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Herbs & Plants

Galium spurium

Botanical Name: Galium spurium
Family: Rubiaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Genus: Galium
Species: G. spurium

Synonyms: G. vaillantii.DC

Common Name: False Cleavers

Habitat: Galium spurium is native to Europe, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to N. Africa and W. Asia. It grows in fields, gardens, soil heaps, wasteland.

Description:
Galium spurium is an annual herb growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in). Stem limp, often climbing, 4-edged, rough, hook-haired, nodes hairy. Base of hooked hairs not oval.
Leaves are regular (actinomorphic), usually 6–9 whorled leaves; stalkless. Blade linear–lanceolate, bristle-tipped, fragile, hook-haired, with entire margins.
It is in flower between June to September. ( Corolla wheel-shaped, lime green–greenish white, approx. 1 mm (0.04 in.) broad, fused, 4-lobed. Calyx lacking. Stamens 4. Pistil of 2 fused carpels, styles 2. Inflorescence a lax, 3–9-flowered, axillary cyme.)
Fruits are 2-parted, hook-haired or occasionally glabrous schizocarp, carpels hemispherical, 2–3 mm (0.08–0.12 in.) broad. Base of hooked hairs not swollen.

The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Flies, beetles. The plant is self-fertile.

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Cultivation:
Prefers a loose moist leafy soil in some shade. Tolerates dry soils but the leaves quickly become scorched when growing in full sun. This species does not thrive in a hot climate.

Edible Uses: Leaves are eaten – raw or cooked. A famine food, used as a last resort.

Medicinal Uses:
Both Asperuloside (a terpenoid) and Coumarin (a benzopyrone) occur in some species of Galium. Asperuloside can be converted into prostaglandins (hormone-like compounds that stimulate the uterus and affect blood vessels), making the genus of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry.

Other Uses: A red dye is obtained from the root.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galium_spurium
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Galium+spurium
https://www.luontoportti.com/suomi/en/kukkakasvit/false-cleavers

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Herbs & Plants

Galium mollugo

Botanical Name: Galium mollugo
Family: Rubiaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Genus: Galium
Species: G. mollugo

Synonyms:
*Galium erectum Huds.
*Galium mollugo subsp. erectum (Huds.) Briq.
*Galium mollugo var. erectum (Huds.) Domin
*Rubia mollugo (L.) Baillon

Common Names: Hedge bedstraw, False baby’s breath,

Habitat: Galium mollugo is native to most of Europe, including Britain, to N. Africa and temperate Asia. It grows in hedgebanks, open woodland, scrub and grassy slopes, especially on base-rich and calcareous soils.

Description:
Galium mollugo is a perennial plant growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 0.6 m (2ft in) at a medium rate. The stems are square in cross-section, more or less erect with ascending branches. Starting from the axils of leaves it has inflorescences of small white flowers with a diameter of about 1 to 1.5 cm, with four petals. It is in flower from June to September, and the seeds ripen from August to September. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Flies, beetles.
The plant is self-fertile.

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Cultivation:
Prefers a loose moist leafy soil in some shade. Tolerates dry soils but the leaves quickly become scorched when growing in full sun. This species does not thrive in a hot climate. A polymorphic specie.

Edible Uses: Leaves are eaten – raw or cooked.

Medicinal Uses:
The plant is lithontripic and vulnerary. It is also used in the treatment of epilepsy and hysteria. Both Asperuloside (a terpenoid) and Coumarin (a benzopyrone) occur in some species of Galium. Asperuloside can be converted into prostaglandins (hormone-like compounds that stimulate the uterus and affect blood vessels), making the genus of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry.

Other Uses: A red dye is obtained from the root. It is very fiddly to utilize. A good ground cover for growing in cool shade under shrubs or in the woodland garden.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galium_mollugo
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Galium+mollugo

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Herbs & Plants

Galium gracile

Botanical Name: Galium gracile
Family: Rubiaceae
Subfamily: Rubioideae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Tribe: Rubieae
Genus: Galium

Habitat:
Grows wild along village outskirts and grassy thickets along ditches.

Description:
Galium gracile is a perennial herb growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). Stem; slender and fine, upper section erect, base frequently prostrate. Leaves; elliptical and small, 4-whorled to each node. Flowers; in summer, axillary, flower pedicel appearing with fine and small light-yellow flowers, the corolla 4- parted. Fruit; small grains.
The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Flies, beetles. The plant is self-fertile.

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Cultivation: Galium gracile prefers a loose moist leafy soil in some shade. Tolerates dry soils but the leaves quickly become scorched when growing in full sun. This species does not thrive in a hot climate.

Edible Uses: Leaves are eaten – raw or cooked.

Medicinal Uses:
The whole plant is anodyne, antiphlogistic, depurative, diuretic, febrifuge. A decoction is used in the treatment of boils and abscesses, bloody and mucoid dysentery, gonorrhoea, ‘red’ and ‘white’ discharge (bloody and mucous discharge), cancerous tumours and infantile marismus. Both Asperuloside (a terpenoid) and Coumarin (a benzopyrone) occur in some species of Galium. Asperuloside can be converted into prostaglandins (hormone-like compounds that stimulate the uterus and affect blood vessels), making the genus of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry.

