Tag Archives: Adaptation to global warming

Artemisia indica

Botanical Name : Artemisia indica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Artemisia
Species: A. princeps

Synonyms: Artemisia prinseps Pamp, Artemisia vulgaris L. var. indica (Willd.) Maxim., Artemisia vulgaris L. var. maximowiczii Nakai..

Common Names: Artemisia princeps, or Japanese mugwort,
Habitat :
Artemisia indica is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, India. Waste ground in central and southern Japan.It grows on the waste ground in central and southern Japan. The sides of paths and tracks, margins of cleared forests at elevations of 300 – 2500 metres in Nepal.

Description:
It is annual/perennial, very vigorous plant that grows to 1.2 meters. This species spreads rapidly by means of underground stolons and can become invasive. It bears small, buff colored flowers from July to November which are hermaphroditic, and pollinated by wind. The leaves are feather shaped, scalloped and light green, with white dense fuzz on the underside….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Cultivation:
Easily grown in a well-drained circumneutral or slightly alkaline loamy soil, preferring a sunny position. Plants are annuals or short-lived perennials. Plants are longer lived, more hardy and more aromatic when they are grown in a poor dry soil. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – surface sow spring in a greenhouse. Do not allow the compost to dry out. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer. The seed can also be sown in situ in late spring.

Edible uses:
Leaves and young seedlings can be eaten raw or cooked. They can also be used in salads and soups after removal of the bitterness. The young leaves can be lightly boiled before being pounded and added to glutinous rice dumplings known as mochi to which they give a pleasant colour, aroma and flavour. Mugwort mochi can be found in many North American health food stores.
Medicinal Uses:
Artemisia princeps is one of the varieties of mugwort used as moxa in Moxibustion, a traditional medical practice of China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Tibet, Nepal and Vietnam. An evaluation of the efficacy of the smoke and water extracts of the herb found that both preparations inhibited the growth of a specific line of breast cancer cells in vitro. Phenolics from?A. princeps?(caffeoylquinic acids (CQA) such as 3-CQA (chlorogenic acid), 4-CQA, 5-CQA (neochlorogenic acid), 1,5-diCQA, 3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA and 4,5-diCQA) alleviated the oxidative stress and enhanced the viability of certain neuronal cells in vitro.

The leaves and flowering stems are anthelmintic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, expectorant and stomachic. An infusion is used in the treatment of nervous and spasmodic affections, in asthma and in diseases of the brain. This infusion is also considered to be helpful in improving the appetite. The juice of the plant is used in Nepal to treat diarrhoea, dysentery and abdominal pains. It is used as an eyewash where it is said to relieve the burning sensation in conjunctivitis. A paste of the plant is applied externally to treat wounds. The roots are antiseptic and are a tonic for the kidneys.

Other Uses: The plant yields about 0.2% essential oil. This is a good larvicide and a feeble insecticide. The dried leaves and flowers are used as an incense.

Known Hazards: Although no reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, skin contact with some members of this genus can cause dermatitis or other allergic reactions in some people.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemisia_princeps
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Artemisia+indica

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Pterospora andromedea

Botanical Name : Pterospora andromedea
Family: Ericaceae
Subfamily: Monotropoideae
Genus: Pterospora
Species:P. andromedea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales

Synonyms: Monotropa procera Torr.

Common Name: Woodland Pinedrops, Giant pinedrops
Other common names: Giant birds nest, Albany beechdrops

Habitat:Pterospora andromedea is native to North America. It grows from a subterranean truffle that is associated with a good sized Pinus strobus. Dry to mesic forested slopes and ridges.

State distribution: Forty three occurrences of this species have been reported from Michigan, 22 of which are post1978 records. The majority of these are associated with forested dune communities ranging from Ottawa to Keeweenaw County, with concentrations in Keeweenaw, Emmet, and Leelanau counties. Additional occurrences are widely scattered from Ottawa and St. Clair counties in southern Lower Michigan and from Drummond Island to Ontonagon County in the western Upper Peninsula. All occurrences were reported in low numbers ranging from a single individual to 11 stems, or in many cases simply.

Description:
Pterospora andromedea is a perinnial plant. It has lack of chlorophyll and has one to several simple, erect stems, from 3-10 dm tall, bearing numerous scale-like leaves and a terminal raceme of numerous nodding flowers. The approx. 6-7 mm long , bell-shaped corolla is white while the sepals and vegetative parts of the plant are reddish to maroon. The stem and sepals are glandular-hairy giving the plant a clammy-sticky feel. The similar, but more widespread and common species Monotropa uniflora (Indian pipe) and M. hypopithys (pinesap), also lack chlorophyll, but are typically one half the size of Pterospora or smaller. In addition, the flowers of both Indian pipe and pinesap become erect in fruit, unlike the strongly nodding fruits of Pterospora. Indian pipe also differs in bearing only a single large flower on each stem....CLICK  & SEE THE PICTURES

Status: State threatened
Edible Uses: Stems – raw or cooked. They can be roasted or baked under the fire ‘like mushrooms’.

