Ailmemts & Remedies


Cirrhosis is a late stage of scarring (fibrosis) of the liver caused by many forms of liver diseases and conditions, such as hepatitis and chronic alcoholism.

Each time your liver is injured — whether by disease, excessive alcohol consumption or another cause — it tries to repair itself. In the process, scar tissue forms. As cirrhosis progresses, more and more scar tissue forms, making it difficult for the liver to function (decompensated cirrhosis). Advanced cirrhosis is life-threatening.

The liver damage done by cirrhosis generally can’t be undone. But if liver cirrhosis is diagnosed early and the cause is treated, further damage can be limited and, rarely, reversed.


You may not have any symptoms at first. But as time goes on, and the damage to your liver gets worse, you may notice things like:

*Fatigue and weakness
*Lack of appetite and weight loss
*Jaundice (when your skin and eyes turn yellow)
*Intense itching
*Spider web-like blood vessels in your skin
*Redness in the palms of your hands or whitening of your nails
*Vomiting blood
*Fluid retention (swelling in legs, abdominal distension)
*Severe muscle cramps
*Brownish urine
*Enlarged spleen
*Bone disease, causing bones to break more easily

Keep in mind that you may not get all these symptoms, and some of these problems are also signs of other conditions.


A wide range of diseases and conditions can damage the liver and lead to cirrhosis.

Some of the causes include:

*Chronic alcohol abuse
*Chronic viral hepatitis (hepatitis B, C and D)
*Fat accumulating in the liver (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease)
*Iron buildup in the body (hemochromatosis)
*Cystic fibrosis
*Copper accumulated in the liver (Wilson's disease)
*Poorly formed bile ducts (biliary atresia)
*Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
*Inherited disorders of sugar metabolism (galactosemia or glycogen storage disease)
*Genetic digestive disorder (Alagille syndrome)
*Liver disease caused by your body's immune system (autoimmune hepatitis)
*Destruction of the bile ducts (primary biliary cirrhosis)
*Hardening and scarring of the bile ducts (primary sclerosing cholangitis
*Infection, such as syphilis or brucellosis
*Medications, including methotrexate or isoniazid

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms. He or she will also ask if you have a history of health conditions that make you more likely to develop cirrhosis.

Your doctor will ask about your use of alcohol and over-the-counter and prescription medicines.

Physical exam:
Your doctor will examine your body, use a stethoscope to listen to sounds in your abdomen, and tap or press on specific areas of your abdomen. He or she will check to see if your liver is larger than it should be. Your doctor will also check for tenderness or pain in your abdomen.

Different tests:
*Blood tests
Your doctor may recommend the following blood tests

*liver tests NIH external link that can show abnormal liver enzyme levels, which may be a sign of liver damage. Your doctor may suspect cirrhosis if you have
*increased levels of the liver enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
*increased levels of bilirubin
*decreased levels of blood proteins
*complete blood count NIH external link, which can show signs of infection and anemia that may be caused by internal bleeding
*tests for viral infections to see if you have hepatitis B or hepatitis C
*blood tests for autoimmune liver conditions, which include the antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibody (SMA), and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) tests

Based on the blood test results, your doctor may be able diagnose certain causes of cirrhosis.

Your doctor can use blood tests to tell how serious your cirrhosis is.

Imaging tests:
Imaging tests can show the size, shape, texture, and stiffness of your liver. Measuring the stiffness of the liver can show scarring. Your doctor can use stiffness measures to see if the scarring is getting better or worse. Imaging tests can also show how much fat is in the liver. Your doctor may use one or more of the following imaging tests

*magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) NIH external link
*ultrasound NIH external link
*x-rays such as computerized tomography (CT) scans
*transient elastography, a special ultrasound that measures the stiffness of your liver and can measure liver fat

Liver biopsy:
Your doctor may perform a liver biopsy to see how much scarring in is your liver. A liver biopsy can diagnose cirrhosis when the results of other tests are uncertain. The biopsy may show the cause of cirrhosis. Sometimes your doctor may find that something other than cirrhosis has caused your liver to become damaged or enlarged. Your doctor can also diagnose liver cancer external link based on liver biopsy results.

Treatment of cirrhosis involves managing symptoms and preventing further damage to the liver, since the existing scarring cannot be repaired or reversed. The specific cause for the cirrhosis will be addressed. Treatment varies depending on the cause.

Doctors most often treat the causes of cirrhosis with medicines. Your doctor will recommend that you stop activities such as drinking alcohol and taking certain medicines that may have caused cirrhosis or may make cirrhosis worse. If you have alcoholic liver disease, your doctor will recommend that you completely stop drinking alcohol.

