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Ankle Sprain

Defination:
A sprained ankle is an injury that occurs when you roll, twist or turn your ankle in an awkward way. This can stretch or tear the tough bands of tissue (ligaments) that help hold your ankle bones together.

Ligaments help stabilize joints, preventing excessive movement. A sprained ankle occurs when the ligaments are forced beyond their normal range of motion. Most sprained ankles involve injuries to the ligaments on the outer side of the ankle.

Most people have twisted an ankle at some point in their life. But if your ankle gets swollen and painful after you twist it, you have most likely sprained it. This means you have stretched and possibly torn the ligaments in your ankle.

Ankle sprains are classified as grade 1, 2, and 3. Depending on the amount of damage or the number of ligaments that are damaged, each sprain is classified from mild to severe. A grade 1 sprain is defined as mild damage to a ligament or ligaments without instability of the affected joint. A grade 2 sprain is considered a partial tear to the ligament, in which it is stretched to the point that it becomes loose. (click to see)A grade 3 (click to see)sprain is a complete tear of a ligament, causing instability in the affected joint. Bruising may occur around the ankle.

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Inversion(lateral) ankle sprain:  click to see
The most common type of ankle sprain occurs when the foot is inverted too much, affecting the lateral side of the foot. When this type of ankle sprain happens, the outer, or lateral, ligaments are stretched too much. The anterior talofibular ligament is one of the most commonly involved ligaments in this type of sprain. Approximately 70-85% of ankle sprains are inversion injuries.

When the ankle becomes inverted, the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments are damaged. This is the most common ankle sprain.

Eversion (medial) ankle sprain:
A less common type of ankle sprain is called an eversion injury, affecting the medial side of the foot. When this occurs, the medial, or deltoid, ligament is stretched too much.

High ankle sprain:
A high ankle sprain is an injury to the large ligaments above the ankle that join together the two long bones of the lower leg, called the tibia and fibula. High ankle sprains commonly occur from a sudden and forceful outward twisting of the foot, which commonly occurs in contact and cutting sports such as football, rugby, ice hockey, roller derby, basketball, volleyball, lacrosse, softball, baseball, track, ultimate frisbee, gridiron, tennis and badminton and horse riding.

Symptoms:
The most common symptoms are :-

!.Pain, especially when you bear weight on the affected foot

2.Swelling and, sometimes, bruising

3.Restricted range of motion

Some people hear or feel a “pop” at the time of injury.

Causes:
Movements – especially twisting, turning, and rolling of the foot – are the primary cause of an ankle sprain.

The risk of a sprain is greatest during activities that involve explosive side-to-side motion, such as badminton, tennis or basketball. Sprained ankles can also occur during normal daily activities such as stepping off a curb or slipping on ice. Returning to activity before the ligaments have fully healed may cause them to heal in a stretched position, resulting in less stability at the ankle joint. This can lead to a condition known as Chronic Ankle Instability (CAI), and an increased risk of ankle sprains.

The following factors can contribute to an increased risk of ankle sprains:
Weak muscles/tendons that cross the ankle joint, especially the muscles of the lower leg that cross the outside, or lateral aspect of the ankle joint (i.e. peroneal or fibular muscles);

1.Weak or lax ligaments that join together the bones of the ankle joint – this can be hereditary or due to overstretching of ligaments as a result of repetitive ankle sprains;

2.Poor ankle flexibility;

3.Lack of warm-up and/or stretching before activity;

4.Inadequate joint proprioception (i.e. sense of joint position);

5.Slow neuron muscular response to an off-balance position;

6.Running on uneven surfaces;

6.Shoes with inadequate heel support; and

7.Wearing high-heeled shoes – due to the weak position of the ankle joint with an elevated heel, and a small base of support.

Ankle sprains occur usually through excessive stress on the ligaments of the ankle. This is can be caused by excessive external rotation, inversion or eversion of the foot caused by an external force. When the foot is moved past its range of motion, the excess stress puts a strain on the ligaments. If the strain is great enough to the ligaments past the yield point, then the ligament becomes damaged, or sprained

Diagnosis:
Your doctor will ask you how the injury occurred and if you have hurt your ankle before. He or she will check your foot and ankle, your lower leg, and even your knee to see if you are hurt anywhere else.