Medicinal Uses: The stems and berries are astringent, disinfectant and haemostatic. A cold infusion of the ground stems and berries has been used in the treatment of lung haemorrhages and nose bleeds. An infusion of the roots has been used in the treatment of gonorrhoea.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pterospora
http://www.newyork.plantatlas.usf.edu/Plant.aspx?id=1322
file:///C:/Users/COOLE_~1/AppData/Local/Temp/w6p80jkb.tmp/pterospora_andromedea.pdf

Rhododendron x praecox


Botanical Name : Rhododendron x praecox
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Rhododendron
Subgenus: Hymenanthes
Species: R. ponticum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales

Divisio:Magnoliophyta
Subdivisio:Magnoliophytina
Classis:Rosopsida
Subclassis:Dilleniidae
Superordo:Ericanae

Common Name : Rhododendron

Habitat : Rhododendron x praecox is a hybrid between Rhododendron ciliatum and Rhododendron dauricum. The cross was selected by Isaac Davies of the Brook Lane Nursery in Ormskirk, Lancashire around 1855 and was introduced on the market in 1861.

Description:
Rhododendron x praecox is an evergreen Shrub growing to 1.5 m (5ft) by 2 m (6ft).
It is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Apr to May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

CLICK & SEE THE  PICTURES

The shrubs have a loose upright growth and will reach a width of approx. 100 cm and a height of 120 after around 10 years. Under ideal conditions they will reach heights of 2 metres and a width of 1,5 metres, with an annual growth of approx. 5 cm.

Wood and Bark
The stems of a 120 cm-high shrubs are up to 2 cm across and rather flexible. The bark appears to be relatively smooth, young shoots are a reddish brown becoming light brown and slightly scaly in age.

Leaves:
Rhododendron x praecox is evergreen and has alternate, simple ovate leaves with entire margins. The leaves are approx. 60 x 27 mm in size and are glossy dark-green, they are hairy above and scaly below. Young leaves are lime-green.

Rhododendron x praecox thus has leaves that are slightly larger than those of Rhododendron dauricum whose foliage also turns brownish in winter.

Depending on the growing conditions older leaves may be shed after having taken on a light yellow autumn colour. In that case only the youngest generation of leaves will overwinter together with the terminal flower buds.

Flowers and Fruit
The funnel-shaped and somewhat bulgy flowers appear from March to April. They are bright pink-purple with darker margins on the inside and dark pink-purple on the outside. The flowers usually arranged in loose terminal umbels made up of 1 to 5 flowers. Each flowers is approx. 2,5 x 4,5 cm in size. They flowers do not bear marks, the scent can hardly be distinguished.

The fruits are septicidal capsules.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in acid or neutral soils in sun or part shade. Succeeds in a most humus-rich lime-free soils except those of a dry arid nature or those that are heavy or clayey. Prefers a peaty or well-drained sandy loam. Succeeds in sun or shade, the warmer the climate the more shade a plant requires. A pH between 4.5 and 5.5 is ideal. Succeeds in a woodland though, because of its surface-rooting habit, it does not compete well with surface-rooting trees. Plants need to be kept well weeded, they dislike other plants growing over or into their root system, in particular they grow badly with ground cover plants, herbaceous plants and heathers. Plants form a root ball and are very tolerant of being transplanted, even when quite large, so long as the root ball is kept intact. Plants are hardy to about -15°c but the flowers come out in spring and are very frost tender. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.
Propagation:
Seed – this is a hybrid species and the seed will not breed true. It is best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn and given artificial light. Alternatively sow the seed in a lightly shaded part of the warm greenhouse in late winter or in a cold greenhouse in April. Surface-sow the seed and do not allow the compost to become dry. Pot up the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a greenhouse for at least the first winter. Layering in late July. Takes 15 – 24 months. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, August in a frame. Difficult
Medicinal Uses:    Not yet known.

Other Uses: Rhododendron x praecox is very tolerant of trimming, plants can be grown as a hedge.

This reliable hybrid is suitable for almost any garden. It may even be used in an alpine garden due to its loose habit and low space and soil requirements. A nice effect can be achieved when put next to daffodils flowering at the same time.
Known Hazards: Although no specific mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where many members have poisonous leaves. The pollen of many if not all species of rhododendrons is also probably toxic, being said to cause intoxication when eaten in large quantities.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.hortipedia.com/wiki/Rhododendron_x_praecox
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rhododendron+x+praecox

Rhododendron mucronulatum

Botanical Name : Rhododendron mucronulatum
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Rhododendron
Species: R. mucronulatum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales

Synonyms:
*Rhododendron dauricum var. mucronulatum (Turcz.) Maxim.
*Rhododendron dauricum subsp. mucronulatum (Turcz.) Vorosch

Common Names: Korean rhododendron

Habitat : Rhododendron mucronulatum is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea and Siberia. It grows in thin woods and open country, especially on volcanic soils.

