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Herbs & Plants

Acacia murrayana

Botanical Name: Acacia murrayana
Family: Fabaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales
Clade: Mimosoideae
Genus: Acacia
Species: A. murrayana

Synonyms:
:Acacia frumentacea Tate.
:Acacia leptopetala auct.
:Racosperma murrayanum (F.Muell. ex Benth.) Pedley

Common Names: Sandplain wattle, Murray’s wattle, Fire wattle, Colony wattle and powder bark wattle

Habitat: Acacia murrayana is native to Australia – mainly in the central arid belt from Western Australia, South Australia, Northern Territory, New South Wales and Queensland

It grows in arid and desert areas in Western Australia. It grows in sandhill country. It requires a sunny position. It needs well drained soil. It can grow in hot places. It can survive fires. It can grow in arid places. A component of woodland and low woodland in the higher rainfall areas, more commonly in tall open-shrubland and hummock grassland in more arid regions, growing in sand on dunes, plains or along streams; at elevations up to 700 metres.

Description:
Acacia murrayana grows as a tall shrub or small tree typically to a height of 2 to 5 m (6 ft 7 in to 16 ft 5 in) but can grow as tall as 8 m (26 ft). It is able to form suckers and form dense colonies. It has glabrous branchlets that are often covered in a fine white powdery coating giving it frosted appearance. Like most Acacia species, it has phyllodes rather than true leaves. They are grey or pale green, with a length of 5 to 12 cm (2.0 to 4.7 in) and a width of 2 to 7 mm (0.079 to 0.276 in). The glabrous and thinly coriaceous phyllodes have a linear to narrowly elliptic shape but are occasionally oblanceolate and have a minute, callous and curved mucro. The phyllodes midrib is not prominent and it has obscure lateral nerves that are longitudinally anastomosing. In Western Australia it blooms between August and November but it can flower as late as January in other places and produce profuse flower displays a seed crops in favourable conditions. The flowers are bright yellow, and held in cylindrical clusters up to eight millimetres in diameter. The spherical flower-heads are composed of 25 to 50 densley packed golden to light golden coloured flowers. The pods are flat and papery with a length of 5 to 8 cm (2.0 to 3.1 in) and a width of up to 1 cm (0.39 in)

In Australia, its main flowering period is from August to November (this varies upon specific geographic) with pods maturing several months later (November-January). During favorable seasons, plants flower profusely and produce heavy pod crops.

The species most closely resembles A. pachyacra which has a similar range. The most obvious way to distinguish them is that A. pachyacra phyllodes (leaves) are much narrowe.

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Cultivation:
Acacia murrayana is a plant of arid and semi-arid regions in the warm temperate, subtropical and tropical zones of central Australia, where it is found at elevations up to 700 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 12 – 34°c, but can tolerate 5 – 42°c. When dormant, selected provenances of the plant can survive temperatures down to about -10°c, but young growth is more tender and can be severely damaged at -1°c. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 200 – 400mm, but tolerates 100 – 500mm. Requires a sunny position and a well-drained soil. Succeeds in a range of soils from sands to clays and is very tolerant of low fertility. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 – 7.5, tolerating 4.5 – 8.5. Established plants are drought tolerant. A fast-growing plant when young, but relatively short-lived, usually senescing when around 15 – 25 years old. The plant recovers well following fire – both by producing a flush of germinating seedlings and also by resprouting from the base. The main flowering period is from August to November with pods maturing several months later, between November and January (Maslin et al. 1998). Plants flower profusely, commencing at an early age and produce heavy pod crops during favourable seasons. The seeds of most acacia species can be quickly and efficiently harvested at full maturity without the need for any specialised equipment. Small seed-bearing branches can be cut and beaten on sheets, or bushes can be beaten or shaken directly onto large sheets. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria; these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. Acacia murrayana, together with Acacia gelasina, Acacia pachyacra, Acacia praelongata and Acacia subrigida comprise the Acacia murrayana group of closely related species. This group of species is not far removed from the Acacia victoriae and Acacia juncifolia groups. Some forms of this species may resemble Acacia dietrichiana. It can be pruned after flowering. It can be pruned after flowering. The edible insect larvae (Bardie grub) is pulled out of the bored holes using a hooked twig. The white gum normally exudes from sites of insect damage. Carbon Farming – Cultivation: historic wild staple, new crop. Management: standard, coppice.

