.25%)
Lysine (15.19%)
Tryptophan (14.09%)

Nutritional Value:
Apart from their wonderful taste, butterfish is a good source of nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Consuming 32 gram of butterfish offers 0.61 µg of Vitamin B-12, 11.7 µg of Selenium, 5.53 g of Protein, 77 mg of Phosphorus, 1.44 mg of Vitamin B3, 0.096 mg of Vitamin B6, 2.57 g of Total Fat, 0.24 mg of Vitamin B5 and 0.048 mg of Vitamin B2. Moreover many Amino acids 0.062 g of Tryptophan, 0.243 g of Threonine, 0.255 g of Isoleucine, 0.45 g of Leucine, 0.508 g of Lysine, 0.164 g of Methionine are also found in 32 gram of butterfish.

Known Hazards:
One should never eat more than 6 ounces in a meal, because butterfish can cause the sickness known as keriorrhea. Keriorrhea turns your stool orange and is caused by ingesting the indigestible waxy esters that butterfish contain. Eating the fish closer to the tail reduces this risk.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only.


Health Problems & Solutions

Boosting Our Immune System

We are continually exposed to organisms that are inhaled, swallowed or inhabit our skin and mucous membranes. Whether or not these organisms lead to disease is decided by the integrity of our body’s defense mechanisms, or immune system.

When our immune system is working properly, we don’t even notice it. But when we have an under- or over-active immune system, we are at a greater risk of developing infections and other health conditions.

What is Immune System of our body:
We are continually exposed to organisms that are inhaled, swallowed or inhabit our skin and mucous membranes. Whether or not these organisms lead to disease is decided by the integrity of our body’s defense mechanisms, or immune system.

When our immune system is working properly, we don’t even notice it. But when we have an under- or over-active immune system, we are at a greater risk of developing infections and other health conditions.

The immune system is an interactive network of organs, white blood cells and proteins that protect the body from viruses and bacteria or any foreign substances.

The immune system works to neutralize and remove pathogens like bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi that enter the body, recognize and neutralize harmful substances from the environment, and fight against the body’s own cells that have changes due to an illness.

Our immune system works to protect us every day, and we don’t even notice it. But when the performance of our immune system is compromised, that’s when we face illness. Research indicates that underactivity of the immune system can result in severe infections and tumors of immunodeficiency, while overactivity results in allergic and autoimmune diseases.

For our body’s natural defenses to run smoothly, the immune system must be able to differentiate between “self” and “non-self” cells, organisms and substances. Here’s a breakdown of the differences:

  • “Non-self” substances are called antigens, which includes the proteins on the surfaces of bacteria, fungi and viruses. Cells of the immune system detect the presence of antigens and work to defend themselves.
  • “Self” substances are proteins on the surface of our own cells. Normally, the immune system has already learned at an earlier stage to identify these cells proteins as “self,” but when it identifies its own body as “non-self,” and fights it, this is called an autoimmune reaction. The amazing thing about the immune system is that it’s constantly adapting and learning so that the body can fight against bacteria or viruses that change over time. There are two parts of the immune system:

*Our innate immune system works as a general defense against pathogens.

*Our adaptive immune system targets very specific pathogens that the body has already has contact with.

These two immune systems complement each other in any reaction to a pathogen or harmful substance.

Immune System Diseases:

Before learning exactly how to boost your immune system, first understand that most immune disorders result from either an excessive immune response or an autoimmune attack. Disorders of the immune system include:

*Allergies and Asthma: Allergies are a immune-mediated inflammatory response to normally harmless environmental substances known as allergens. The body overreacts to an allergen, causing an immune reaction and allergy symptoms. This can result in one or more allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and food allergies.

*Immune Deficiency Diseases: An immune deficiency disease is when the immune system is missing one or more of its parts, and it reacts too slowly to a threat. Immune deficiency conditions, like HIV/AIDS and drug-induced immune deficiency, are due to a severe impairment of the immune system, which leads to infections that are sometimes life-threatening.

*Autoimmune Diseases: Autoimmune diseases cause your immune system to attack your own body’s cells and tissues in response to an unknown trigger. Examples of autoimmune diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes.

