Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Adenovirus

Description:
Adenoviruses are a group of common viruses that infect the lining of your eyes, airways and lungs, intestines, urinary tract, and nervous system. They’re common causes of fever, coughs, sore throats, diarrhea, and pink eye (conjunctivitis).

Infections happen in children more often than in adults, but anyone can get them. Most kids will have at least one type of adenovirus infection by the time they’re 10.

The infections usually cause only mild symptoms and get better on their own in a few days. But they can be more serious in people with weak immune systems, especially children.

These viruses are common in places with large groups of kids, such as day care centers, schools, and summer camps.

They’re very contagious. They can spread when someone who’s infected coughs or sneezes. Droplets containing the virus fly into the air and land on surfaces.

Your child can catch the virus when they touch the hand of someone who has it or a toy or other object held by someone who has it and then touches their mouth, nose, or eyes. It spreads quickly with children because they’re more likely to put their hands on their face and in their mouths.

Symptoms:
There are several different tyupes of adenovirus.
Each type of adenovirus can affect on person differently:

*Bronchitis: Cough, runny nose, fever, chills.

*Colds and other respiratory infections: Stuffy and runny nose, cough, sore throat, and swollen glands

*Croup: Barking cough, trouble breathing, high-pitched sound when breathing in

*Ear infection: Ear pain, irritability, fever

*Pink eye (conjunctivitis): Red eyes, discharge from your eyes, tearing, feeling like there’s something in your eye

*Pneumonia: Fever, cough, trouble breathing

*Stomach and intestinal infections: Diarrhea, vomiting, headache, fever, stomach cramps

*Swelling of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis and encephalitis): Headache, fever, stiff neck, nausea, and vomiting (this is rare)

*Urinary tract infections: Burning and pain while urinating, frequent need to go, blood in your urine

Causes:
Adenoviruses are very contagious. They can spread when someone who’s infected coughs or sneezes. Droplets containing the virus fly into the air and land on surfaces.

One child can catch the virus when they touch the hand of someone who has it or a toy or other object held by someone who has it and then touches their mouth, nose, or eyes. It spreads quickly with children because they’re more likely to put their hands on their face and in their mouths.

The child can get infected at the time of changing a diaper. One also can get sick from eating food prepared by someone who didn’t wash their hands properly after going to the bathroom. It’s possible to catch the virus in water, like in small lakes or a swimming pool that isn’t well maintained, but this doesn’t happen often.

Diagnosis:
The child spacilist may want to do a physical exam and possibly one or more of these tests to see if a virus or bacteria caused the infection:

*Blood test: A nurse will take a sample of your child’s blood from a vein in their arm.

*Urine test: Your child will pee in a cup the nurse gives you.

*Swab test: A nurse will use a cotton swab to get a sample of mucus from your child’s nose.

*Stool test: You’ll collect a sample of your child’s poop at home and bring it to the doctor’s office.

*Chest X-ray: Your child will lie still while a technician uses a small amount of radiation to take pictures of the inside of their chest. This will give the child specialist a closer look at their heart and lungs.

Treatment:
Kids with a weak immune system may need treatment in the hospital to help them recover.
There are no proven antiviral drugs to treat adenoviral infections, so treatment is largely directed at the symptoms (such as acetaminophen for fever). The antiviral drug cidofovir has helped certain of those patients who had severe cases of illness; the number helped and to what degree, and the particular complications or symptoms it helped with, and when and where this happened, were not given in the source. A doctor may give antibiotic eyedrops for conjunctivitis, while awaiting results of bacterial cultures, and to help prevent secondary bacterial infections. Currently, there is no adenovirus vaccine available to the general public, but a vaccine is available for the United States military for Types 4 and 7.

Prevention:
To help keep the child from getting sick:

*Try to keep the child away from anyone you know is sick.

*Wash child’s hands — and yours — often during the day, and especially before meals. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer if you don’t have soap and water nearby.

*Clean surfaces, like sinks and counters, to get rid of germs.

*Don’t let them swim in pools that aren’t well maintained.

*Keep the child at home when they’re sick to avoid spreading adenoviruses to others. Tell them to cover their nose and mouth whenever they sneeze or cough.

Currently, there is a vaccine for adenovirus type 4 and 7 for US military personnel only. US military personnel are the recipients of this vaccine because they may be at a higher risk of infection. The vaccine contains a live virus, which may be shed in stool and lead to transmission. The vaccine is not approved for use outside of the military, as it has not been tested in studied in the general population or on people with weakened immune systems.

