Oryza nivara

Botanical Name: Oryza nivara
Family: Poaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Subfamily: Oryzoideae
Genus: Oryza
Species: O. nivara

Common Name: Jhara dhan

Habitat:Oryza nivara grows in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is found growing in swampy areas, at edge of pond and tanks, beside streams, in ditches, in or around rice fields. Grows in shallow water up to 0.3 m, in seasonally dry and open habitats.

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Description:
Oryza nivara is an annual, short to intermediate height (usually <2 m) grass; panicles usually compact, rarely open; spikelets large, 6-10.4 mm long and 1.9-3.4 mm wide, with strong awn (4–10 cm long); anthers 1.5–3 mm long.

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Edible Uses: Oryza nivara is a wild rice from India; one of rice species being used in the OMAP project. It belongs to the AA genome group. Breeders are interested in this organism because it exhibits resistance to grassy stunt virus.

Medicinal Uses: Root paste is applied to cure gum swelling by the Mundas. Root paste is applied to reset the teeth by the Santals.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oryza_nivara
http://plants.ensembl.org/Oryza_nivara/Info/Annotation/
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf

Oplismenus burmannii

Botanical Name: Oplismenus burmannii
Family: Poaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Genus: Oplismenus
Species: O. burmannii

Synonyms:
Oplismenus unrecorded
Oplismenus humboldtianus
Panicum burmannii
Panicum not on sheet
Lagurus not on sheet
Oplismenus multisetus
Panicum hirtellum
Oplismenus burmannii
Panicum multisetum

Common Names: Burmann’s basketgrass, Cherua, Zacatillo

Habitat : Oplismenus burmannii is native to Zimbabwe.; iT GROWS throughout tropical Africa; also tropical America and Asia. It is found on elevation of 1,600 metres (5,200 ft)

Description:
Oplismenus burmannii is a flowering plant.Annual with prostrate or trailing culms 10–60 cm. long. Leaf-blades lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 1–9 cm. long, 5–20 mm. wide. Inflorescence 2–11 cm. long; racemes 0.5–2.5 cm. long, their rhachis hirsute, the spikelets contiguous. Spikelets lanceolate, 2.5–3.5 mm. long, pubescent, often with a transverse band of hairs across the middle of the lower lemma, rarely glabrous; glumes with a scaberulous awn, that of the lower 2.5–20 mm. long, the upper shorter.

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The plant’s leaves are 5 centimetres (2.0 in) long and 1.5 centimetres (0.59 in) wide and are undulate as well. Its glumes are of pinkish-red colour and are much longer than the spikelet. Its inflorescence is 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in) and consists of a small number of short racemes which have spikelets on them which are attached to the central axis.

Medicinal Uses: Whole plant chopped into small pieces, mixed with molasses is given to the cattle as galactogauge by the Asurs.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oplismenus_burmannii
https://plants.jstor.org/compilation/Oplismenus.burmannii
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf

Ochthochloa coracana

Botanical Name: Ochthochloa coracana
Family: Poaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Genus: Ochthochloa
Species:O. compressa

Synonyms:
*Ochthocloa Edgew., alternate spelling
*Panicum compressum Forssk.
*Eleusine compressa (Forssk.) Asch. & Schweinf. ex C.Chr.
*Cynosurus ternatus Forssk.
*Eleusine stolonifera R.Br.
*Eleusine flagellifera Nees
*Ochthochloa dactyloides Edgew.

Common Names: Hamrah, Wire grass, Marua (Toto).

Habitat: Ochthochloa is a genus of desert plants in the grass family native to the Sahara and Arabian Deserts. The only known species is Ochthochloa compressa, whose native range extends from Algeria to Uttarakhand.

Description:
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES :

Medicinal Uses:
The grains and rhizomatous parts are used as the raw materials for the preparation of country liquor by the Totos.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ochthochloa
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf

Ischaemum rugosum

Botanical Name: Ischaemum rugosum
Family: Poaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Genus:Ischaemum

Synonyms:
*Schoenanthus Adans.
*Colladoa Cav.
*Meoschium P.Beauv.
*Ischaemopogon Griseb.
*Arthrolophis Chiov.
*Digastrium (Hack.) A.Camus
*Argopogon Mimeur

Common Names: Murainagrass, Mararo (as Lodha & Santal call it).