If the sprain is mild, your doctor may not order X-rays. But with more severe sprains, you may need X-rays to rule out a broken bone in the ankle or the foot. It is possible to break a bone in your foot or ankle at the same time as a sprain.

In most cases, doctors order X-rays in children with symptoms of an ankle sprain. This is because it is important to find and treat any damage to the growth plates in bones that support the ankle.

Treatment:
In many cases you can first use the PRINCE approach to treat your ankle:

1.Protection. Use a protective brace, such a brace with a built-in air cushion or another form of ankle support.

2.Rest. You may need to use crutches until you can walk without pain.

3.Ice. For at least the first 24 to 72 hours or until the swelling goes down, apply an ice pack for 10 to 20 minutes every hour or two during the day. Always keep a thin cloth between the ice and your skin, and press the ice pack firmly against all the curves of the affected area.

4.NSAIDs or acetaminophen. NSAIDs (such as Advil and Motrin) are medicines that reduce swelling and pain. Acetaminophen (such as Tylenol) reduces pain.

5.Compression. An elastic compression wrap, such as an ACE bandage, will help reduce swelling. You wear it for the first 24 to 36 hours. Compression wraps do not offer protection. So you also need a brace to protect your ankle if you try to put weight on it.

6.Elevation. Raise your ankle above the level of your heart for 2 to 3 hours a day if possible. This helps to reduce swelling and bruising.

Proper treatment and rehabilitation (rehab) exercises are very important for ankle sprains. If an ankle sprain does not heal right, the joint may become unstable and may develop chronic pain. This can make your ankle weak and more likely to be reinjured. Before you return to sports and other activities that put stress on your ankle, it’s a good idea to wait until you can hop on your ankle with no pain. Taping your ankle or wearing a brace during exercise can help protect your ankle. Wearing hiking boots or other high-top, lace-up shoes for support may also help. But use caution. Don’t force your foot into a boot if you feel a lot of pain or discomfort.

If your ankle is still unstable after rehab, or if the ligament damage is severe, your doctor may recommend surgery to repair the torn ligaments.

Rehabilitation:
Rehab exercises can begin soon after the injury. You can try to walk or put weight on your foot while using crutches if it doesn’t hurt too much. Depending on your pain, you can also begin range-of-motion exercises pop out while you have ice on your ankle. These exercises are easy to do-you just trace the alphabet with your toe. This helps the ankle move in all directions.

Ask your doctor about other rehab. Stretching, strength training, and balance exercises may help the ankle heal totally and may prevent further injury.

Prevention:
Take the following steps to help prevent a sprained ankle:

1.Warm up before you exercise or play sports.

2.Be careful when walking, running or working on an uneven surface.

3.Wear shoes that fit well and are made for your activity.

4.Don’t wear high-heeled shoes.

5.Don’t play sports or participate in activities for which you are not conditioned.

6.Maintain good muscle strength and flexibility.

7.Practice stability training, including balance exercises.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sprained_ankle
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sprained-ankle/DS01014/DSECTION=symptoms
http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/ankle-sprain-overview

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Burns and Scalds

Scalding caused by a radiator explosion. Pictu...Image via Wikipedia

Definition:
Burns are injuries to tissues caused by heat, friction, electricity, radiation, or chemicals. Scalds are a type of burn caused by a hot liquid or steam....CLICK & SEE
Description:
Burns are classified according to how seriously tissue has been damaged. The following system is used:

* A first degree burn causes redness and swelling in the outermost layers of the skin.
* A second degree burn involves redness, swelling, and blistering. The damage may extend to deeper layers of the skin.
* A third degree burn destroys the entire depth of the skin. It can also damage fat, muscle, organs, or bone beneath the skin. Significant scarring is common, and death can occur in the most severe cases.

The severity of a burn is also judged by how much area it covers. Health workers express this factor in a unit known as body surface area (BSA). For example, a person with burns on one arm and hand is said to have about a 10 percent BSA burn. A burn covering one leg and foot is classified as about a 20 percent BSA burn.