In the past, US military recruits were vaccinated against two serotypes of adenovirus, with a corresponding decrease in illnesses caused by those serotypes. That vaccine is no longer manufactured. The U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command announced on 31 October 2011 that a new adenovirus vaccine, which replaces the older version that has been out of production for over a decade, was shipped to basic training sites on 18 October 2011. More information is available here.

Prevention of adenovirus, as well as other respiratory illnesses, involves frequent hand washing for more than 20 seconds, avoiding touching the eyes, face, and nose with unwashed hands, and avoiding close contact with people with symptomatic adenovirus infection. Those with symptomatic adenovirus infection are additionally advised to cough or sneeze into the arm or elbow instead of the hand, to avoid sharing cups and eating utensils, and to refrain from kissing others. Chlorination of swimming pools can prevent outbreaks of conjunctivitis caused by adenovirus.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenoviridae
https://www.webmd.com/children/adenovirus-infections

Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Anencephaly

Description:
Anencephaly is the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp that occurs during embryonic development. It is a cephalic disorder that results from a neural tube defect that occurs when the rostral (head) end of the neural tube fails to close, usually between the 23rd and 26th day following conception. Strictly speaking, the Greek term translates as “without a brain” (or totally lacking the inside part of the head), but it is accepted that children born with this disorder usually only lack a telencephalon, the largest part of the brain consisting mainly of the cerebral hemispheres, including the neocortex, which is responsible for cognition. The remaining structure is usually covered only by a thin layer of membrane—skin, bone, meninges, etc. are all lacking. The neural tube is a layer of cells that ultimately develops into the brain and spinal cord. Because anencephaly is caused by abnormalities of the neural tube, it is classified as a neural tube defect (NTD). With very few exceptions, infants with this disorder do not survive longer than a few hours or possibly days after their birth.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Symptoms:
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) describes the presentation of this condition as follows: “A baby born with anencephaly is usually blind, deaf, unaware of its surroundings and unable to feel pain. Although some individuals with anencephaly may be born with a main brain stem, the lack of a functioning cerebrum permanently rules out the possibility of ever gaining awareness of their surroundings. Reflex actions such as breathing and responses to sound or touch may occur.”

Due to the presence of the brainstem, children with anencephaly have almost all the primitive reflexes of a newborn, responding to auditory, vestibular and painful stimuli. This means that the child can move, smile, suckle and breathe without the aid of devices.

Causes:
The cause of anencephaly is disputed by medical professionals and researchers.

Folic acid has been shown to be important in neural tube formation since at least 1991, and as a subtype of neural tube defect, folic acid may play a role in anencephaly. Studies have shown that the addition of folic acid to the diet of women of child-bearing age may significantly reduce, although not eliminate, the incidence of neural tube defects. Therefore, it is recommended that all women of child-bearing age consume 0.4 mg of folic acid daily, especially those attempting to conceive or who may possibly conceive, as this can reduce the risk to 0.03%. It is not advisable to wait until pregnancy has begun, since, by the time a woman knows she is pregnant, the critical time for the formation of a neural tube defect has usually already passed. A physician may prescribe even higher dosages of folic acid (5 mg/day) for women having had a previous pregnancy with a neural tube defect.

In general, neural tube defects do not follow direct patterns of heredity, though there is some indirect evidence of inheritance, and recent animal models indicate a possible association with deficiencies of the transcription factor TEAD2. Studies show that a woman who has had one child with a neural tube defect such as anencephaly has about a 3% risk of having another child with a neural tube defect, as opposed to the background rate of 0.1% occurrence in the population at large. Genetic counseling is usually offered to women at a higher risk of having a child with a neural tube defect to discuss available testing.

An infant with anencephaly and acrania
It is known that people taking certain anticonvulsants and people with insulin-dependent diabetes have a higher risk of having a child with a neural tube defect.

Relation to genetic ciliopathy:
Until recently, medical literature did not indicate a connection among many genetic disorders, both genetic syndromes and genetic diseases, that are now being found to be related. As a result of new genetic research, some of these are, in fact, highly related in their root cause despite the widely varying set of medical symptoms that are clinically visible in the disorders. Anencephaly is one such disease, part of an emerging class of diseases called ciliopathies. The underlying cause may be a dysfunctional molecular mechanism in the primary cilia structures of the cell, organelles present in many cellular types throughout the human body. The cilia defects adversely affect “numerous critical developmental signaling pathways” essential to cellular development and, thus, offer a plausible hypothesis for the often multi-symptom nature of a large set of syndromes and diseases. Known ciliopathies include primary ciliary dyskinesia, Bardet–Biedl syndrome, polycystic kidney and liver disease, nephronophthisis, Alström syndrome, Meckel–Gruber syndrome, and some forms of retinal degeneration.