Now How we can boost our Immune System:

When searching for how to boost our immune system, look to these herbs, foods, supplements, essential oils and lifestyle factors (which includes regular Yoga exercise and Meditation:)

The following Herbs can improve our immune system:

Many of echinacea’s chemical constituents are powerful immune system stimulants that can provide significant therapeutic value. Research shows that one of the most significant echinacea benefits is its effects when used on recurring infections.

A 2012 study published in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine found that echinacea showed maximal effects on recurrent infections, and preventive effects increased when participants used echinacea to prevent the common cold.

A 2003 study conducted at the University of Wisconsin Medical School found that echinacea demonstrates significant immunomodulatory activities. After reviewing several dozen human experiments, including a number of blind randomized trials, researchers indicate that echinacea has several benefits, including immunostimulation, especially in the treatment of acute upper respiratory infection.

  1. Elderberry:
    The berries and flowers of the elder plant have been used as medicine for thousands of years. Even Hippocrates, the “father of medicine,” understood that this plant was key for how to boost your immune system. He used elderberry because of its wide array of health benefits, including its ability to fight colds, the flu, allergies and inflammation.

Several studies indicate that elderberry has the power to boost the immune system, especially because it has proven to help treat the symptoms of the common cold and flu.

A study published in the Journal of International Medical Research shows that when elderberry was used within the first 48 hours of onset of symptoms, the extract reduced the duration of the flu, with symptoms being relieved on an average of four days earlier. Plus, the use of rescue medication was significantly less in those receiving elderberry extract compared with placebo.

  1. Astragalus Root:
    Astragalus is a plant within the bean and legumes family that has a very long history as an immune system booster and disease fighter. Its root has been used as an adaptogen in Traditional Chinese Medicine for thousands of years. Although astragalus is one of the least studied immune-boosting herbs, there are some preclinical trials that show intriguing immune activity.

A recent review published in the American Journal of Chinese Medicine found that astragalus-based treatments have demonstrated significant improvement of the toxicity induced by drugs such as immunosuppressants and cancer chemotherapeutics.

Researchers concluded that astragalus extract has a beneficial effect on the immune system, and it protects the body from gastrointestinal inflammation and cancers.

  1. Ginseng:
    The ginseng plant, belonging to the Panax genus, can help you to boost your immune system and fight infections. The roots, stems and leaves of ginseng have been used for maintaining immune homeostasis and enhancing resistance to illness or infection.

Ginseng improves the performance of your immune system by regulating each type of immune cell, including macrophages, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, T cells and B cells. It has also proven to possess antimicrobial compounds that work as a defense mechanism against bacterial and viral infections.

A study published in the American Journal of Chinese Medicine suggests that ginseng extract successfully induces antigen-specific antibody responses when it’s administered orally. Antibodies bind to antigens, such as toxins or viruses, and keep them from contacting and harming normal cells of the body.

Because of ginseng’s ability to play a role in antibody production, it helps the body to fight invading microorganisms or pathogenic antigens.


  1. Bone Broth
    Bone broth supports immune function by promoting the health of your gut and reducing inflammation caused by leaky gut syndrome. The collagen and amino acids (proline, glutamine and arginine) found in bone broth help to seal openings in the gut lining and support its integrity.

We know that gut health plays a major role in immune function, so consuming bone broth works as an excellent immune system booster food.

  1. Ginger
    Ayurvedic medicine has relied on ginger’s ability for how to boost your immune system before recorded history. It’s believed that ginger helps to break down the accumulation of toxins in our organs due to its warming effects. It’s also known to cleanse the lymphatic system, our network of tissues and organs that help rid the body of toxins, waste and other unwanted materials.

Ginger root and ginger essential oil can treat a wide range of diseases with its immunonutrition and anti-inflammatory responses. Research shows that ginger has antimicrobial potential, which helps in treating infectious diseases.

It’s also known for its ability to treat inflammatory disorders that are caused by infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria and parasites, as well as physical and chemical agents like heat, acid and cigarette smoke.

  1. Green Tea
    Studies evaluating the efficacy of green tea show that it contains antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. It works as an antifungal and antivirus agent, and may be helpful for immunocompromised patients.

Strengthen your immune system by drinking a good-quality green tea daily. The antioxidants and amino acids present in this tea will help your body to fight germs and get well.