Liver transplant surgery:
In advanced cases of cirrhosis, when the liver stops working properly, a liver transplant may be the only treatment option. A liver transplant is a procedure to replace your liver with a healthy liver from a deceased donor or with part of a liver from a living donor. Cirrhosis is one of the most common reasons for a liver transplant. Candidates for liver transplant have extensive testing to determine whether they are healthy enough to have a good outcome following surgery.

Historically, those with alcoholic cirrhosis have not been liver transplant candidates because of the risk that they will return to harmful drinking after transplant. Recent studies, however, suggest that carefully selected people with severe alcoholic cirrhosis have post-transplant survival rates similar to those of liver transplant recipients with other types of liver disease.

For transplant to be an option if you have alcoholic cirrhosis, you would need to:

Find a program that works with people who have alcoholic cirrhosis.
Meet the requirements of the program. These would include lifelong commitment to alcohol abstinence as well as other requirements of the specific transplant center.

(Liver transplant dramatically improves the prognosis of liver cirrhosis. If the disease is detected at its earlier stage, cirrhosis life expectancy is about 15 to 20 years. Life expectancy decreases to about 6 to 10 years, when cirrhosis is detected during the second stage. But these patients have enough time and can opt for liver transplant.)

Lifestyle and home remedies:
If you have cirrhosis, be careful to limit additional liver damage:

*Don’t drink alcohol. Whether your cirrhosis was caused by chronic alcohol use or another disease, don’t drink alcohol. Drinking alcohol may cause further liver damage.

*Eat a low-sodium diet. Excess salt can cause your body to retain fluids, worsening swelling in your abdomen and legs. Use herbs for seasoning your food, rather than salt. Choose prepared foods that are low in sodium.

*Eat a healthy diet. People with cirrhosis can experience malnutrition. Combat this with a healthy diet that includes a variety of fruits and vegetables. Choose lean protein, such as legumes, poultry or fish. Don’t eat raw seafood.

*Protect yourself from infections. Cirrhosis makes it more difficult for you to fight off infections. Protect yourself by avoiding people who are sick and washing your hands frequently. Get vaccinated for hepatitis A and B, influenza, and pneumonia.

*Use over-the-counter medicines carefully. Cirrhosis makes it more difficult for your liver to process medicines. For this reason, ask your provider before taking any medicines, including nonprescription ones. Don’t take aspirin and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others). If you have liver damage, your provider may recommend that you not take acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or take it in low doses for pain relief.

Regular Yoga and meditation under the guideline of an expart is very helpful.

CLICK TO SEE AYURVEDIC TREATMENT : OmShree Sidha Hospital, Vayala P.O, Kottayam, Kerala, India.:(1)


Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.


Ailmemts & Remedies

Chest infection

A chest infection is an infection of the lungs or large airways. Some chest infections are mild and clear up on their own, but others can be severe and life threatening also.



Chest infections often follow colds or flu.

The main symptoms are:

*a chesty cough – you may cough up green or yellow mucus
*wheezing and shortness of breath
*chest pain or discomfort
*a midium or even high temperature
*a headache
*aching muscles

These symptoms can be unpleasant, but they usually get better on their own in about 7 to 10 days.

The cough and mucus can last up to 3 weeks.

Many germs can cause chest infection. The most common are bacteria and viruses in the air we breathe. Your body usually prevents these germs from infecting your lungs. But sometimes these germs can overpower your immune system, even if your health is generally good.

Chest infection is classified according to the types of germs that cause it and where you got the infection.

Community-acquired Chest infection:
Community-acquired chest infection is the most common type. It occurs outside of hospitals or other health care facilities. It may be caused by:

*Bacteria. The most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in the U.S. is Streptococcus pneumoniae. This type of pneumonia can occur on its own or after you’ve had a cold or the flu. It may affect one part (lobe) of the lung, a condition called lobar pneumonia.

*Bacteria-like organisms. Mycoplasma pneumoniae also can cause pneumonia. It typically produces milder symptoms than do other types of pneumonia. Walking pneumonia is an informal name given to this type of pneumonia, which typically isn’t severe enough to require bed rest.

*Fungi. This type of pneumonia is most common in people with chronic health problems or weakened immune systems, and in people who have inhaled large doses of the organisms. The fungi that cause it can be found in soil or bird droppings and vary depending upon geographic location.

*Viruses, including COVID-19. Some of the viruses that cause colds and the flu can cause pneumonia. Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in children younger than 5 years. Viral chest infection is usually mild. But in some cases it can become very serious. Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) may cause chest infection, which can become severe.