Research:
Some genetic research has been conducted to determine the causes of anencephaly. It has been found that cartilage homeoprotein (CART1) is selectively expressed in chondrocytes (cartilage cells). The CART1 gene to chromosome 12q21.3–q22 has been mapped. Also, it has been found that mice homozygous for deficiency in the Cart1 gene manifested acrania and meroanencephaly, and prenatal treatment with folic acid will suppress acrania and meroanencephaly in the Cart1-deficient mutants

Diagnosis:
Anencephaly can often be diagnosed before birth through an ultrasound examination. The maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP screening) and detailed fetal ultrasound can be useful for screening for neural tube defects such as spina bifida or anencephaly.

Meroanencephaly:
Meroanencephaly is a rare form of anencephaly characterized by malformed cranial bones, a median cranial defect, and a cranial protrusion called area cerebrovasculosa. Area cerebrovasculosa is a section of abnormal, spongy, vascular tissue admixed with glial tissue ranging from simply a membrane to a large mass of connective tissue, hemorrhagic vascular channels, glial nodules, and disorganized choroid plexuses.

Holoprosencephaly:
The most common type of anencephaly, where the brain has entirely failed to form, except for the brain stem. Infants rarely survive more than one day after birth with holoanencephaly.

Craniorachischisis:
The most severe type of anencephaly where area cerebrovasculosa and area medullovasculosa fill both cranial defects and the spinal column. Craniorachischisis is characterized by anencephaly accompanied by bony defects in the spine and the exposure of neural tissue as the vault of the skull fails to form. Craniorachischisis occurs in about 1 of every 1000 live births, but various physical and chemical tests can detect neural tube closure during early pregnancy.

Treatment:
There is no cure or standard treatment for anencephaly.

Prognosis:
Prognosis is extremely poor, as many anencephalic fetuses do not survive birth and infants that are not stillborn will usually die within a few hours or days after birth from cardiorespiratory arrest.

In almost all cases, anencephalic infants are not aggressively resuscitated because there is no chance of the infants ever achieving a conscious existence. Instead, the usual clinical practice is to offer hydration, nutrition, and comfort measures and to “let nature take its course”. Artificial ventilation, surgery (to fix any co-existing congenital defects), and drug therapy (such as antibiotics) are usually regarded as futile efforts. Some clinicians and medical ethicists view even the provision of nutrition and hydration as medically futile

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anencephaly
https://www.medicinenet.com/anencephaly/article.htm

Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Anal cancer

Description:
Anal cancer is an uncommon type of cancer that occurs in the anal canal. The anal canal is a short tube at the end of our rectum through which stool leaves your body. It affects the very end of the large bowel.

Anal cancer can cause signs and symptoms such as rectal bleeding and anal pain.

Most people with anal cancer are treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation. Though combining anal cancer treatments increases the chance of a cure, the combined treatments also increase the risk of side effects.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Symptoms:
Anal cancer signs and symptoms include:

  • Bleeding from the anus or rectum (rectal bleeding)
    *Pain in the area of the anus
    *A mass or growth in the anal canal
    *Anal itching & pain
  • A discharge of mucus from the anus
    *Loss of bowel control (bowel incontinence)

However, some people with anal cancer don’t have any symptoms.

If one develops any of the above symptoms, It is wise to consult the GP. While they’re unlikely to be caused by anal cancer, it’s best to get them checked out.

Causes:
Anal cancer forms when a genetic mutation turns normal, healthy cells into abnormal cells. Healthy cells grow and multiply at a set rate, eventually dying at a set time. Abnormal cells grow and multiply out of control, and they don’t die. The accumulating abnormal cells form a mass (tumor). Cancer cells invade nearby tissues and can separate from an initial tumor to spread elsewhere in the body (metastasize).

Anal cancer is closely related to a sexually transmitted infection called human papillomavirus (HPV). Evidence of HPV is detected in the majority of anal cancers. HPV is thought to be the most common cause of anal cancers

Risk factors:
Several factors have been found to increase the risk of anal cancer, including:

*Older age.: Most cases of anal cancer occur in people age 50 and older.