  1. Vitamin C Foods
    Vitamin C foods, like citrus fruits and red bell peppers, improve the health of your immune system by providing anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

Studies display that getting enough vitamin C (along with zinc) in your diet may help to reduce the symptoms of respiratory infections and shorten the duration of illnesses like the common cold and bronchitis.

The best vitamin C foods to add for a strong immune system include:

citrus fruits, including orange, lemon and grapefruit
black currant
green and red bell pepper

  1. Beta-Carotene Foods
    Beta-carotene has powerful antioxidant activity, allowing it to help reduce inflammation and fight oxidative stress. Instead of taking beta-carotene supplements, researchers propose that beta-carotene can promote health when taken at dietary levels, by eating foods rich in the carotenoid.

The richest sources of beta-carotene are yellow, orange and red fruits and veggies, and leafy greens. Adding the following foods to your diet can help promote a strong immune system:

carrot juice
sweet potato
red bell peppers
collard greens

  1. Probiotics

Because leaky gut is a major cause of food sensitivities, autoimmune disease and immune imbalance or a weakened immune system, it’s important to consume probiotic foods and supplements.

Probiotics are good bacteria that help you digest nutrients that boost the detoxification of your colon and support your immune system.

Research published in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition suggests that probiotic organisms may induce different cytokine responses. Supplementation of probiotics in infancy could help prevent immune-mediated diseases in childhood by improving the gut mucosal immune system and increasing the number of immunoglobulin cells and cytokine-producing cells in the intestines.

  1. Vitamin D
    Vitamin D can modulate the innate and adaptive immune responses and a vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased autoimmunity as well as an increased susceptibility to infection.

Research proves that vitamin D works to maintain tolerance and promote protective immunity. There have been multiple cross-sectional studies that associate lower levels of vitamin D with increased infection.

One study conducted at Massachusetts General Hospital included 19,000 participants, and it showed that individuals with lower vitamin D levels were more likely to report a recent upper respiratory tract infection than those with sufficient levels, even after adjusting for variables such as season, age, gender, body mass and race. Sometimes addressing a nutritional deficiency is how to boost your immune system.

  1. Zinc
    Zinc supplements are often used as an over-the-counter remedy for fighting colds and other illnesses. It may help to reduce cold-related symptoms and shorten the duration of the common cold.

Research evaluating the efficacy of zinc shows that it can interfere with a molecular process that causes bacteria buildup in the nasal passages.

Essential Oils

  1. Myrrh
    Myrrh is a resin, or sap-like substance, that is one of the most widely used essential oils in the world. Historically, myrrh was used to treat hay fever, clean and heal wounds and stop bleeding. Studies conclude that myrrh strengthens the immune system with its antiseptic, antibacterial and antifungal properties.

A 2012 study validated myrrh’s enhanced antimicrobial efficacy when used in combination with frankincense oil against a selection of pathogens. Researchers expressed that myrrh oil has anti-infective properties and can help to boost your immune system.

  1. Oregano
    Oregano essential oil is known for its healing and immune-boosting properties. It fights infections naturally due to its antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral and anti-parasite compounds.

A 2016 study published in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition found that the main compounds in oregano that are responsible for its antimicrobial activity include carvacrol and thymol.

Several scientific studies show that oregano oil exhibited antibacterial activity against a number of bacterial isolates and species, including B. laterosporus and S. saprophyticus.

Anti-Inflammatory Teas to boost up immunity:

When it comes to immune-boosting, anti-inflammatory drinks, teas are at the top of the list. The antioxidant properties in most teas help to reduce oxidative stress, and the antimicrobial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties work to boost immune function and overall health. But there’s so much more support packed into these 6 teas. Sip one kind for natural blood pressure-lowering effects. Another brings respiratory support trusted for centuries.


  1. Exercise
    Incorporating physical activity into your daily and weekly regimen is extremely important to strengthen your immune system.(for aged people Yoga & meditation)

A 2018 human study published in Aging Cell revealed that high levels of physical activity and exercise improve the immunosenescence (gradual deterioration of the immune system) in older adults aged 55 through 79, compared to those in the same age group who were physically inactive.

The study also highlights that physical activity doesn’t protect against all of the immunosenescence that occurs. However, the decrease in a person’s immune system function and activity can be influenced by decreased physical activity in addition to age.