*Hospital-acquired chest infection
Some people catch chest infection during a hospital stay for another illness. Hospital-acquired pneumonia can be serious because the bacteria causing it may be more resistant to antibiotics and because the people who get it are already sick. People who are on breathing machines (ventilators), often used in intensive care units, are at higher risk of this type of pneumonia.

Health care-acquired chest infection
Health care-acquired pneumonia is a bacterial infection that occurs in people who live in long-term care facilities or who receive care in outpatient clinics, including kidney dialysis centers. Like hospital-acquired pneumonia, health care-acquired pneumonia can be caused by bacteria that are more resistant to antibiotics.

*Aspiration chest infection:
Aspiration chest infection occurs when you inhale food, drink, vomit or saliva into your lungs. Aspiration is more likely if something disturbs your normal gag reflex, such as a brain injury or swallowing problem, or excessive use of alcohol or drugs.

Risk factors:
Chest infection can affect anyone. But the two age groups at highest risk are:

*Children who are 2 years old or younger
*People who are age 65 or older

Other risk factors include:

*Being hospitalized. You’re at greater risk of pneumonia if you’re in a hospital intensive care unit, especially if you’re on a machine that helps you breathe (a ventilator).

*Chronic disease. You’re more likely to get pneumonia if you have asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or heart disease.

*Smoking. Smoking damages your body’s natural defenses against the bacteria and viruses that cause pneumonia.

*Weakened or suppressed immune system. People who have HIV/AIDS, who’ve had an organ transplant, or who receive chemotherapy or long-term steroids are at risk.

Even with treatment, some people with pneumonia, especially those in high-risk groups, may experience complications, including:

*Bacteria in the bloodstream (bacteremia). Bacteria that enter the bloodstream from your lungs can spread the infection to other organs, potentially causing organ failure.

*Difficulty breathing. If your pneumonia is severe or you have chronic underlying lung diseases, you may have trouble breathing in enough oxygen. You may need to be hospitalized and use a breathing machine (ventilator) while your lung heals.

*Fluid accumulation around the lungs (pleural effusion). Pneumonia may cause fluid to build up in the thin space between layers of tissue that line the lungs and chest cavity (pleura). If the fluid becomes infected, you may need to have it drained through a chest tube or removed with surgery.

*Lung abscess. An abscess occurs if pus forms in a cavity in the lung. An abscess is usually treated with antibiotics. Sometimes, surgery or drainage with a long needle or tube placed into the abscess is needed to remove the pus.


To help prevent pneumonia:

Get vaccinated. Vaccines are available to prevent some types of pneumonia and the flu. Talk with your doctor about getting these shots. The vaccination guidelines have changed over time so make sure to review your vaccination status with your doctor even if you recall

previously receiving a pneumonia vaccine.
Make sure children get vaccinated. Doctors recommend a different pneumonia vaccine for children younger than age 2 and for children ages 2 to 5 years who are at particular risk of pneumococcal disease. Children who attend a group child care center should also get the vaccine.

Doctors also recommend flu shots for children older than 6 months.

Practice good hygiene. To protect yourself against respiratory infections that sometimes lead to pneumonia, wash your hands regularly or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

Don’t smoke. Smoking damages your lungs’ natural defenses against respiratory infections.
Keep your immune system strong. Get enough sleep, exercise regularly and eat a healthy diet.

Things you can do yourself
*get plenty of rest.
*drink lots of water to loosen the mucus and make it easier to cough up.
*raise your head up while sleeping using extra pillows to make breathing *easier and clear your chest of mucus.
*use painkillers to bring down a fever and ease headaches and muscle pain.

Normally Antibiotics aren’t recommended for many chest infections. They only work if the infection is caused by bacteria, rather than a virus. Your GP will usually only prescribe antibiotics if they think you have pneumonia, or you’re at risk of complications such as fluid building up around the lungs (pleurisy).

Home remedies for chest infection:
These home remedies may help ease the symptoms of your chest infection. Try these tips:

Take OTC medications such as ibuprofen (Advil) or acetaminophen (Tylenol) to lower your fever and help relieve any aches and pains.

*Use OTC decongestants or expectorants to help loosen mucus and make it easier to cough up.

*Be sure to get plenty of rest.

*Drink lots of fluids. This keeps you hydrated and can loosen mucus, making it easier to cough up.

*Avoid lying flat when sleeping. This can cause mucus to settle in your chest. Use extra pillows to elevate your head and chest at night.

*Use a humidifier or inhale steam vapor to help relieve coughing.

*Have a warm drink of honey and lemon if your throat is sore from too much coughing.

*Avoid smoking, or being around secondhand smoke or other irritants.

*Stay away from cough suppression medicines. Coughing actually helps you to get over your infection through clearing mucus from your lungs.