Edible Uses:
Edible Portion: Seeds, Grub, Gum. Seed – cooked. It can be eaten in the same ways as other small legume seeds and is also ground into a powder then used as a flavouring in desserts or as a nutritious supplement to pastries and breads. The pods are up to 90mm long, 8 – 12mm wide, with ovate, black seeds 4 – 5.5mm long. Acacia seeds are highly nutritious and contain around 26% protein, 26% available carbohydrate, 32% fibre and 9% fat. The fat content is higher than most legumes with the aril providing the bulk of fatty acids present. These fatty acids are largely unsaturated. The energy content is high in all species tested, averaging 1480 ±270 kJ per 100g. The seeds are low glycaemic index foods – the starch is digested and absorbed very slowly, producing a small, but sustained rise in blood glucose and so delaying the onset of exhaustion in prolonged exercise. The ground seed can be used to produce a high quality, caffeine-free coffee-like beverage. The plant possibly produces an edible gum. Carbon Farming – Staple Crop: protein.

Seeds and gum of the plant is a food source for Central Australian Aboriginae. Seeds can be ground to make a flour that can be used as a flavoring in desserts, a nutritious supplement in breads and pastries, or for a caffeine-free coffee alternative.

Medicinal Uses:
The bark of all Acacia species contains greater or lesser quantities of tannins and are astringent. Astringents are often used medicinally – taken internally, for example. they are used in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery, and can also be helpful in cases of internal bleeding. Applied externally, often as a wash, they are used to treat wounds and other skin problems, haemorrhoids, perspiring feet, some eye problems, as a mouth wash etc.Many Acacia trees also yield greater or lesser quantities of a gum from the trunk and stems. This is sometimes taken internally in the treatment of diarrhoea and haemorrhoids.

Other Uses:
Agroforestry Uses: The tree can provide low shelter, it can be used as an ornamental and is a pollen source for bees. Other Uses: The wood is of small dimensions, but can be used for posts and small turnery. The wood is highly suitable for fuel, and for making charcoal. An edible grub occurs in the roots and branches. Carbon Farming: Agroforestry Services: nitrogen, windbreak. Other Systems: FMAFS.

The bark of all Acacia species are high in tannins, making them useful for dyeing.

Known Hazards: The seed of many Acacia species, including this one, is edible and highly nutritious, and can be eaten safely as a fairly major part of the diet. Not all species are edible, however, and some can contain moderate levels of toxins. Especially when harvesting from the wild, especial care should be taken to ensure correct identification of any plants harvested for food. Especially in times of drought, many Acacia species can concentrate high levels of the toxin Hydrogen cyanide in their foliage, making them dangerous for herbivores to eat.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_murrayana
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Acacia+murrayana

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Herbs & Plants

Acacia holosericea

Botanical Name: Acacia holosericea
Family: Fabaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales
Genus: Acacia
Species: A. holosericea

Common Names: Soapbush wattle, Soapbush, Strap wattle, Candelabra wattle, Silver wattle and Silky wattle

Habitat: Acacia holosericea is native to tropical and inland northern Australia.( Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland) Acacia-dominated scrubs and tall open shrubland, often developing dense, nearly monotypic populations along dry, stony or sandy drainage lines in disturbed sites such as road verges, gravel pits and burnt areas, growing in a variety of soil types. It occurs in Australia in red sands. It is a tropical plant.

Description: Acacia holosericea is a shrub has a spreading habit and typically grows to a height of 3 m (9.8 ft) and a width of 4 m (13 ft). The large grey-green phyllodes have an ovate-lanceolate shape with a length of 10 to 25 cm (3.9 to 9.8 in) and a width of 2 to 9 cm (0.79 to 3.54 in) and are covered with white silky hairs, with three to four prominent veins. The flowers are rod-like and bright yellow, 3–5 cm long.

. The thinly crustaceous seed pods that form after flowering are tightly irregularly coiled and have a width of 2.5 to 4 mm (0.098 to 0.157 in). The pods are 3 to 5 cm (1.2 to 2.0 in) in length and twisted and curled.The flowers are pollinated by Insects. The shiny dark brown seeds are arranged longitudinally in the pods and have an obloid-ellipsoid shape and are 3 to 5 mm (0.12 to 0.20 in) in length with a bright yellow aril.