  1. Reduce Stress
    Studies prove that chronic stress can suppress protective immune responses and exacerbate pathological immune responses.

In order to promote health and healing, you need to minimize your stress levels. This can be difficult today, especially when people are concerned about becoming ill, but it’s important.

  1. Improve Sleep
    When you aren’t getting enough sleep, your immune system won’t be able to function properly. In fact, research analyzing the vulnerability of sleep-deprived adults found that those who slept less than six hours a night were more than four times likely to get a cold than adults who slept more than seven hours.

To reduce your chances of catching colds and the flu, make sure you’re getting at least seven hours of sleep every night.

  1. Limit Alcohol Consumption
    Consuming too much alcohol can certainly impact immune function, which is why you’ll need to cut back on alcohol to fight infections and promote immune system health.

Alcohol negatively impact gut health, decreasing immune function and making you more susceptible to harmful pathogens. Stick to one or 2 alcohol drinks a week, or less, to boost your immune system.

  1. Take Protective Measures
    When there are germs and bugs going around, it’s important to protect yourself and those around you. This means:

frequent hand washing, for at least 20 seconds
minimize touching your face
staying home when sick
coughing or sneezing into your elbow
seeking medical attention and treatment when needed

Risk and Side Effects:

In the quest for how to boost your immune system, proceed with some caution. If you are using these immune-boosting herbs, supplements and essential oils, remember that the products are extremely potent and should not be taken for more than two weeks at a time. Giving yourself a break in between long doses is important.

Also, if you are pregnant, be cautious when using essential oils and reach out to your health care provider before doing so.

Any time you are using natural remedies like plant supplements, it’s a good idea to do it under the care of your doctor or nutritionist.

The immune system is an interactive network of organs, cells and proteins that protect the body from viruses and bacteria or any foreign substances.
When the immune system is working properly, you don’t even notice it. It’s when the performance of the immune system is compromised that you face illness.
Plants, herbs, minerals, foods and lifestyle changes can be used to prevent and fight infections due to their antimicrobial and immune-boosting properties.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.



Bombay duck

Binomial name: Harpadon nehereus
Family: Synodontidae
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Aulopiformes
Genus: Harpadon
Species: H. nehereus

Common Names: Bombay duck, Bummalo, Bombil, and Boomla

The Bombay duck lives in the tropical areas of the Indo-Pacific. The fish is also known as “strange fish” 5th because of its discontinuous distribution along the Indian coast. It has been traditionally caught in the waters off Maharashtra in the Lakshadweep Sea, where it is an important item of the yearly catch. This fish is also caught in the Bay of Bengal and in the South China Sea, although in smaller numbers.

The Bombay Duck fish have elongate and compressed body. Their eyes are small, and snout is very short. The mouth is very wide, armed with slender recurved and depressible teeth. And their teeth are of unequal size. The palatine teeth are also large and depressible. Their lower jaw is generally longer than the upper jaw. They have dorsal fin with 11-12 rays, followed by a conspicuous adipose fin.


Food Uses:
The fish is often dried and salted before it is consumed, as its meat does not have a distinctive taste of its own. After drying, the odour of the fish is extremely powerful, and it is usually transported in air-tight containers. The Bombay duck is a popular food item in certain areas of India. Fresh fish are usually fried or cooked in curry.



All figures below are expressed per 100g edible portion.


Energy (Calories)….283 Kcals/Calories

Energy (Kilojoules)…..1197 KJ

Water……………….16.7 g

Nitrogen……………..9.87 g

Protein……………..61.7 g

Fat………………….4.0 g

Carbohydrate………….0.0 g

Starch……………….0.0 g

Sugar………………..0.0 g

Fibre………………..0.0 g


Saturated fatty acids….N g

Polyunsaturated fatty acids…N g

Trans fatty acids………g

Cholesterol…………N mg


Retinol – Vitamin A…..Tr mcg

Carotene – Vitamin A….Tr mcg

Retinol Equivalent……..mcg

Vitamin D…………..Tr mcg

Vitamin E…………….N mg

Vitamin K……………1mcg

Thiamin…………….0.03 mg

Riboflavin………….0.07 mg

Niacin……………..5.7 mg

Tryptophan………….11.5 mg

Niacin Equivalent…….mg

Vitamin B6………….0.97 mg

Vitamin B12…………N mcg

Folate…………….N mcg

Pantothenate……….N mg

Biotin……………N mcg

Vitamin C…………Tr mg


Sodium………….N mg

Potassium……….N mg

Calcium……….1390 mg

Magnesium……….N mg

Phosphorus……..240 mg

Iron…………..19.10 mg

Copper………….N mg

Zinc…………..N mg

Chloride……….N mg

Manganese……..N mcg

Selenium………N mcg

Iodine…………N mcg


Health benefits: 1.