Description:
Rhododendron mucronulatum is a deciduous Shrub growing to 2.5 m (8ft 2in).
It is in flower from Apr to May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

These are deciduous shrubs, often with rather twisting-rambling branches. Autumn leaf colour is often very good in R. mucronulatum. The scales on their leaves and twigs (that can be seen with a good magnifying lens), reveal that they belong to the subgenus Rhododendron (or lepidopes). In comparison to their nearest relative, the semi-evergreen R. dauricum, the leaf-scales are not so dense (2 4 times their diameter apart) and the flowers are larger in this species. However, there is considerable variation in these characters within these two species, and they hybridize to form swarms of intermediate types in nature. The widely, funnel-shaped, flowers are typically rosy-purple in colour, but can be pink and even white. They open successively from clusters of buds at the end of the shoots before the leaves expand. While they can be killed by frosts below -5C, damaged flowers are soon replaced by the next ones to open. We place our plants where they are not too exposed to the night sky in order to protect the flowers from spring frosts.
Cultivation:
Succeeds in a most humus-rich lime-free soils except those of a dry arid nature or those that are heavy or clayey. Prefers a peaty or well-drained sandy loam. Succeeds in sun or shade, the warmer the climate the more shade a plant requires.   A pH between 4.5 and 5.5 is idea. Hardy to about -25°c. A very ornamental plant. Succeeds in a woodland though, because of its surface-rooting habit, it does not compete well with surface-rooting trees. Plants need to be kept well weeded, they dislike other plants growing over or into their root system, in particular they grow badly with ground cover plants, herbaceous plants and heathers. Plants form a root ball and are very tolerant of being transplanted, even when quite large, so long as the root ball is kept intact. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn and given artificial light. Alternatively sow the seed in a lightly shaded part of the warm greenhouse in late winter or in a cold greenhouse in April. Surface-sow the seed and do not allow the compost to become dry. Pot up the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a greenhouse for at least the first winter. Layering in late July. Takes 15 – 24 months. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, August in a frame. Difficult

Edible Uses: ….Flower petals – raw. Some caution is advised, see the notes below on toxicity.

Medicinal Uses: Not yet Known.
Known Hazards: Although no specific mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where many members have poisonous leaves. The pollen of many if not all species of rhododendrons is also probably toxic, being said to cause intoxication when eaten in large quantities.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhododendron_mucronulatum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rhododendron+mucronulatum

Rhododendron luteum

Botanical Name : Rhododendron luteum
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Rhododendron
Subgenus:Pentanthera
Section:Pentanthera
Species:R. luteum
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Ericales

Synonyms: Azalea pontica, Rhododendron flavum

Common Names: Yellow Azalea or Honeysuckle Azalea

Habitat :Rhododendron luteum is native to Europe – Austria and Poland to Turkey. Occasionally naturalized in Britain. It grows on the mountain meadows, sometimes on limestone, beech and open coniferous forests, to 2200 metres. Grows from sea-level to the sub-alpine zone.

Description:
Rhododendron luteum is a deciduous Shrub growing to 3 m tall, rarely 4 m. The leaves are 5-10 cm long and 2-4 cm broad. The flowers are 3-4 cm diameter, bright yellow, and strongly perfumed, produced in trusses of 5-25 together. The fruit is a dry capsule 15-25 mm long, containing numerous small seeds.
CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES

It is in flower in May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.
Cultivation:
Succeeds in a most humus-rich lime-free soils except those of a dry arid nature or those that are heavy or clayey. Prefers a peaty or well-drained sandy loam. Succeeds in sun or shade, the warmer the climate the more shade a plant requires. A pH between 4.5 and 5.5 is ideal. Hardy to about -30°c. A very ornamental plant, the flowers are sweetly scented with a honey-like fragrance. Plants self-sow freely when in a suitable position. Succeeds in a woodland though, because of its surface-rooting habit, it does not compete well with surface-rooting trees. Plants need to be kept well weeded, they dislike other plants growing over or into their root system, in particular they grow badly with ground cover plants, herbaceous plants and heathers. Plants form a root ball and are very tolerant of being transplanted, even when quite large, so long as the root ball is kept intact. Plants are tolerant of drought when they are grown under trees. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn and given artificial light. Alternatively sow the seed in a lightly shaded part of the warm greenhouse in late winter or in a cold greenhouse in April. Surface-sow the seed and do not allow the compost to become dry. Pot up the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a greenhouse for at least the first winter. Layering in late July. Takes 15 – 24 months. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, August in a frame. Difficult.

Medicinal Uses: Not yet know

Other Uses: Plants are being grown as a medium-sized hedge at Wisley, RHS gardens in Surrey. Commonly used as a rootstock for many of the ornamental cultivars of azaleas.The flower has sweet perfume.

Cultural references:
The plant is depicted instead of the crown above the coat of arms of the Local Community of Boštanj. It has been chosen because the area is one of the rare growing places of Rhododendron luteum in Slovenia. The coat of arms was created in 1998 by the artist Rudi Stopar.
Known Hazards: Despite the sweet perfume of the flowers, the nectar is toxic, containing grayanotoxin; records of poisoning of people eating the honey date back to the 4th century BC in Classical Greece.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhododendron_luteum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rhododendron+luteum