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Cultivation:
A. holosericea is available for cultivation by seed, although the seeds must be scarified prior to planting. It grows quickly and well in a sunny, reasonably well drained position in most soil types. It is suitable as a feature plant or as a hedge or screen plant. It has attractive foliage and fruit and can be grown in tropical areas.

Edible Uses:
Edible Portion: Seeds. Seed – cooked. It can be eaten in the same ways as other small legume seeds and is also ground into a powder then used as a flavouring in desserts or as a nutritious supplement to pastries and breads. Traditionally, the dry seed was ground to a coarse flour, mixed with water and either eaten as a paste or baked to form a ‘cake’. The seedpods are openly and strongly curved, 50 – 100mm long and 3.5 – 4mm wide, with very dark, brown to black, oblong seeds 4 – 4.5mm long. Acacia seeds are highly nutritious and contain around 26% protein, 26% available carbohydrate, 32% fibre and 9% fat. The fat content is higher than most legumes with the aril providing the bulk of fatty acids present. These fatty acids are largely unsaturated. The energy content is high in all species tested, 1480 ±270 kJ per 100g. The seeds are low glycaemic index foods – the starch is digested and absorbed very slowly, producing a small, but sustained rise in blood glucose and so delaying the onset of exhaustion in prolonged exercise. Carbon Farming – Staple Crop: protein.

Medicinal Uses:
The bark of all Acacia species contains greater or lesser quantities of tannins and are astringent. Astringents are often used medicinally – taken internally, for example. they are used in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery, and can also be helpful in cases of internal bleeding. Applied externally, often as a wash, they are used to treat wounds and other skin problems, haemorrhoids, perspiring feet, some eye problems, as a mouth wash etc. Many Acacia trees also yield greater or lesser quantities of a gum from the trunk and stems. This is sometimes taken internally in the treatment of diarrhoea and haemorrhoids.

Other Uses:
Agroforestry Uses: Acacia colei is a colonising species, forming dense regrowth populations in disturbed sites, including roadsides and burnt-over areas. The plant can be used as a pioneer for restoring native woodland or establishing woodland gardens. It has been planted as a windbreak around fields and along roadsides. Its bushy habit to ground level and heavy fall of large slowly decomposing phyllodes enhance its value for sand stabilisation. It has given very satisfactory results when planted as the lower part of windbreaks with Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The plant has a shallow, wide-spreading root system that competes heavily with nearby crops and can reduce their yields. On sandy soils in semi-arid zones, the plant may be used in a wide alley cropping system (about 20 metres between rows) where its benefits as a low windbreak may outweigh its depletion of soil moisture in the crop root zone. Other Uses: A red dye can be obtained from the lipid-rich arils by soaking them in water. The heartwood is dark brown; it is clearly demarcated from the pale sapwood. The wood is hard, dense. It is suitable for the manufacture of small decorative articles, and can be used for light construction. The wood is an excellent source of firewood and charcoal. The calorific value of the wood is 4670 kcal/kg and that of the charcoal 7535 kcal/k. Carbon Farming – Agroforestry Services: nitrogen, windbreak. Other Systems: FMAFS.

Known Hazards: The seed of many Acacia species, including this one, is edible and highly nutritious, and can be eaten safely as a fairly major part of the diet. Not all species are edible, however, and some can contain moderate levels of toxins. Especially when harvesting from the wild, especial care should be taken to ensure correct identification of any plants harvested for food. Especially in times of drought, many Acacia species can concentrate high levels of the toxin Hydrogen cyanide in their foliage, making them dangerous for herbivores to eat.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_holosericea
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Acacia+holosericea

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Herbs & Plants

Warburgia salutaris

Botanical Name: Warburgia salutaris
Family: Canellaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Canellales
Genus: Warburgia
Species: W. salutaris

Synonyms
*Chibaca salutaris G.Bertol.
*Warburgia breyeri R.Pott

Common Names: Pepper-bark tree, Fever Plant, and Pepper Root Afrikaans: Peperbasboom, Sotho: Molaka, Venda: Mulanga, Zulu: Isibaha

Habitat:
Warburgia salutaris is native to Southern Africa – Zimbabwe, Mozambique, S. Africa. It grows on Savannah woodland, coastal forest and Afromontane forest. Lower rainforests, drier highland forest areas, and in secondary bushlands and grasslands at elevations from 1,000 – 2,000 metres.