*Many sexual partners.: People who have many sexual partners over their lifetimes have a greater risk of anal cancer.

*Anal sex.: People who engage in receptive anal sex have an increased risk of anal cancer.

*Smoking.: Smoking cigarettes may increase your risk of anal cancer.

*History of cancer.: Those who have had cervical, vulvar or vaginal cancer have an increased risk of anal cancer.

*Human papillomavirus (HPV).: HPV infection increases your risk of several cancers, including anal cancer and cervical cancer. HPV infection is a sexually transmitted infection that can also cause genital warts.

*Drugs or conditions that suppress your immune system.: People who take drugs to suppress their immune systems (immunosuppressive drugs), including people who have received organ transplants, may have an increased risk of anal cancer. HIV — the virus that causes AIDS — suppresses the immune system and increases the risk of anal cancer.

Complications:
Anal cancer rarely spreads (metastasizes) to distant parts of the body. Only a small percentage of tumors are found to have spread, but those that do are especially difficult to treat. Anal cancer that metastasizes most commonly spreads to the liver and the lungs.

Diagnosis:
To diagnose the following tests may have to be done::

*Sigmoidoscopy – where a thin, flexible tube with a small camera and light is inserted into your bottom to check for any abnormalities

*Roctoscopy – where the inside of your rectum is examined using a hollow tube-like instrument (proctoscope) with a light on the end

*Biopsy – where a small tissue sample is removed from your anus during a sigmoidoscopy or proctoscopy so it can be examined in a laboratory under a microscope.

Treatments:
The main MODERN treatments used for anal cancer are:

*Chemoradiation – a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy

*Surgery – to remove a tumour or a larger section of bowel
In cases where the cancer has spread and can’t be cured, chemotherapy alone may be considered to help relieve symptoms. This is known as palliative care.

Prevention:
There is no sure way to prevent anal cancer. To reduce your risk of anal cancer:

*Practice safer sex. Practicing safe sex may help prevent HPV and HIV, two sexually transmitted viruses that may increase your risk of anal cancer. If you choose to have anal sex, use condoms.

*Get vaccinated against HPV. A vaccine to protect against HPV infection is available. It’s recommended for adolescents, including both boys and girls, but may be given to adults, too.

*Stop smoking. Smoking increases your risk of anal cancer. Don’t start smoking. Stop if you currently smoke & reduce drinking alcohol.

*Exercise regularly, practice Joga (meditatiion or pranayam- breathing exercise daily) :

Prognosis:
The prognosis of anal cancer depends on how advanced the condition is when it’s diagnosed. The earlier it’s diagnosed, the better the outlook.

Compared with many other types of cancer, the outlook for anal cancer is generally better because treatment is often very effective. Around 66 out of 100 people (66%) with anal cancer will live at least five years after diagnosis, and many will live much longer than this. There are about 300 deaths from anal cancer each year in the UK.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/anal-cancer/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20354146
https://www.nhsinform.scot/illnesses-and-conditions/cancer/cancer-types-in-adults/anal-cancer

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Vouacapoua americana

Botanical Name: Vouacapoua americana
Family: Fabaceae
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Fabales
Genus: Vouacapoua
Species: V. americana

Synonyms: Andira aubletii Benth.

Common Names: Wacapou, Acapu, Bruinhart; Vacapon; Black Heart; Acapu (Brazil); Brown Heart; Amazon Wood; Wacapou; Sarebebeballi; Partridge Wood

Habitat: Vouacapoua americana is native to northern S. America – northern Brazil, Surinam, French Guinea. It grows in primary rainforests, mainly in areas that are not seasonally inundated. Found especially on forested slopes.

Description:
Vouacapoua americana is a slender, semi deciduous evergreen tree growing usually about 35 m tall. It has a roundish crown and a straight, cylindrical, not buttressed trunk that can be up to 90 cm in diameter.

*Flowering dry season: January – March
*Flowering plant monocious
*Flower hermaphroditic
*Pollination insects: like bees, wasps, small beetles and hover flies etc.

*Fruit description:-
*Fruiting period wet season: April, May and June
*Fruit; length (cm) 5.5-7.2 x 2.4-4.0 cm
*Fruit petiole; length (cm) approx 2 cm
*Seed; length (cm) 4.9 x 3.4

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Medicinal Uses:
A decoction of the wood is used as a wash for body aches caused by overwork. A decoction of the bark is drunk to treat malaria. A decoction of the leaves is used as a wash for fevers.