Causes :

Burns may be caused in a variety of ways. In every case, the burn results from the death of skin tissue and, in some cases, underlying tissue. Burns caused by hot objects result from the death of cells caused by heat. In many cases, contact with a very hot object can damage tissue extensively. The contact may last for no more than a second or so, but the damage still occurs.

In other cases, cells are killed by heat produced by some physical event. For example, a rope burn is caused by friction between the rope and a person’s body. The rope itself is not hot, but the heat produced by friction is sufficient to cause a burn.

Chemicals can also cause burns. The chemicals attack and destroy cells in skin tissue. They produce an effect very similar to that of a heat burn.

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Symptoms:
The major signs of a burn are redness, swelling, and pain in the affected area. A severe burn will also blister. The skin may also peel, appear white or charred (blackened), or feel numb. A burn may also trigger a headache and fever. The most serious burns may cause shock. The symptoms of shock include faintness, weakness, rapid pulse and breathing, pale and clammy skin, and bluish lips and fingernails.
Burns and Scalds: Words to Know

Burns and Scalds: Words to Know

BSA:
A unit used in the treatment of burns to express the amount of the total body surface area covered by the burn.
Debridement:
The surgical removal of dead skin.
Scald:
A burn caused by a hot liquid or steam.
Shock:
A life-threatening condition that results from low blood volume due to loss of blood or other fluids.
Skin graft:
A surgical procedure in which dead skin is removed and replaced by healthy skin, usually taken from the patient’s own body.
Thermal burns:
Burns caused by hot objects.

Diagnosis:

Most burn cases are easily diagnosed. Patients know that they have touched a hot object, spilled a chemical on themselves, or been hit by steam. Doctors can confirm that a burn has occurred by conducting a physical examination.
Treatment:
The form of treatment used for a burn depends on how serious it is. Minor burns can usually be treated at home or in a doctor’s office. A minor burn is defined as a first or second degree burn that covers less than 15 percent of an adult’s body or 10 percent of a child’s body.

Moderate burns should be treated in a hospital. Moderate burns are first or second degree burns that cover more of a patient’s body or a third degree burn that covers less than 10 percent of BSA.

The most severe burns should be treated in special burn-treatment facilities. These burns are third degree burns that cover more than 10 percent of BSA. Specialized equipment and methods are used to treat these burns.

Thermal Burn Treatment:
Thermal burns are burns caused by heat, hot liquids, steam, fire, or other hot objects. The first objective in treating thermal burns is to cool the burned area. Cool water, but not very cold water or ice, should be used for the cooling process. Minor burns can also be cleaned with soap and water.

A burn victim receiving debridement treatment, or removal of dead skin, for severe burns.

Blisters should not be broken. If the skin is broken, the burned area should be covered with an antibacterial ointment and covered with a bandage to prevent infection. Aspirin, acetaminophen (pronounced uh-see-tuh-MIN-uh-fuhn, trade name Tylenol), or ibuprofen (pronounced i-byoo-PRO-fuhn, trade names Advil, Motrin) can be used to ease pain and relieve inflammation. However, children should not take aspirin due to the risk of contracting Reye’s syndrome (see Reye’s syndrome entry). If signs of infection appear, the patient should see a doctor.

More serious burns may require another approach. A burn may be so severe that it causes life-threatening symptoms. The patient may stop breathing or go into shock. In such cases, the first goal of treatment is to save the patient’s life, not treat the burns. The patient may require mouth-to-mouth resuscitation or artificial respiration.

There are three classifications of burns based on how deeply the skin has been damaged: first degree, second degree, and third degree.

Specialized treatment for severe burn cases may also include:

* Installation of a breathing tube if the patient’s airways or lungs have been damaged
* Administration of fluids through an intravenous tube
* Immunization with tetanus vaccine to prevent infection
* Covering the burned area with antibiotic ointments and bandages
* Debridement, or removal of dead tissue
* Removal of scars as healing occurs in order to improve blood flow
* Physical and occupational therapy to keep burn areas flexible and prevent scarring

Sometimes skin tissue is damaged so badly that it cannot heal properly. In that case, a skin graft may be required. In a skin graft, a doctor removes a section of healthy skin from an area of the patient’s body that has not been burned. The tissue scarred by the burn is also removed. The healthy tissue is then put into place where the damaged tissue was removed. Over a period of time, the healthy tissue begins to grow and replace the damaged tissue.