Description:
Warburgia salutaris is an evergreen erect tree growing up to about ten metres in maximum height, but known to reach 20 metres at times. It has a dense and rounded crown, a thick canopy of aromatic, shiny green leaves. The evergreen leaf blades are lance-shaped, measuring up to 11 cm long by 3 wide. The flowers have ten yellow-green petals. They are each just under a centimeter long and are solitary or borne in small clusters of up to 3. The fruit is a berry, leathery purple or black in color when ripe, measuring up to 4 cm wide.

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Cultivation:
A plant of the tropics, where it is found at elevations from 1,000 – 2,200 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 5 – 25°c, but can tolerate 10 – 35°c. The plant cannot tolerate frosts. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 400 – 1,750mm, but tolerates 10 – 35mm. Requires a sunny position. Grows in well-drained soil, with good aeration. The soil should be rich in organic matter in the form of well-rotted compost. Prefers a pH in the range 5 – 7, tolerating 4.5 – 7.5. Established plants are moderately drought tolerant. A fairly slow-growing tree. Trees can be coppiced. The tree is aromatic, with a peppery aroma. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.

Propagation:
Seed – it has a very short viability and should be sown as soon as it is removed from the seed. Sow in a partially shaded position in a nursery seedbed. A germination rate of around 80% can be expected. Cuttings

Edible Uses: The leaves are used to flavour soups and curries. The leaves have a bitter, burning, aromatic taste. The leaves are used as a tea. The bark contains mannitol.

Medicinal Uses:
Warburgia salutaris tree is a widely used herbal remedy in southern Africa. The inner bark has many uses as a treatment for malaria, colds, chest pains, coughs, diarrhoea, muscle pains, stomach aches, and general body pains. The pepper-like, bitter stems and root bark are used to cure a wide range of ailments. They are used as an expectorant to treat the common cold. Taken orally are believed to cure spots in the lungs. Both stems and root bark are a remedy for malaria. Powdered and mixed with water, they are believed to cure sores in the mouth. Dried and ground, they are taken as a snuff to clear the sinuses.

Other Uses:
Agroforestry Uses: A suitable plant for growing as a hedge as it responds well to pruning. An attractive, dense hedge. The tree can be intercropped to provide shade in coffee, banana and cocoa plantations. The plant is nitrogen fixing and can be used for green manure and mulch. It also provides good shade. Other Uses A resin can be extracted from the bark. The bark is a source of tannins. The heartwood is dark yellowish-brown; the sapwood light yellow. The wood is oily, aromatic, and pale, darkening with exposure to the air. It saws and polishes well but is not durable. It is occasionally used for construction, furniture and tools. The wood is used for fuel and to make charcoal.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warburgia_salutaris
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Warburgia+salutaris

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Herbs & Plants

Vitex doniana

Botanical Name: Vitex doniana
Family: Lamiaceae
Subfamily:Premnoideae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales
Genus: Vitex

Common Names: Black Plum

Habiitat: Vitex doniana is native to tropical Africa – Senegal to the Sudan, south to Angola, Zambia and Mozambique. It grows in the dense forest, wooded savannah, coastal savannah, galleried soudanian and riverine thickets. A deciduous forest tree of coastal woodland, riverine and lowland forests and deciduous woodland, extending as high as upland grassland.

Description:
Vitex doniana is a deciduous flowering tree growing up to 20 m in height in tropical Africa. It has a heavy rounded crown. The clear trunk can be up to 1m across and is covered with pale brown or gray white bark that has long cracks sticky ridges. The leathery and shiny leaves are opposite and arranged like the fingers on a hand with five leaflets. The creamy with one hairy violet lobe flowers are fragrant and occur in clusters of up to 20 on a long stalk. The flowers are pollinated by Bees, Sunbirds. The fruit is smooth and oblong, green marked with white dots, and turn black when ripe.

CLIICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Vitex doniana is a plant of hot, tropical climates where it is found at elevations from near sea level to 1,850 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 14 – 28°c, but can tolerate 10 – 36°c. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 750 – 2,000mm, but tolerates 600 – 2,500mm. Grows best in a sunny position. Occurs on a variety of well-drained soils of varying origins, usually alluvial soils. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 – 7, tolerating 5 – 7.5. The growth rate is moderate. In plantations in northern Cote d’Ivoire, seedlings were on average 70 – 90cm tall after 3 years, the tallest ones reaching 170cm. On good soils in southern Burkina Faso early growth is a bit faster. Trees respond well to coppicing and also produce root suckers. The fruit falls from the trees when it is ripe. It is not damaged by this fall so people generally harvest from under the tree rather than picking it from the tree. The flowers are extremely attractive to bees. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.

Propagation:
Seed – The seed has a hard coat, which slows down germination. Any pre-treatment would be to soften or abrade this seed coat and allow the ingress of water. This can either be done by soaking the seed in hot water that is allowed to cool – if the seed has not shown signs of swelling within 12 – 24 hours then remove from the water and abrade the seedcoat, being careful not to damage the seed below. It is thought forest fires help in inducing germination because they help break the hard seedcoat. The treated seed is said to germinate easily – it can be raised in a nursery and transplanted, or can be sown in situ. Root suckers. Cuttings.

Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw, cooked, candied etc. A sweet flavour with a mealy texture, it tastes a bit like prunes. It contains vitamins A and B and can be made into a jam. The jam is of good quality, somewhat like plum jam but better for spreading. A syrup made from the fruit pulp can be used instead of other syrups as a nutritive sweetener. The black fruit is about 2cm long. The fruit can be made into a wine. Wine obtained from controlled fermentation had 10.5% alcohol content, and wine obtained from spontaneous fermentation 5%. Young twigs and leaves are an esteemed vegetable. The leaves are often used as a herb for cooking. The pounded leaves can be added to warm filtered grain beer and then drunk. It is said to make them stronger. Seeds. The seeds are roasted and used to make a coffee-like drink. The leaves can be used as a tea substitute.

Medicinal Uses:
The plant is often used in traditional medicine. Modern research has shown that the plant has a range of actions upon the body. Consumption of large amounts of the fruits has been shown to cause a transient reduction in reproductive functioning in female olive baboons. The presence of progestogen-like compounds in the fruit has been suggested as the probable cause. An aqueous extract of the stem bark has been shown to produce a dose-dependant hypotensive effect and to also be hepato-protective. Stem bark extracts can inhibit the growth of clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Escherichia coli, suggesting that they may be valuable in the treatment of dysentery and other gastroenteritic infections. The fruit is used to improve fertility and to treat anaemia, jaundice, leprosy and dysentery. Both the dried and the fresh fruits are eaten as a treatment against diarrhoea. The root is anodyne. A decoction is used to treat gonorrhoea, ankylostomiasis, rickets, gastro-intestinal disorders and jaundice. A decoction of the root is drunk by women to treat backaches. The leaves are anodyne, febrifuge, galactagogue and tonic. A decoction is taken internally as a tonic and to treat fevers and respiratory diseases. It is applied externally to increase milk flow and as a treatment for headache, stiffness, measles, rash, fever, chickenpox and hemiplegia. The young tender leaves are pounded and the juice squeezed into the eyes to treat conjunctivitis and other eye troubles. A paste made from the pounded leaves and bark is applied to wounds and burns. The powdered bark is added to water and then taken to treat colic. A bark extract is used to treat stomach complaints, kidney troubles, leprosy, liver diseases, and to control bleeding after childbirth.

Other Uses:
Agroforestry Uses: The heavy rounded crown provides good shade. The tree has nitrogen-fixing roots and this, combined with the leaf fall, contributes to the improvement of soil fertility. The leaves can be used for mulch. The tree has some potential for use as a pioneer species – in Central Africa it is often the first species to establish when gallery forests evolve in low-lying areas in the savannah. Other Uses An ink is produced from the dried fruits, young leaves and bark. The blackish extract obtained by boiling the leaves, bark, roots and/or fruits is used as ink and as a dye for clothes. The twigs are used as chewing sticks for teeth cleaning. An aqueous extract of the chewing sticks has been shown to exhibit strong activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria including medically and dentally relevant bacteria, although the extracts of chewing sticks from Garcinia kola and Anogeissus leiocarpa had broader and generally stronger effects. This supports the traditional use of these chewing sticks with reported anticaries effect. The dried seeds yield about 30% oil. The oil has high iodine and low saponification values and can be used for skin cream, resin and paint production. The wood is said to be used as friction sticks to start a fire. The heartwood is creamy white to pale brown, yellowish brown or greyish brown; it is indistinctly demarcated from the 25 – 60mm wide sapwood. The grain is straight to wavy or interlocked; texture moderately fine to moderately coarse. The wood resembles teak; it is medium-weight and soft; usually not durable, although good durability has also been reported, especially resistance against termites. It is easy to saw and work with hand and machine tools; it often planes to a silky or furry surface due to the presence of interlocked grain; it nails well with little splitting, but it does not always hold nails well. Veneer of good quality can be produced, but the logs are often too irregular to be suitable for rotary peeling. The wood is often too soft for turnery. It is suitable for light building material, furniture, carvings and boats. The wood makes a good fuel and is also used to make charcoal.