Other Uses:
The heartwood is dark olive to dark chocolate; it is clearly demarcated from the 18 – 30mm wide, cream-coloured sapwood. Numerous fine lines of parenchyma, which are initially lighter brown in colour but which eventually turn nearly black, make the wood unusually attractive. The texture is uniformly coarse; the grain straight to slightly roey; the lustre low; no distinctive odour or taste is present in seasoned wood. The wood is hard, heavy, dense and very durable in contact with the soil, being highly resistant to decay and insect attack. There are conflicting reports regarding its resistance to toredo attack in sea water, though it is generally considered fairly resistant. It is somewhat slow to season, with only a slight risk of checking and distortion; once dry it is moderately stable in service. It has a fairly high blunting effect, so stellite-tipped and tungsten carbide tools are recommended; despite its high density, however, the wood is only moderately difficult to work and is generally said to have good working qualities; smooth surfaces are obtained in sawing and planing, but the coarse grain causes some rough and torn grain in boring and mortising; nailing and screwing are good so long as holes are pre-bored; gluing is correct for interior purposes only. The wood is used for making high class furniture, cabinet making, turnery, flooring, wheelwright’s work, beams, general construction, joinery, panelling, railway crossties, posts, rising and gunwales of boats, and general construction.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vouacapoua_americana
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Vouacapoua+americana
http://www.tropicaltimber.info/specie/wacapou-vouacapoua-americana/

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Berberis asiatica

Botanical Name: Berberis asiatica
Family: Berberidaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales
Genus: Berberis

Synonyms: Berberis hypoleuca, Berberis asiatica var. clarkeana

Common names: Asian Barberry,Chutro, Rasanjan (Nep); Marpyashi

Hindi: Dar-hald, Daruhaldi, Kasmal
Malayalam: Chutro, Dar, Githa
Marathi: Daruhaldi
Sanskrit: Daru, Daruharidra
Tamil: Uchikkala

Habitat: Berberis asiatica is native to E. Asia – Himalayas It grows on grassy and rocky slopes up to 2500 metres. Found in heavy shade, on north-facing slopes and on open hillsides in the drier areas.

Description:
Berberis asiatica is an evergreen Shrub growing to 3.5 m (11ft 6in) at a medium rate, with pale yellow branches, and thick rigid evergreen leaves with usually 2-5 spiny teeth, shining dark grcen above and greyish beneath. Flowers pale yellow, in somewhat flat-topped clusters shorter than the leaves, with red hairless stalks; petals obovate, notched, 5-7 rnm. Leaves ovate to elliptic. 1.8-7.5 cm; stem splnes 1- 1.5 cm. Fruit is glaucous, dark purple, oblong-ovoid, 8 mrn. Fruit edible. Fruit – raw or dried and used like raisins. This species is said to make the best Indian raisins. Asian Barberry is found in the Himalayas, from Uttarakhand to SW China, at altitudes of 1200-2500 m. Flowering: March-May.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile.

Cultivation:
Prefers a warm moist loamy soil and light shade but it is by no means fastidious, succeeding in thin, dry and shallow soils. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are often found growing in dense shade in the wild. Plants are generally very hardy and fruit abundantly in Britain. They grow very well in Cornwall. In colder areas of the country they are apt to be cut to the ground in severe winters, though they resprout well from the base. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. This species is often offered under the names of B. chitria or B. glaucocarpa. Plants can be pruned back quite severely, they resprout well from the base.

Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or dried and used like raisins. This species is said to make the best Indian raisins. Fully ripe fruits are fairly juicy with a pleasantly acid flavour, though there are rather a lot of seeds. The fruit is abundantly produced in Britain. The fruit is about 8mm long.

Medicinal uses:
The roots are used in treating ulcers, urethral discharges, ophthalmia, jaundice, fevers etc. The roots contain 2.1% berberine, the stems 1.3%. The bark and wood are crushed in Nepal then boiled in water, strained and the liquid evaporated until a viscous mass is obtained. This is antibacterial, laxative and tonic. It is taken internally to treat fevers and is used externally to treat conjuctivitis and other inflammations of the eyes. Tender leaf buds are chewed and held against affected teeth for 15 minutes to treat dental caries. The fruit is cooling and laxative. Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Berberis species, has marked antibacterial effects. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity..

Other Uses:
A yellow dye is obtained from the roots and stems. The spiny branches are used to make fencing around fields in Nepal

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berberis
https://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Asian%20Barberry.html
https://pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Berberis+asiatica