*inhaling steam from a warm bath.

*inhaling the vapor from essential oils, such as rosemary or eucalyptus.

*Boil 1/2 cup of ginzer dust in one cup of water till it becomes one cup, drink one sip in every hour for the whole day.

Although most chest infections are mild and improve on their own, some cases can be very serious, even life-threatening. A bout of infection of the large airways (bronchi) in the lungs (acute bronchitis) usually gets better on its own within 7-10 days without any medicines.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.


Ailmemts & Remedies


Other Name : Bulimia nervosa; Binge-purge behavior; Eating disorder – bulimia

Bulimia is an eating disorder. It is characterized by uncontrolled episodes of overeating, called bingeing. This is followed by purging with methods such as vomiting or misuse of laxatives. Bingeing is eating much larger amounts of food than you would normally eat in a short period of time, usually less than 2 hours. The person may feel like thaty he or she can’t stop or control these episodes of binge eating.

The binge-purge cycles can happen from many times a day to several times a week.

Often, people with bulimia keep a normal or above normal body weight. This lets them hide their problem for years. Many people with bulimia don’t seek help until they reach the ages of 30 or 50. By this time, their eating behavior is deeply ingrained and harder to change.

It is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging or fasting, and excessive concern with body shape and weight. The aim of this activity is to expel the body of calories eaten from the binging phase of the process. Binge eating refers to eating a large amount of food in a short amount of time. Purging refers to the attempts to get rid of the food consumed. This may be done by vomiting or taking laxatives.

Other efforts to lose weight may include the use of diuretics, stimulants, water fasting, or excessive exercise. Most people with bulimia are at a normal weight. The forcing of vomiting may result in thickened skin on the knuckles, breakdown of the teeth and effects on metabolic rate and caloric intake which cause thyroid dysfunction. Bulimia is frequently associated with other mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, borderline personality disorder, bipolar disorder and problems with drugs or alcohol. There is also a higher risk of suicide and self-harm.

Bulimia is more common among those who have a close relative with the condition. The percentage risk that is estimated to be due to genetics is between 30% and 80%. Other risk factors for the disease include psychological stress, cultural pressure to attain a certain body type, poor self-esteem, and obesity. Living in a culture that commercializes or glamorizes dieting and having parental figures who fixate about weight are also risks.

There are 2 ways people with bulimia restrict calories:

*Purging type. The person engages in self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas, or other medicines that clear the intestines.

*Nonpurging type. The person uses other behaviors, such as fasting or excessive exercise, rather than purging behaviors.


These are the most common symptoms of bulimia:

*Usually a normal or above average body weight

*Recurrent episodes of binge eating and fear of not being able to stop eating

*Self-induced vomiting (usually secretive)

*Excessive exercise

*Excessive fasting

*Peculiar eating habits or rituals

*Inappropriate use of laxatives or diuretics

*Irregular or absence of menstruation


*Discouraged feelings related to dissatisfaction with themselves and the way their body looks


*Preoccupation with food, weight, and body shape

*Throat is always inflamed or sore

*Tiredness and decreased energy

*Dental problems due to erosion of enamel from vomiting

Most people with eating disorders also share certain traits including:

*Low self-esteem
*Feelings of helplessness
*Fear of getting fat
*Intense unhappiness with their body shape and size

If one has bulimia, he or she may binge to reduce stress and ease anxiety.

*With binge eating comes guilt, disgust, and depression.
*Purging brings only short-term relief.
*He or she may be impulsive and more likely to take part in risky behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use.

The symptoms of bulimia may look like other medical problems or mental health conditions. Always talk with a healthcare provider for a diagnosis.


Many more women than men have bulimia. The disorder is most common in teenage girls and young women. The person usually knows that her eating pattern is abnormal. She may feel fear or guilt with the binge-purge episodes.

The exact cause of bulimia is unknown. Genetic, psychological, family, society, or cultural factors may play a role. Bulimia is likely due to more than one factor.

Risk Factors:
Being female and having bulimia nervosa takes a toll on mental health. Women frequently reported an onset of anxiety at the same time of the onset of bulimia nervosa. Another concern with eating disorders is developing a coexisting substance use disorder.

Complications from bulimia can include:

*kidney failure
*heart problems
*gum disease
*tooth decay
*digestive issues or constipation
*ulcers and stomach damage
*nutrient deficiencies
*electrolyte or chemical imbalances
*absence of a menstrual period
*drug or alcohol misuse


The onset of bulimia nervosa is often during adolescence, between 13 and 20 years of age, and many cases have previously experienced obesity, with many relapsing in adulthood into episodic bingeing and purging even after initially successful treatment and remission. A lifetime prevalence of 0.5 percent and 0.9 percent for adults and adolescents, respectively, is estimated among the United States population. Bulimia nervosa may affect up to 1% of young women and, after 10 years of diagnosis, half will recover fully, a third will recover partially, and 10–20% will still have symptoms.