Chemical Burn Treatment:
The first step in treating a chemical burn is to remove the material causing the burn. If the material is a dry powder, it can be brushed off. If the material is a liquid, it can be flushed away with water. If the chemical that caused the burn is known, it may be neutralized with some other chemical. For example, if the burn is caused by an acid, a weak base can be used to neutralize the acid. The burned area can then be covered with a clean gauze and, if necessary, treated further by a doctor.
Electrical Burn Treatment

As with severe thermal burns, the first step in treating electrical burns usually involves saving the patient’s life. An electrical charge large enough to burn the skin may also produce life-threatening symptoms. The source of electricity must be removed and life support treatment provided to the patient. When the patient’s condition is stable, the burn can be covered with a clean gauze and medical treatment sought.

Alternative Treatment:
Serious burns should always be treated by a modern medical doctor. Less serious burns may benefit from a variety of alternative treatments. Some herbs that can be used to treat burns include aloe, oil of St. John’s wort, calendula (pronounced KUH-len-juh-luh), comfrey, and tea tree oil. Supplementing one’s diet with vitamins C and E and the mineral zinc may help a wound to heal faster.

Prognosis:
The prognosis for burns depends on many factors. These factors include the degree of the burn, the amount of skin affected by the burn, what parts of the body were affected, and any additional complications that might have developed.

In general, minor burns heal in five to ten days with few or no complications or scarring. Moderate burns heal in ten to fourteen days and may leave scarring. Major burns take more than fourteen days to heal and can leave significant scarring or, in the most severe cases, can be fatal.

Prevention:
Most thermal burns are caused by fires in the home. Every family member should be aware of basic safety rules that can reduce the risk of such fires. The single most important safety device is a smoke detector. The installation of smoke detectors throughout a house can greatly reduce the chance that injuries will result if a fire breaks out. Children should also be taught not to play with matches, lighters, fireworks, gasoline, cleaning fluids, or other materials that could burn them.

Burns from scalding water can be prevented by monitoring the temperature in the home hot water heater. That temperature should never be set higher than about 120°F (49°C). Taking care when working in the kitchen can also prevent scalds. For instance, be cautious when removing the tops from pans of hot foods and when uncovering foods heated in a microwave oven.

Sunburns can be prevented by limiting the time spent in the sun each day. The use of sunscreens can also reduce exposure to the ultraviolet radiation that causes sunburns.

Electrical burns can be prevented by covering unused electrical outlets with safety plugs. Electrical cords should also be kept out of the reach of infants who may chew on them. People should seek shelter indoors during thunderstorms in order to avoid being struck by lightning or coming in contact with fallen electrical wires.

Chemical burns may be prevented by wearing protective clothing, including gloves and eyeshields. Individuals should also be familiar with the chemicals they handle and know which ones are likely to pose a risk for burns.

For More Information:

Books
Munster, Andrew M., and Glorya Hale. Severe Burns: A Family Guide to Medical and Emotional Recovery. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.
Organizations

American Burn Association. 625 North Michigan Avenue, Suite 1530, Chicago, IL 60611. http://www.ameriburn.org.

Shriners Hospitals for Children. 2900 Rocky Point Drive, Tampa, FL 33607–1435. (813) 281–0300. http://www.shriners.org.
Web sites

“Cool the Burn: A Site for Children Touched by a Burn.” [Online] http://www.cooltheburn.com (accessed on October 11, 1999).

You may also click to learn more about Burns & Scalda:->..(1)……..(2)…...(3)…..(4)…….(5)

Sources: http://www.faqs.org/health/Sick-V1/Burns-and-Scalds.html

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Bowen’s Disease

Definition:
Bowen’s disease (BD) is a sunlight-induced skin disease, considered either as an early stage or intraepidermal form of squamous cell carcinoma. It was named after Dr John T. Bowen, the doctor who first described it in 1912.