Habitat: Ischaemum rugosum is native to Southeast Asia.It grows on warm, humid regions near the equator, both wet and dry habitats; swamps, paddy fields, wet grasslands, plains, low hills.

western coastal Africa and Madagascar; Asia, from the Indian subcontinent through tropical Asia to Australia and the Pacific Islands; tropical South America, Central America, Mexico, West Indies, United States.

Description:
Ischaemum rugosum is usually an annual grass; culms 60 to 120 cm high, branched and purplish, erect or ascending; sheaths fairly loose, and pilose on margins near tips, densely soft-hairy on the nodes; ligule 1 to 7 mm, fused with the auricles; blades linear-lanceolate, sparingly pilose on both surfaces, 20 to 30 cm long and 9 to 12 mm wide; inflorescence in paired racemes 5 to 10 cm long, firmly adpressed together at the base but gradually separating, with one flat side each; spikelets 3 to 4.5 mm long, lower spikelet sessile, upper spikelet stalked, obtuse, awned; lower glume of sessile spikelet strongly transversely ribbed, hard, with a green, herbaceous, ovate tip, about 6 mm long, yellowish, keels unequally winged above, one keel of lower glume of stalked spikelet with a wide crescent shaped wing; awn 1.8 to 2.5 cm long, slender, spirally twisted in the lower half; seed 2.5 to 3 mm long, 1 mm wide, triangular in cross section, oblong, small tip (mucro), slightly concave near point of attachment. The species is easily recognized when in flower by the prominent transverse ribs or ridges on the lower glume of the spikelet. These are distinctive and can be seen with the naked eye. Also, the prominent spinal awns and the tufted hairy nodes of the culm are excellent diagnostic.

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Edible Uses: Used as femine food.

Medicinal Uses:
Freshly prepared plant juice (ca. 35 ml) mixed with ‘Ada’ (rhizome of Zingiber officinale) paste (ca. 15 gm) is given to cattle to
cure diarrhoea by the Lodhas.

Known Hazards: Ischaemum rugosum is one of the most serious weeds in rice throughout its natural and introduced range. It is difficult to distinguish from rice prior to flowering, making it difficult to remove during hand-weeding. The grains may contaminate ricestocks.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ischaemum
http://idtools.org/id/fnw/factsheet.php?name=14628
http://www.hear.org/pier/species/ischaemum_rugosum.htm
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf

Hygrorhiza aristata

Botanical Name: Hygrorhiza aristata
Family: Poaceae
Order: Poales
Genus: Hygroryza

Common Names:Jungali Dal, Asian Waterweed, Awned-Water-rice, Jamglo-dha, Dolddi, Dadlo,
Uses: Dried grains powder (ca. 5 g) mixed with a glass of lukewarm
English name: Bengal Wild Rice

Habitat: Hygrorhiza aristata is native to South-East Asia from South China to Malaysia. In the habitat, it forms dense floating populations in the water (as part of periodically or permanently flooded swards)

In its native countries it is often found as a weed among the planted rice fields.

Description:
Hygroryza aristata is a floating grass. It bis a perennial herb. It grows up to 50cm. It has long haning roots and provides hiding places to fishes. It is the only grass used in acquirium.The most striking feature of this grass plant are the relatively wide lanceolate leaf blades with their round bases and their water-repellent surface as well as the bulbous leaf sheaths that serve as buoys.

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Medicinal Uses:
Dried grains powder (ca. 5 g) mixed with a glass of lukewarm cow milk is given as astringent by the Lodhas.
Plant decoction mixed with the leaf juice of ‘Tulsi’ (Ocimum tenuiflorum), honey and ginger (Gingiber officinale) paste (in 3:2:1
ratio) is given 3-4 times a day to cure prolonged fever by the Oraons.

Other Uses:
This is the only grass species that is used in aquariums. It has to be pruned back on a regular basis or it will shade out any other plants below it. This is a great plant for open topped aquariums and its roots will provide refuge for juvenile fish if used in a rearing tank.

Fresh plant is given to oxen as fodder to make the oxen stronger by the Mundas. The fresh plant paste is given to the cattle as galactogauge by the Mundas.

Propagation:
This plant will propagate itself by sending out plantlets which will spread over the water surface. These need to be pruned back on a regular basis to keep it in check.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://www.flowgrow.de/db/aquaticplants/hygroryza-aristata
https://herbpathy.com/Uses-and-Benefits-of-Hygroryza-Aristata-Cid1015
https://en.aqua-fish.net/plants/hygroryza-aristata
http://www.crdeepjournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Vol-3-3-1-IJBAS.pdf