Adolescents with bulimia nervosa are more likely to have self-imposed perfectionism and compulsivity issues in eating compared to their peers. This means that the high expectations and unrealistic goals that these individuals set for themselves are internally motivated rather than by social views or expectations.

Bulimia nervosa can be difficult to detect, compared to anorexia nervosa, because bulimics tend to be of average or slightly above average weight. Many bulimics may also engage in significantly disordered eating and exercise patterns without meeting the full diagnostic criteria for bulimia nervosa. Recently, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was revised, which resulted in the loosening of criteria regarding the diagnoses of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa. The diagnostic criteria utilized by the DSM-5 includes repetitive episodes of binge eating (a discrete episode of overeating during which the individual feels out of control of consumption) compensated for by excessive or inappropriate measures taken to avoid gaining weight. The diagnosis also requires the episodes of compensatory behaviors and binge eating to happen a minimum of once a week for a consistent time period of 3 months. The diagnosis is made only when the behavior is not a part of the symptom complex of anorexia nervosa and when the behavior reflects an overemphasis on physical mass or appearance. Purging often is a common characteristic of a more severe case of bulimia.

Exams and Tests:

A dental exam may show cavities or gum infections (such as gingivitis). The enamel of the teeth may be worn away or pitted because of too much exposure to the acid in vomit.

A physical exam may also show:

*Broken blood vessels in the eyes (from the strain of vomiting)
*Dry mouth
*Pouch-like look to the cheeks
*Rashes and pimples
*Small cuts and calluses across the tops of the finger joints from forcing oneself to vomit

Blood tests may show an electrolyte imbalance (such as low potassium level) or dehydration.

There are two main types of treatment given to those with bulimia nervosa; psychopharmacological and psychosocial treatments.

Cognitive behavioral therapy is the primary treatment for bulimia. Antidepressants of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or tricyclic antidepressant classes may have a modest benefit. While outcomes with bulimia are typically better than in those with anorexia, the risk of death among those affected is higher than that of the general population. At 10 years after receiving treatment about 50% of people are fully recovered.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which involves teaching a person to challenge automatic thoughts and engage in behavioral experiments (for example, in session eating of “forbidden foods”) has a small amount of evidence supporting its use.

By using CBT people record how much food they eat and periods of vomiting with the purpose of identifying and avoiding emotional fluctuations that bring on episodes of bulimia on a regular basis. Barker (2003) states that research has found 40–60% of people using cognitive behaviour therapy to become symptom free. He states in order for the therapy to work, all parties must work together to discuss, record and develop coping strategies. Barker (2003) claims by making people aware of their actions they will think of alternatives. People undergoing CBT who exhibit early behavioral changes are most likely to achieve the best treatment outcomes in the long run. Researchers have also reported some positive outcomes for interpersonal psychotherapy and dialectical behavior therapy.

Maudsley family therapy, developed at the Maudsley Hospital in London for the treatment of anorexia, has been shown promising results in bulimia.

The use of CBT has been shown to be quite effective for treating bulimia nervosa (BN) in adults, but little research has been done on effective treatments of BN for adolescents. Although CBT is seen as more cost-efficient and helps individuals with BN in self-guided care, Family Based Treatment (FBT) might be more helpful to younger adolescents who need more support and guidance from their families. Adolescents are at the stage where their brains are still quite malleable and developing gradually. Therefore, young adolescents with BN are less likely to realize the detrimental consequences of becoming bulimic and have less motivation to change, which is why FBT would be useful to have families intervene and support the teens. Working with BN patients and their families in FBT can empower the families by having them involved in their adolescent’s food choices and behaviors, taking more control of the situation in the beginning and gradually letting the adolescent become more autonomous when they have learned healthier eating habits.

Antidepressants of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) class may have a modest benefit. This includes fluoxetine, also known as prozac, which is FDA approved, for the treatment of bulimia, other antidepressants such as sertraline may also be effective against bulimia. Topiramate may also be useful but has greater side effects. Compared to placebo, the use of a single antidepressant has been shown to be effective. Combining medication with counseling can improve outcomes in some circumstances. Some positive outcomes of treatments can include: abstinence from binge eating, a decrease in obsessive behaviors to lose weight and in shape preoccupation, less severe psychiatric symptoms, a desire to counter the effects of binge eating, as well as an improvement in social functioning and reduced relapse rates.