CLICK & SEE

Bowen’s disease is also called squamous cell carcinoma in situ (SCC in situ), is a form of skin cancer. The term “in situ” added on the end tells us that this is a surface form of skin cancer. “Invasive” squamous cell carcinomas are the type that grow inward and may spread. SCC in situ is also known as Bowen’s disease after the doctor who first described it almost 100 years ago.

Causes
Causes of BD include solar damage, arsenic, immunosuppression (including AIDS), viral infection (human papillomavirus or HPV) and chronic skin injury and dermatoses.

Like other forms of skin cancer, SCC in situ is mainly caused by chronic sun exposure and aging. There are two other less important causes which are unique to SCC in situ. The wart virus that causes cervical cancer (HPV 16) is often found to be infecting SCC in situ. It is thought that infection with this virus is one of the reasons why two people may have the same amount of sun damage, but only one keeps getting skin cancers. The other factor that causes SCC in situ is arsenic, the same poison made famous by the play “Arsenic and Old Lace” and the Russian villain Rasputin. Arsenic contaminated some old water wells, and also many years ago was used in some medical elixirs. People with mild Arsenic poisoning didn’t die, but tend to develop cancers, both of the skin and internally. For a time it was thought that SCC in situ was a sign that cancer was going to develop internally, until it was discovered that was a false impression caused by arsenic poisoning.

Signs and symptoms:
Bowen’s disease typically presents as a gradually enlarging, well demarcated erythematous plaque with an irregular border and surface crusting or scaling. BD may occur at any age in adults but is rare before the age of 30 years – most patients are aged over 60. Any site may be affected, although involvement of palms or soles is uncommon. BD occurs predominantly in women (70-85% of cases); about three-quarters of patients have lesions on the lower leg (60-85%), usually in previously or presently sun-exposed areas of skin. A persistent progressive non-elevated red scaly or crusted plaque which is due to an intradermal carcinoma and is potentially malignant. Atypical squamous (resembling fish scales) cells proliferate through the whole thickness of the epidermis. The lesions may occur anywhere on the skin surface or on mucosal surfaces. The cause most frequently found is trivalent arsenic compounds. Freezing, cauterization or diathermy coagulation is often effective treatment.

SCC in situ is usually a red, scaly patch. It tends to be seen on areas frequently exposed to the sun. Some itch, crust or ooze, but most have no particular feeling. SCC in situ may be mistaken for rashes, eczema, fungus or psoriasis. Sometimes they are brown and look like a keratosis or a melanoma. Because of this, a biopsy must usually be done to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment:
Photodynamic therapy (PDT), Cryotherapy (freezing) or local chemotherapy (with 5-fluorouracil) are favored by some clinicians over excision. Because the cells of Bowen’s disease have not invaded the dermis, it has a much better prognosis than invasive squamous cell carcinoma.

The simplest and most common treatment for smaller SCC in situ is surgical excision. The standard practice is to remove about a quarter inch beyond the edge of the cancer. Larger ones can also be excised, but Mohs surgery may be needed. It offers the highest cure rate of all treatment methods.

For those not up to surgery, there are some choices. SCC in situ can be burned off by several methods. These are “curettage and electrodessication”, liquid nitrogen cryotherapy and laser destruction. These heal with similar scars.

X-ray or grenz ray radiation can be given to poor surgical candidates or patients with multiple sites. This is very expensive and requires multiple visits to the hospital. Efudex Cream applied for 1 to 3 months will often work, but leaves an uncomfortable raw area during that time. Aldara cream can also be used to treat Bowen’s, with a two to three month treatment period required.

The latest treatment approved by the FDA but not yet in common use, is photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT is an alternative way to “burn off” SCC in situ using a drug that is absorbed only by cancer cells. A bright light is then applies causing the release of toxins and destruction of the tumor.

If you have had an SCC in situ, you have a higher risk of other skin cancers. For this reason, you will need a regular skin exam by a dermatologist. Untreated, SCC in situ grows larger over time and may spread out to be several inches. 5% of SCC in situ will eventually develop into invasive squamous cell carcinoma if not treated.