Build and repair body tissues: Bombay ducks are high on protein. And, when they are dried, the protein content increases. Proteins play an important role in building and repairing the tissues in our body.

  1. Effective functioning of the body: The proteins in Bombay Ducks may be used in making hormones, enzymes, and other body chemicals for the effective function of our body
  2. 2.Reduced risks of heart strokes:

Consuming proper amounts of the fish can help reduce the risks of heart strokes. This is due to the substantial level of Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (commonly known as PUFA) in Bombay Ducks. They help prevent the buildup of cholesterol that can clog the arteries, leading to heart attacks and strokes.

  1. Prevents excessive blood clotting:

The Omega 3 fatty acids help keeps blood platelets from becoming sticky and clumping together to form blood clots. Thus eating Bombay ducks frequently can help in preventing excessive blood clotting which is injurious for the heart

  1. Helps decrease triglycerides:

Bombay duck consumption can help in decreasing the blood triglyceride levels. This again calls for a healthy heart!

  1. Aids improved blood circulation:

One can benefit from improved blood circulation, if the fish is included as a part of a well balanced diet. This too is because of the Omega 3 fatty acids that the fish supplies to our body.

  1. Helps building cartilage:

Bombay duck contains chondroitin sulphate, which helps in building cartilage. It is a stiff and inflexible connective tissue found in many areas in the body. This proves to be a blessing for arthritis patients.

  1. Pain killers:

Fish oil present in Bombay ducks proves to be excellent pain killers. It can prove beneficial people suffering from swelling, tenderness, or stiffness of joints, etc.

  1. Controls blood pressure:

Dried Bombay ducks are excellent source of calcium. Bombay ducks help in maintaining the blood pressure levels. The high calcium content in the fish is responsible for controlled blood pressure levels. Studies have shown that the blood pressure levels among people who do not consume Bombay ducks, were comparatively higher than those who consume the fish, especially in its dried form.

  1. Reduced risks of cancer:

They also help protect against colon cancer. Adequate intake of the fish may reduce your overall risk of colon cancer and suppress the growth of polyps that can lead to cancer.

  1. Reduced risks of hypertension:

Bombay ducks are also responsible for the reduced risks of hypertension, due to its calcium’s giving’s.

  1. Eased symptoms of PMS:

Bombay ducks have shown to help women in improving premenstrual moods. The high content of calcium in the fish helps ease the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

  1. Reduced risks of anemia:

The fish in its dried form is known to provide abundant quantity of iron to our body. It reduces the risks of anemia. This also greatly helps people suffering from anemia, as anemia is mainly a result of iron deficiency in the body.

  1. Formation of hemoglobin:

A frequent serving of the fish helps in the formation of hemoglobin in the blood, due to its high iron content. Sufficient quantities of iron in the blood gives a dark red shade to the blood and aids in transporting oxygen to the body cells.

  1. Improved muscle function:

The fish improves our muscle function. Iron in Bombay ducks help supply proper oxygen to the muscle tissues to ensure the required contraction of the muscles.

  1. Improved brain function:

Development of the brain function is also one of the many benefits consumption of Bombay ducks has to offer. The iron content in the fish is directly related to a healthy brain and its efficient functioning.

  1. Regulates body temperature:

Bombay duck consumption helps in regulating our body temperature because of its iron content.

  1. Stronger immune system:

Bombay ducks contain various minerals and vitamins. These help in making our immune system stronger. These minerals and vitamins, mainly iron, and Vitamin A, make the body proficient enough to fight against a number of diseases and infections, keeping us strong and healthy.

  1. Cure for insomnia:

Traditionally, dried form of many fish was used to cure insomnia, owing to their iron content. One of them is Bombay duck.