Alternative medicine:
Some researchers have also claimed positive outcomes in hypnotherapy. The first use of hypnotherapy in Bulimic patients was in 1981. When it comes to hypnotherapy, Bulimic patients are easier to hypnotize than Anorexia Nervosa patients. In Bulimic patients, hypnotherapy focuses on learning self-control when it comes to binging and vomiting, strengthening stimulus control techniques, enhancing ones ego, improving weight control, and helping overweight patients see their body differently (have a different image)

Yoga Therapy:
Regular doing Yoga and meditation under the guideline of a proper teacher can improve Bulimia very fast.


Bulimia is a long-term illness. Many people will still have some symptoms, even with treatment.

People with fewer medical complications of bulimia and those willing and able to take part in therapy have a better chance of recovery.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.


Ailmemts & Remedies


Bronchiectasis is a lung disease that usually results from an infection or other condition that injures the walls of the airways in the lungs. This injury is the beginning of a cycle in which the airways slowly lose their ability to clear out mucus, resulting in mucus buildup and an environment in which bacteria can grow. This leads to repeated serious lung infections that cause more damage to the airways. Over time, the airways become stretched out, flabby and scarred and unable to move air in and out. Bronchiectasis usually begins in childhood, but symptoms may not appear until months or even years after he or she has started having repeated lung infections.


The most common signs and symptoms are:

*Daily cough, over months or years

*Daily production of large amounts of mucus, or phlegm

*Repeated lung infections

*Shortness of breath


*Pain in the Chest

Over time, more serious symptoms may develop, including:

*Coughing up blood or bloody mucus

*Weight loss


*Sinus drainage

Bronchiectasis can also lead to other serious health conditions, including collapsed lung, heart failure and brain abscess.

Bronchiectasis is caused by two phases of airway damage. In the first phase, the initial damage (or “insult”) is caused by an infection, inflammatory disorder or another condition that affects the lungs. Healthcare providers don’t know the initial cause in up to 40% of people with bronchiectasis.

The first insult makes you more likely to get inflammation and repeated infections that cause further damage to lungs. This is the second phase, or the “vicious cycle.”

Some of the specific causes of the initial damage (“insult”) which starts the cycle of bronchiectasis include:

*Cystic fibrosis.

*Mycobacterial infections, like MAC infections or tuberculosis (TB).

*Autoimmune or inflammatory disorders, like rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), lupus (SLE) and Sjögren’s syndrome.

*Foreign bodies, tumors or lymph nodes that block airways and prevent mucus clearance.

*Conditions that decrease immunity and increase risk of infections (like HIV and hypogammaglobulinemia).

*Primary ciliary dyskinesia

*Organ transplant. Transplant medications decrease immunity and can increase risk of infection and bronchiectasis.

*Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), an allergy to a type of fungus.

*Fibrosis (scarring) from radiation.

*Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

  • COVID-19 cause bronchiectasis:
    Research suggests that COVID-19 isn’t a very common cause of bronchiectasis. But if you’ve had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with COVID-19, you may have pseudobronchiectasis. Pseudobronchiectasis looks like bronchiectasis, but it resolves over time rather than causing the cycle of repeated infections and lung damage.

The most common cause of bronchiectasis depends on where a person lives. In the U.S. and other western countries, the most common cause of bronchiectasis is cystic fibrosis. Worldwide, it’s tuberculosis. In many cases, healthcare providers can’t determine the cause of bronchiectasis.

Risk Factors:
One can reduce his or her risk of developing bronchiectasis by managing his or her lung health:

*To make sure every person family is up-to-date on recommended vaccinations. Pertussis, the flu, pneumococcal disease, measles and staph infections can all cause or worsen bronchiectasis.

*Work with the healthcare provider to treat any ongoing health conditions, especially ones that affects the lungs.

*Always avoid breathing in things that can hurt lungs, like cigarette smoke, vaping, fumes and gases.


A healthcare provider will diagnose bronchiectasis by examining the patient and asking abouthis or her health history. He will listen to lungs and test how well it is working. Now if he or she thinks the patient has bronchiectasis or another lung condition, the health care provider will order imaging tests to look at the structure of the lungs.

The followibng tests are recomended to diagnose bronchiectasis:

*Chest CT scan or X-ray. A provider uses a machine to take pictures of the lungs to see if the airways are damaged.

*Blood tests and sputum cultures. A provider takes samples of blood or mucus (sputum) to find out if the patient has have an infection.

*Lung function tests. A provider uses lung function tests to determine how well the lungs are working. THe patient will breathe into a machine that measures the lung function.

*Genetic testing. A provider may take samples of patient’s blood or other body fluid to test for diseases.