The dermatologist based on his experience, expertise and analysis of your personal situation is the one best equipped to decide your personal treatment plan.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://www.aocd.org/skin/dermatologic_diseases/bowens_disease.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bowen%27s_disease

Hearing Loss

 

 

Introduction:
The gradual hearing loss that occurs as you age (presbycusis) is a common condition. An estimated one-quarter of Americans between the ages of 65 and 75 and around three-quarters of those older than 75 have some degree of hearing loss.

click & see

Over time, the wear and tear on your ears from noise contributes to hearing loss by damaging your inner ear. Doctors believe that heredity and chronic exposure to loud noises are the main factors that contribute to hearing loss. Other factors, such as earwax blockage, can prevent your ears from conducting sounds as well as they should.

You can’t reverse hearing loss. However, you don’t have to live in a world of quieter, less distinct sounds. You and your doctor or hearing specialist can deal with hearing loss by taking steps to improve what you hear.

Signs and symptoms
Signs and symptoms of hearing loss may include:

*Muffled quality of speech and other sounds
*Difficulty understanding words, especially against background noise or in a crowd of people
*Asking others to speak more slowly, clearly and loudly
*Needing to turn up the volume of the television or radio
*Withdrawal from conversations
*Avoidance of some social settings
How you hear:….click & see
Hearing occurs when sound waves reach the structures inside your ear, where the sound wave vibrations are converted into nerve signals that your brain recognizes as sound.

Your ear consists of three major areas: the outer ear, middle ear and inner ear. Sound waves pass through the outer ear and cause vibrations at the eardrum. The eardrum and three small bones of the middle ear  the hammer, anvil and stirrup   amplify the vibrations as they travel to the inner ear. There, the vibrations pass through fluid in the cochlea, a snail-shaped structure in the inner ear. Attached to nerve cells in the cochlea are thousands of tiny hairs that help translate sound vibrations into electrical signals that are transmitted to your brain. The vibrations of different sounds affect these tiny hairs in different ways, causing the nerve cells to send different signals to your brain. That’s how you distinguish one sound from another.

What causes hearing loss……....click & see
For some people, the cause of hearing loss is the result of a gradual buildup of earwax, which blocks the ear canal and prevents conduction of sound waves. Earwax blockage is a cause of hearing loss among people of all ages.

Most hearing loss results from damage to the cochlea. Tiny hairs in the cochlea may break or become bent, and nerve cells may degenerate. When the nerve cells or the hairs are damaged or missing, electrical signals aren’t transmitted as efficiently, and hearing loss occurs. Higher pitched tones may become muffled to you. It may become difficult for you to pick out words against background noise.

Ear infection and abnormal bone growths or tumors of the outer or middle ear can cause hearing loss. A ruptured eardrum also may result in loss of hearing.

Risk factors:
Factors that may damage or lead to loss of the hairs and nerve cells in your inner ear include:

Aging. The normal wear and tear from sounds over the years can damage the cells of your inner ear.

Loud noises. Occupational noise, such as from farming, construction or factory work, and recreational noise, such as from shooting firearms, snowmobiling, motorcycling, or listening to loud music, can contribute to the damage inside your ear.

Heredity. Your genetic makeup may make you more susceptible to ear damage.

Some medications. Drugs such as the antibiotic gentamicin and certain chemotherapy drugs can damage the inner ear. Temporary effects on your hearing — ringing in the ear (tinnitus) or hearing loss — can occur if you take very high doses of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antimalarial drugs or loop diuretics.

Some illnesses. Diseases or illnesses that result in high fever, such as meningitis, may damage the cochlea.

Comparing loudness of common sounds
What kind of decibel levels are you exposed to during a typical workday? To give you an idea, compare noises around you to these specific sounds and their corresponding decibel levels:

  • drugs can damage the inner ear. Temporary effects on your hearing — ringing in the ear (tinnitus) or hearing loss — can occur if you take very high doses of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antimalarial drugs or loop diuretics.
  • Some illnesses. Diseases or illnesses that result in high fever, such as meningitis, may damage the cochlea.