Other Uses: A red dye is obtained from the root.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galium
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Galium+gracile

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Herbs & Plants

Galium boreale

Botanical Name : Galium boreale
Family: Rubiaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Genus: Galium
Species: G. boreale

Common Names:: Northern bedstraw

Habitat: Galium boreale is native to Northern and central Europe, including Britain, south and west to N. Italy and W. Asia. It grows on rocky slopes and streamsides, moraine, scree, shingle, stable dunes etc, to 1050 metres in N. Britain.

Description:
Galium boreale is a perennial plant that dies back to the ground every winter. Established plants spread by rhizomes, creating colonies of new plants around the original one.

The squarish unbranched stems may grow between 20 centimetres (7.9 in) and 50 centimetres (20 in) tall. The leaves are attached directly to the stem in groups of four; spaced evenly like the spokes of a wheel. Leaves are longer than they are wide and have three prominent veins.

It is in flower from July to August. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Flies, beetles. The plant is self-fertile.The small white flowers grow in a fairly showy panicles from the top of the stem. Each individual flower has 4 pointed segments that fold back from a fused tube enclosing the stamens and pistil. The lightly perfumed flowers have no calyx. Seeds are formed in pairs in dark fruits that may be covered in short hairs.

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Cultivation:
Prefers a loose moist leafy soil in some shade. Tolerates dry soils but the leaves quickly become scorched when growing in full sun. This species does not thrive in a hot climate

Edible Uses:
Gallium boreale is edible, with a sweet smell and taste, and can be eaten as a wild salad green. Varieties such as Galium boreale which do not contain the small hooks on the stem are not as palatable as the hooked varieties of Galium, like Galium aparine, but are important plants to remember for survival purposes. Leaves – raw or cooked. A tea is made from the flowering stems.

Medicinal Uses:
The plant is diaphoretic and diuretic. A decoction has been used as a contraceptive. Both Asperuloside (a terpenoid) and Coumarin (a benzopyrone) occur in some species of Galium. Asperuloside can be converted into prostaglandins (hormone-like compounds that stimulate the uterus and affect blood vessels), making the genus of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry.

Other Uses: A red dye is obtained from the root. The plant is used as a stuffing material for mattresses etc.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galium_boreale
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Galium+boreale

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Galeopsis tetrahit

Botanical Name: Galeopsis tetrahit
Family: Lamiaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales
Genus: Galeopsis
Species: G. tetrahit

Common Names:: Common hemp-nettle, Brittlestem hempnettle,

Habitat : Common hemp-nettle is native to Europe and northwestern Asia. Its typical habitat is rough ground, arable land, logging clearances and waste places. It spreads readily as its sharp calyces adhere to clothing and animal pelts

Description:
Galeopsis tetrahit is a herbaceous annual plant growing to 1 m tall; it is a pioneer species and thrives on disturbed sites or roadsides. The plant looks like mint but is taller. The stems have reflexed hairs and swollen nodes. In cross section, the stem is square. The leaves are rhombic to elliptic, with coarsely to bluntly serrate edges. It is in flower from July to September, and the seeds ripen from August to October. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs). The plant is self-fertile.
The flowers are multicoloured, with purple, pink, or white areas; diminutive, bilateral and snapdragon-like, and are mostly visited by bumblebees.

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The stem branches occasionally and is squarish and hairy, with glandular hairs on the upper part of the plant. The nodes are swollen and widely spaced and the pale green, stalked leaves are in opposite pairs. The leaf blades are hairy and are ovate with a long tapered tip and with regular large teeth on the margin. The inflorescence forms a terminal spike and is composed of whorls of pinkish flowers with dark markings on the lower lip. The calyx has five sharp-pointed lobes and the corolla forms a two-lipped flower about 15 to 20 mm (0.6 to 0.8 in) long with a fused tube. The upper lip of each flower is convex with dense, glandular hairs and the lower lip is three-lobed, the central lobe being the largest, squarish with a flat or rounded edge. There are four stamens, two long and two short, the gynoecium has two fused carpels and the fruit is a four-chambered schizocarp. The plant has a slightly unpleasant smell.

Cultivation:
Grows in most soils, disliking heavy shade. This plant is sometimes grown in the wild garden. An aggregate species. It is a natural hybrid, G. speciosa x G. pubescens.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in situ. Germination usually takes place within a month.

Medicinal Uses:
The plant is antispasmodic, detergent, expectorant and resolvent. It is used in the treatment of tissue-wasting complaints. An infusion of the plant is used in the treatment of pulmonary complaints.

Other Uses:
A drying oil is obtained from the seed. It is used as a polish for leather. A fibre is obtained from the stems, it is used for making cord.

Known Hazards: The plant is poisonous, causing paralysis.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galeopsis_tetrahit
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Galeopsis+tetrahit