*Sweat chloride test. If a provider thinks the patient could have cystic fibrosis, he or she will perform a sweat test. The provider will make thre patient’s arm or leg sweat, collect a sample and test it for signs of cystic fibrosis.

*Bronchoscopy. In some cases, a provider may use a procedure to look more closely at the patient’s airways (bronchoscopy). he or she will use a bronchoscope (a long flexible tube with a light and camera at the end) to find and remove anything blocking the airways and get samples of mucus or pus from the lungs for testing.

Bronchiectasis treatments help get rid of infected mucus, kill bacteria and decrease inflammation. They include:

*Antibiotics. Antibiotics can treat infections caused by bacteria. You can take antibiotics in pill form, but if you have a severe infection, a provider will use an IV to give you antibiotics directly into your bloodstream. Providers also often prescribe inhaled antibiotics for bronchiectasis. You may use a nebulizer for inhaled medications, which makes the medicine into a mist that you breathe in.

*Macrolides. Macrolides are drugs that treat infections and inflammation at the same time.

*Expectorant and mucolytics. These are medications that thin mucus and help you cough it out. These are available over-the-counter or by prescription.

*Physical therapy. Postural draining and chest percussion therapy can help loosen and remove mucus. Breathing exercises can help open up your airways.

*Medical devices. Oscillating positive expiratory pressure (PEP) devices and percussive vests break up and pull mucus out from your lungs.


You can reduce your risk of developing bronchiectasis by managing your lung health:

Make sure you and your family are up-to-date on recommended vaccinations. Pertussis, the flu, pneumococcal disease, measles and staph infections can all cause or worsen bronchiectasis.
Work with your healthcare provider to treat any ongoing health conditions, especially ones that affect your lungs. Keep your appointments and stick to your treatment plan. Talk to your provider if you feel like medications or therapies aren’t working.
Avoid breathing in things that can hurt your lungs, like cigarette smoke, vaping, fumes and gases.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.


Ailmemts & Remedies

Bowel incontinence

Other Names: Uncontrollable passage of feces; Loss of bowel control; Fecal incontinence; Incontinence – bowel


Bowel incontinence, is a loss of bowel control that results in involuntary bowel movements (fecal elimination). This can range from an infrequent involuntary passage of small amounts of stool to a total loss of bowel control.

Some people with bowel incontinence feel the urge to have bowel movements but are unable to wait to reach a bathroom. Other people don’t feel the sensation of a pending bowel movement, passing stool unknowingly.

Bowel incontinence can be an uncomfortable condition, but it can improve with treatment.


Bowel incontinence is normally manifested through the following symptoms-

*Accidental leakage of stool and mucous

*Loss of sensation of the passage of fecal matter

*Frequent urge to defecate and often passing small quantities of stool even before reaching the toilet

*Frequent passage of wind and loss of control of wind passage

*Difficulty passing stool

*Feeling of stool retention even after a bowel movement

*Supporting the muscles with the hand while trying to defecate

*Slimy sensation in the anus even after wiping and often requiring a lot of toilet tissues to completely clean the anus

*Stains left in underwear due to the passage of liquid stool unknowingly

*Urinary incontinence

Normal bowel control relies on the proper function of the:

*pelvic muscles
*rectum, part of the lower end of the large intestine
*anal sphincter muscles, the muscles in the anus
*nervous system
*Injury to any of these areas can result in fecal incontinence.

Fecal impaction
Chronic constipation can lead to a fecal impaction. This happens when a hard stool gets stuck in the rectum. The stool can stretch and weaken the sphincter, which makes the muscles incapable of stopping normal passage.

Another complication of fecal impaction is leakage of liquid fecal matter through the anus.

Diarrhea is the result of loose or liquid stools. These loose stools can cause an immediate need for a bowel movement. The need can be so sudden that you don’t have enough time to reach a bathroom.

External hemorrhoids can block the sphincter from closing completely. This allows loose stool and mucus to pass involuntarily.

Muscle damage:
Damage to the anal sphincter will prevent the muscles from keeping the anus tightly closed. Surgery in or near the anorectal region, trauma, and constipation can damage the sphincter muscles.

Nerve damage
If the nerves that control sphincter movement are damaged, the sphincter muscles won’t close properly. When this happens, you may also not feel the urge to go to the bathroom.

Some causes of nerve damage include:

*trauma from giving birth
*chronic constipation
*diabetes mellitus
*multiple sclerosis (MS)

Pelvic floor dysfunction:
Women can undergo damage to the muscles and nerves in their pelvis while giving birth, but symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction may not be immediately noticeable. They may occur years later. Complications include:

*weakness of the pelvic muscles that are used during bowel movements
*rectal prolapse, which is when the rectum protrudes through the anus
*rectocele, which is when the rectum bulges down into the vagina
*Some men may also develop pelvic floor dysfunction.