Comparing loudness of common sounds
What kind of decibel levels are you exposed to during a typical workday? To give you an idea, compare noises around you to these specific sounds and their corresponding decibel levels:


Sound levels of common noises
30 Whisper
60 Normal conversation
80 Heavy traffic, garbage disposal
85 to 90 Motorcycle, snowmobile, lawn mower
90 Belt sander, tractor
95 to 105 Hand drill, bulldozer, impact wrench
110 Chain saw, jack hammer
120 Ambulance siren
140 (pain threshold) Jet engine at takeoff
165 Shotgun blast
180 Rocket launch

Maximum sound exposure durations
Below are the maximum noise levels on the job to which you should be exposed without hearing protection — and for how long.

Maximum job-noise exposure allowed by law
90 8 hours
95 4 hours
100 2 hours
105 1 hour
115 15 minutes

When to seek medical advice:
Talk to your doctor if you have difficulty hearing. Your hearing may have deteriorated if you find that it’s harder to understand everything that’s said in conversation, especially when there’s background noise, if sounds seem muffled, or if you find yourself having to turn the volume higher when you listen to music, the radio or television.

Screening and diagnosis:
At first, your doctor may perform a general screening test to get an overall idea of how well you can hear. Your doctor may ask you to cover one ear at a time to see how well you hear words spoken at various volumes and how you respond to other sounds.

To determine your ability to hear and the extent of your hearing loss, your doctor may refer you to a hearing specialist (audiologist) for hearing tests.

During more thorough testing conducted by an audiologist, you wear earphones and hear sounds directed to one ear at a time. The audiologist presents a range of sounds of various tones and asks you to indicate each time you hear the sound. Each tone is repeated at faint levels to find out when you can barely hear. The audiologist will also present various words to determine your hearing ability.

Treatment:
Hearing loss treatment depends on the cause and severity of your hearing loss.

If your hearing loss is due to damage to your inner ear, a hearing aid can be helpful by making sounds stronger and easier for you to hear. If you can’t hear well because of earwax blockage, your doctor can remove the wax and improve your hearing. If you have severe hearing loss, a cochlear implant may be an option for you.

Removing wax blockage……...click & see
Earwax blockage is a common reversible cause of hearing loss. Your doctor may remove earwax by:

*Loosening the wax. Your doctor uses an eyedropper to place a few drops of baby oil, mineral oil or glycerin in your ear to loosen the wax, then squirts warm water into your ear using a bulb syringe. As you tilt your ear, the water drains out. Your doctor may need to repeat the process several times before the wax eventually falls out.

*Scooping out the wax. Your doctor may loosen the wax, and then scoop it out with a small instrument called a curette.

*Suctioning out the wax. Your doctor uses a suction deviceto remove the softened wax.

Hearing Aids:

An audiologist can discuss with you the potential benefits of using a hearing aid, recommend a device and fit you with it.

Hearing aids can’t help everyone with hearing loss, but they can improve hearing for many people. The components of a hearing aid include:

*A microphone to gather in the sounds around you
*An amplifier to make sounds louder
*An earpiece to transmit sounds to your ear
*A battery to power the device
The louder sounds help stimulate nerve cells in the cochlea so that you can hear better. Getting used to a hearing aid takes time. The sound you hear is different because it’s amplified. You may need to try more than one device to find one that works well for you. Most states have laws requiring a trial period before you buy a hearing aid, making it easier for you to decide if the hearing aid helps.

Hearing aids come in a variety of sizes, shapes and styles. Some hearing aids rest behind your ear with a small tube delivering the amplified sound to the ear canal. Other styles fit in your outer ear or within your ear canal.

Cochlear implants
If your hearing loss is more severe, often due to damage to your inner ear, an electronic device called a cochlear implant may be an option. Unlike a hearing aid that amplifies sound and directs it into your ear canal, a cochlear implant compensates for damaged or nonworking parts of your inner ear. If you’re considering a cochlear implant, your audiologist, along with a medical doctor who specializes in disorders of the ears, nose and throat (ENT), will likely discuss the risks and benefits with you

The components of a hearing aid are held in a small plastic container called the casing. All hearing aids use these common parts to help conduct sound from your environment into your ear. But different styles and different technologies make for many different types of hearing aids from which to choose.