  1. Healthy bones and teeth:

Bombay ducks are a good source of phosphorous supply to our body. This contributes to healthy bones and their formation, with association with the high calcium content in the fish, making the bones strong to withstand the normal wear and tear of human life. It also helps in achieving healthy gums and tooth enamel. It helps in relieving serious problems like loss of bones, also known as osteoporosis. Phosphorous in the fish lays the foundation of a strong skeletal structure to ensure healthy living.

  1. Helps reduce fatigue and weakness:

Studies have shown that on account of the high iron and phosphorous content in Bombay ducks, they help in eradicating the different causes of fatigue and weakness, keeping us energetic and revitalized. Eating the fish regularly may also help improving our concentration levels. It helps in increasing our energy metabolism as well.

  1. Helps in blood cell formation:

Bombay ducks may also be useful in blood cell formation, and cell repair and maintenance in the body because of the iron and phosphorous it provides us. Consuming the fish frequently helps ensure that the body cells are developed properly and remain active for admirable health conditions.

  1. Helps in healing wounds:

Bombay ducks provide sufficient quantities of zinc to our body. This is an important mineral for wound healing.

  1. Improved digestion:

Eating the fish can facilitate us with a healthy digestive system. Bombay ducks, on account of their phosphorous content fuels the digestion of riboflavin and niacin in a proficient manner. This calls for effective digestion.

  1. Healthy kidney functions:

Bombay ducks help in keeping our kidneys in normal conditions because of the phosphorous. This keeps our kidneys healthy. It also helps ensuring proper release of wastes from kidneys by the process of excretion.

  1. Healthy eyes and vision:

Bombay ducks also provide a very good amount of vitamin A to our body. This makes us have healthy vision. It aids us in reducing the risks of eye infections, and ailments.

  1. Aids sexual health:

The zinc content in Bombay ducks aids in the normal sexual function of the body. The phosphorous, on the other hand helps curing sexual weakness in the body.

  1. Aids optimal thyroid functioning:

Bombay ducks can also help in the optimal thyroid functioning, making the gland healthier. The fish is a good source of iodine, which is one of the most important elements for the thyroid gland.

  1. Helps chemical reactions in the body:

As Bombay ducks are full of various minerals and vitamins, they help in the proper utilization of all the nutrients entering in our body. This is because, minerals like phosphorous act as a participant to a number of chemical reactions that take place inside our body.

  1. Improves hormonal balance:

Since Bombay ducks are high on iron and phosphorous content, they provide for hormonal balance in the body. It provides sufficient quantities of minerals required to the body which are vital for regulating the balance of hormones in human body. It ensures that the hormones, especially those required for good reproductive health, are always present in balanced form.

  1. Healthy memory:

Bombay ducks are a very good source of B complex vitamins. This accounts for a healthy memory. Deficiency of these vitamins in the body, mainly B12 can cause memory loss and confusion.

  1. Healthy skin and lips:

The dose of vitamin A that our body gets from the fish helps in toning our skin, making it firmer. Similarly, the fish provides us with the vitamin B3, namely niacin, which is responsible for a healthy looking skin by providing for proper metabolism of food. The other B complex vitamins it provides, helps us have healthier and softer lips. People suffering from perennially chapped lips could use this tasty delight as a remedy.

  1. Beautiful hair:

Other beauty benefits it provides, is that since it is high on proteins, it makes our mane healthier and more lustrous. Protein is the main element which takes care of healthy hair. It is effective for problems like hair fall, hair breakage, and damaged hair.

  1. Stronger nails:

Proteins and calcium in Bombay ducks also aid in healthy nails. People who suffer from weak or brittle nails, and break their nails often due to the weakness, should add Bombay ducks to their diets.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.



Blue cod

Binomial name: Parapercis colias
Family: Pinguipedidae
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Trachiniformes
Genus: Parapercis
Species: P. colias

Enchelyopus colias Forster, 1801

Common Names: Blue cod,Boston blue cod, New Zealand cod, Sand perch and patutuki

Habitat:Blue cod is exclusively found in New Zealand in shallow waters around the rocky coasts to a depth of 150 m, though it is far more common south of Cook Strait.