Risk Factors:

Anyone can experience bowel incontinence, but certain people are more likely to get it than others. Persons may be at risk if:

*If he or she is over the age of 65
*If the person is a woman
*If a woman who has given birth to more than two children
*If the person has chronic constipation
*If she or he has a disease or injury that caused nerve damage
*If her or his rectal muscles

The helth care provider will take a thorough medical history and physical evaluation to diagnose fecal incontinence.He or she will ask the patient about the frequency of the incontinence and when it occurs, as well as the patient’s regular diet, medications, and health issues.

The following tests may help reach a diagnosis:

*digital examination of the rectal area
*stool culture
*barium enema (fluoroscopic X-ray of the large intestine, including the colon and rectum, with barium contrast)
*blood tests
*electromyography (to test the function of muscles and related nerves)
anorectal ultrasound
*proctography (X-ray video imaging during a bowel movement)


The treatment for fecal incontinence depends on the cause. Some of the treatment options include:

Foods that cause diarrhea or constipation are identified and eliminated from the diet. This can help normalize and regulate bowel movements. The health care provider many recommend an increase in fluids and certain types of fiber.

For diarrhea, antidiarrheal medications such as loperamide (Imodium), codeine, or diphenoxylate/atropine (Lomotil) may be prescribed to slow down large intestine movement, allowing stool passage to be slower. The patient may be adviced to take more fiber supplements for constipation.

Bowel retraining:
Following a bowel retraining routine can encourage normal bowel movements. Aspects of this routine may include:

*sitting on the toilet on a regular schedule
*using rectal suppositories to stimulate bowel movements

Incontinence undergarments:
The patient can wear specially designed undergarments for added protection. These garments are available in disposable and reusable forms, and some brands use technology that minimizes odors.

Kegel exercises:
Kegel exercises strengthen the pelvic floor muscles. These exercises involve a routine of repeatedly contracting the muscles that are used when going to the bathroom. The patient should consulthis or her doctor to learn the correct way to do the exercises.

Biofeedback is an alternative medical technique. With it, he or she learns to use his or her mind to control the bodily functions with the help of sensors.

If one has bowel incontinence, biofeedback will helphim or her to learn how to control and strengthen the sphincter muscles. Sometimes medical equipment used for training is placed in the anus and rectum.The health care provider will then test the rectum and anal sphincter muscle function.

The muscle tone measured is visually displayed on a computer screen so that the patient can observe the strength of the muscle movements. By watching the information (the “feedback”), he or she learns how to improve rectal muscle control (the “bio”).

Surgical treatment is generally reserved for severe cases of fecal incontinence. There are several surgical options available:

*Sphincteroplasty. The torn ends of the anal sphincter are brought back together so that the muscle is strengthened and anal sphincter is tightened.

*Gracilis muscle transplant. The gracilis muscle is transferred from the inner thigh and placed around the anal sphincter muscle to add strength and support.

*Artificial sphincter. An artificial sphincter is a silicone ring that is implanted around the anus. You manually deflate the artificial sphincter to allow for defecation and inflate it to close the anus, which prevents leakage.

*Colostomy. Some people who have severe fecal incontinence choose to undergo surgery for a colostomy. During a colostomy surgery, your surgeon redirects the end of the large intestine to pass through the abdominal wall. A disposable bag is attached to the abdomen around the stoma, which is the portion of the intestine that is attached to the opening made through the abdomen. After the surgery is complete, stools no longer pass through the anus but instead empty from the stoma into a disposable bag.

Solesta is an injectable gel that was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 for the treatment of fecal incontinence. The goal of Solesta therapy is to increase the amount of rectal tissue.

The gel is injected into the wall of the anus and effectively reduces or completely treats fecal incontinence in some people. It works by causing increased bulk and thickness of the anal tissue, which narrows the anal opening and helps it stay more tightly closed.

Solesta must be administered by a healthcare professional.

For Proper Bowel Movement – Easy Ayurvedic Remedies are:
*Drink Lots of Warm or Hot Water and Herbal Tea: Drink no less than 80 ounce of water or natural tea every day. …

*Expand the Quantity of Organic Oils in Your Diet: Top notch oils grease up the tissues so that a fitting measure of oil or fat can stay in the stool.

Regular Yoga exercise & meditation under the guidance of a proper trainer will cure Bowel incontinence permanently.

Aging, past trauma, and certain medical conditions can lead to fecal incontinence. The condition isn’t always preventable. The risk, however, can be reduced by maintaining regular bowel movements and by keeping the pelvic muscles strong.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.