Known Hazards: The sawdust from the wood has been known to cause dermatitis.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitex
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Vitex+doniana

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Herbs & Plants

Viola reichenbachiana

Botanical Name: Viola reichenbachiana
Family: Violaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malpighiales
Genus: Viola
Species:V. reichenbachiana

Synonyms: V. sylvestris. Lam.

Common Names: Early dog-violet, Pale wood violet

Habitats:
Viola reichenbachiana is native to Europe, including Britain, from Sweden south and east to Spain, the Caucasus and Himalayas. It grows in the Woods, hedgebanks etc, usually on calcareous soil.

Description:
Perennial herb, 4.0-15.0 cm high, in fruiting upto 30 cm high. Stem procumbent at base. Leaves ovate, cordate, crenate, obtuse, basal leaves large, acauline leaves small. 0.44.5 x 0.3-4.2 cm, covered with reddish brown glands, 4-5-nerved; petiole 2.0-5.0 cm of basal leaves, 0.5-3.0 cm of acauline leaves. Stipules non-foliaceous, 2, opposite, brownish in colour with usually green apex, covered with reddish brown glands, linear-lanceolate, 0.5-2.0 x 0.2-0.4 cm, fimbriate, almost equal the width of stipule blade. Flowers upto 2.0 cm long, violet; pedicel glabrous, c. 4.0-7.0 cm long; bracteoles 2, opposite-subopposite, linear, 2-3 x 0.5-1 mm, acuminate, entire. Sepals attenuate, 5.0-8.0 x 1.5-2.5 mm, lanceolate, entire, acute, glabrous. Petals 5-10.0 x 2.5-3.0 mm, oblanceolate-narrowly obovate, obtuse, cuneate, entire, glabrous, marked with dark striations and spots; lateral petal obovate, slightly bigger than the rest, 12.0-15.0 x 3.0.4.0 mm. Spur straight to slightly curvate, c. 5.0 mm long, obtuse. Ovary glabrous, broadly ovate, 1.0-1.5 x 0.5-1.0 mm, dark brown in colour; style 2.5 mm long, papillose at summit, beaked, beak forwarding upward. Capsule elliptic-lanceolate, 6.0-9.0 mm long, glabrous.

It is in flower from March to May. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects.

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Cultivation:
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Prefers a cool moist well-drained humus-rich soil in partial or dappled shade and protection from scorching winds. Tolerates sandstone and limestone soils but becomes chlorotic if the pH is too high. Prefers a pH between 6 and 6.5. Closely related to V. riviniana. All members of this genus have more or less edible leaves and flower buds, though those species with yellow flowers can cause diarrhoea if eaten in large quantities.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in the autumn in a cold frame. Sow stored seed in early spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer. Division in the autumn or just after flowering. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, though we have found that it is best to pot up smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse or cold frame until they are growing away well. Plant them out in the summer or the following spring.

Edible Uses:
Young leaves and flower buds – raw or cooked. When added to soup they thicken it in much the same way as okra. Some caution is advised if the plant has yellow flowers since these can cause diarrhoea if eaten in large quantities. A tea can be made from the leaves.

Mediciinal Uses:
The plant is used as a pectoral in the treatment of chest complaints, including tubercular problems. It is also used to treat cholera. The stems, leaves and flowers are bruised and applied to foul sores and wounds. They are also used to treat bites and stings.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viola_reichenbachiana
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Viola+reichenbachiana
https://species.nbnatlas.org/species/NHMSYS0000464896