Herbs & Plants

Celtis tetrandra

Botanical Name : Celtis tetrandra
Familia: Cannabaceae
Genus: Celtis
Species: Celtis tetrandra

Common Names:

Habitat :.…Celtis tetrandra Along the edges of terraced fields to elevations of 2500 metres in Nepal. Mesophytic mixed forests, valleys and slopes at elevations of 700 – 1500 metres.
Celtis tetrandra is a deciduous Tree growing to 20 m (65ft 7in).
The bark is grey, smooth, lenticellate; blaze whitish with purplish speckles.Young branchlets are terete, tawny pubescent.Leaves are simple, alternate, distichous; stipules lateral, caducous and leaving scar; petiole up to 0.8 cm long, canaliculate above, pubescent; lamina 3.5-10 x 1.2-4 cm, ovate -lanceolate, apex acuminate, base asymmetric, margin serrate, membranous, pubescent beneath; 3-nerved at base; midrib flat or slightly raised above; secondary_nerves ca. 4 pairs; tertiary_nerves distantly horizontally percurrent.

Flowers are inflorescence axillary cymes; flowers polygamous; pedicels up to 1 cm long they bloom in April.
Fruits & seeds are drupe with one seed and the fruit ripens in october….CLICK  & SEE THE PICTURES

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Edible Uses:.Fruit – raw. A mealy pleasant taste. The fruit is up to 8mm in diameter, containing a single large seed about 5mm in diameter. We have no further information, but the fruit is liable to consist of a thin, sweet, though dry and mealy flesh around a large seed.
Medicinal Uses:…The juice from the seeds is used in the treatment of indigestion.

Other Uses: …Fuel; Wood…..Wood – very tough, pliable, strong, durable. Used for oars, toolhandles etc. An excellent fuel.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.



Why Painkillers Relieve Men Faster

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Does popping a painkiller provide faster relief to you than your wife?

Thank the middle section of your brain.

Scientists at Georgia State Universitys Neuroscience Institute and Center for Behavioral Neuroscience have for the first time identified the most likely reason why analgesic drug treatment is usually less potent in females than males.

“Opioid-based narcotics such as morphine are the most widely prescribed therapeutic agents for the alleviation of persistent pain. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that morphine is significantly less potent in women compared with men. Until now, the mechanism driving the phenomenon was unknown,” said Anne Murphy, who conducted the research with Dayna Loyd.

Scientists through animal studies have shown that the previously reported differences in morphine’s ability to block pain in male versus female rats are most likely due to sex differences in mu-opioid receptor expression in a region of the brain called the periaqueductal gray area (PAG).

Located in the midbrain area, the PAG plays a major role in the modulation of pain by housing a large population of mu-opioid receptor expressing neurons. Morphine and similar drugs bind to these mu-opioid receptors and ultimately tell the brain to stop responding to pain signals to the nerve cells resulting in the reduced sensation of pain.

The findings have been reported in the December issue of `The Journal of Neuroscience‘.

Scientists say the discovery is a major step toward finding more effective treatments for females suffering from persistent pain.

Reacting to the study, Dr Madhuri Bihari, head of department of neurology at AIIMS said: “There is a difference in reaction of analgesic drugs on male and female bodies even though it is slight. Pain reduces slightly more in men than women after popping a painkiller.”

“It was believed that it’s because of the faster metabolic rate among women. This study is, therefore, significant. How much it will help clinically is yet to be understood,” Dr Bihari said.

Using a series of anatomical and behavioural tests, Murphy and Loyd were able to determine that male rats have a significantly higher level of mu-opioid receptors in the PAG region of the brain compared with females.

This higher level of receptors is what makes morphine more potent in males because less drug is required to activate enough receptors to reduce the experience of pain.

Interestingly, when they used a plant-derived toxin to remove the mu-opioid receptor from the PAG, morphine no longer worked, suggesting that this brain region is required for opiate-mediated pain relief.

Additional tests also found females reacted differently to morphine depending on the stage of their estrous cycle.

Analgesic drug market in India has swelled over the years. Painkiller drug Voveran had emerged as the top brand in the domestic pharmaceutical market with the largest sales for the first seven months of 2007

Sources: The Times Of India

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