Blue cod is bluish green to blue-black above with white toward the belly. Large examples are usually greenish blue in colour, while smaller ones are blotched in varying shades of brown. An adult may grow to 60 cm in length and weigh from 1.0 to 3.0 kg. It feeds mainly on small fish and crabs. Blue cod is territorial. Spawning takes place in southern spring. Blue cod can also change sex from female to male.

Blue cod are caught mainly in winter (from April to September) around southern New Zealand and the Chatham Islands.  They are also found in the Marlborough Sounds, Cook Strait, and off  Wanganui.  Most are caught in cod pots.

It is an important recreational species in the South Island and is commercially harvested. Blue cod populations are managed under New Zealand’s fisheries quota management system, although are becoming scarce in some small areas due to fishing pressure. Annual catch range is between 2,000 and 2,500 tonnes.


Nutrient Content:
Cod contains several important nutrients your body needs.

The nutrition information listed below pertains to Atlantic and Pacific cod. Keep in mind that the exact nutrient content of fish labeled “cod” can vary, as some may be different species entirely.

High in Lean Protein:
Cod is high in protein but low in calories, fat, and carbs.

A 3-ounce (85-gram) serving of cooked Atlantic cod has only 90 calories and around 1 gram of fat. However, it is packed with 19 grams of protein (3Trusted Source).

Similarly, the same serving size of cooked Pacific cod provides about 85 calories, less than 1 gram of fat, and 20 grams of protein.

A Good Source of Some B Vitamins:
B vitamins have many essential functions in your body, including metabolizing nutrients and releasing energy from food (4Trusted Source).

Both Atlantic and Pacific cod are good sources of several B vitamins.

One 3-ounce (85-gram) serving of cooked cod provides over 30% of the Reference Daily Intake (RDI) for vitamin B12 for adults.

In addition to other vital functions, vitamin B12 helps form red blood cells and DNA .

What’s more, these fish are good sources of vitamin B6 and niacin — both of which are necessary for hundreds of significant chemical reactions in our body

Rich in Phosphorus and Selenium:
In addition to its vitamin content, cod provides several important minerals, including phosphorus and selenium.

Phosphorus is a critical component of bones and teeth. It also plays a role in the proper function of some B vitamins .

Meanwhile, selenium helps make and protect your DNA .

Cod contains approximately 20% or more of the RDI for phosphorus in a 3-ounce (85-gram) serving.

This fish is an especially good source of selenium, too, with a single 3-ounce (85-gram) serving often giving 40% or more of the RDI for adults.

Thus, cod goes a long way to fulfilling our mineral requirements.

Potential Health Benefits:
There are several potential benefits of adding cod to your diet.

May Promote Heart Health and a Healthy Weight:
Fish consumption is associated with a variety of health benefits, including lower heart disease risk and brain function support (11Trusted Source, 12Trusted Source, 13Trusted Source).

However, it is important to note that cod and other lean fish are lower in omega-3 fatty acids than fatty fish like salmon (3Trusted Source).

These fats are presumed responsible for many health benefits.

Nonetheless, cod is nutrient-dense, meaning that it contains many beneficial nutrients in relatively few calories. Thus, lean fish like cod can still promote good health and may even be weight-loss-friendly (14Trusted Source, 15Trusted Source).

As mentioned previously, cod is also a good source of high-quality protein (3Trusted Source, 16Trusted Source).

Low in Mercury:
One potential health concern associated with fish consumption is mercury exposure.

Water sources can be contaminated with mercury, a toxic heavy metal, that accumulates in fish. When humans eat these fish, the mercury can lead to health problems .

In severe cases, mercury poisoning in humans can result in brain damage, which may be especially concerning in nursing or pregnant women because of potential harm to the developing child .

In fish, the highest levels of mercury are often found in species that have longer lifespans and are relatively high on the food chain.

Fish with the highest mercury content include shark, swordfish, king mackerel, tilefish, orange roughy, and marlin. Common fish like tuna, halibut, and bass also contain mercury.

Cod is lower in mercury than these fish, making it a better choice for those looking to avoid toxins (19Trusted Source).

Cod Liver Oil:
Some cod byproducts are utilized in dietary supplements. The most popular of these is cod liver oil.

Cod liver oil is an excellent source of vitamin D and gives higher concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids than cod filets.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.