Hearing aid styles vary by size. Though smaller styles may be less noticeable, they’re generally more expensive and have a shorter battery life. An audiologist can show you the various styles of hearing aids to help you decide which is best for you.

A microphone (1) picks up sounds. The sounds travel through a thin cable to a speech processor (2). You can wear the processor on a belt, in a pocket, or behind the ear. The processor converts the signal into an electrical code and sends the code back up the cable to the transmitter (3) fastened to your head. The transmitter sends the code through your skin to a receiver-stimulator (4 and 5) implanted in bone directly beneath the transmitter. The stimulator sends the code down a tiny bundle of wires threaded directly into your cochlea, the snail-shaped primary hearing organ. Nerve fibers are activated by electrode bands on this bundle of wires. Your auditory nerve carries the signal to your brain, which interprets the signal as a form of hearing.

Newer cochlear implants use an externally worn computerized speech processor that you can conceal behind your ear. The speech processor sends signals to a surgically implanted electronic chip that stimulates the hearing nerve of deaf people.

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causes of hearing loss

Hearing loss prevention consists of steps you can take to help you prevent noise-induced hearing loss and avoid worsening of age-related hearing loss:

  • Protect your ears in the workplace. Specially designed earmuffs that resemble earphones can protect your ears by bringing most loud sounds down to an acceptable level. Foam, pre-formed, or custom-molded earplugs made of plastic or rubber also can effectively protect your ears from damaging noise.
  • Have your hearing tested. Consider regular hearing tests if you work in a noisy environment. Regular testing of your ears can provide early detection of hearing loss. Knowing you’ve lost some hearing means you’re in a position to take steps to prevent further hearing loss.
  • Avoid recreational risks. Activities such as riding a snowmobile, hunting, and listening to extremely loud music for long periods of time can damage your ears. Wearing hearing protectors or taking breaks from the noise during loud recreational activities can protect your ears. Turning down the volume when listening to music can help you avoid damage to your hearing.

Coping skills

Try these tips to communicate more easily despite your hearing loss:

  • Position yourself to hear. Face the person with whom you’re having a conversation.
  • Turn off background noise. For example, noise from a television may interfere with conversation.
  • Ask others to speak clearly. Most people will be helpful if they know you’re having trouble hearing them.
  • Choose quiet settings. In public, such as in a restaurant or at a social gathering, choose a place to talk that’s away from noisy areas.
  • Consider using an assistive listening device. Hearing devices, such as TV-listening systems or telephone-amplifying devices, can help you hear better while decreasing other noises around you.

Click for Information from NIH about Hearing Loss

Hearing Loss Association Of America

Information abour Hearing Loss & Hearing Aids

What is Hearing Loss

Hearing impairment

Chinese herbs for improving hearing loss due to natural aging, ear …

How to Improve Hearing With Ear Candles

Conductive hearing loss can be treated with alternative therapies that are specific to the particular condition.

Hearing Loss: Alternative treatment

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hearing-loss/DS00172

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How to Choose Pain Medication

Not every pain killer is created equal. Find out the differences between common over-the-counter medications and discover what’s really in your medicine cabinet.

Two Groups of Pain Medications are there:
Over-the-counter medications fall into one of two groups. The first are known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This group includes aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and ketoprofen. Ibuprofen goes by the brand names Advil and Motrin. Naproxen is better known as Aleve. Ketoprofen is sold as Orudis. These drugs work by preventing your body from producing chemicals that cause fever and swelling. Doctors recommend them for minor to moderate discomfort due to headaches and muscle aches, colds and the flu, menstrual pain, arthritis, and toothaches.

The other category includes just one drug: acetaminophen. It’s also known as Tylenol. No one is sure exactly how it works. One theory is that it keeps the brain’s pain centers from receiving nerve signals. It’s good for fever and mild to moderate pain from headaches, including tension headaches and migraines, as well as back pain, sore throat, arthritis, and shingles. The main difference between acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is that acetaminophen does not reduce inflammation. That means it won’t help with aches caused by swelling due to sports injuries, for example.


Some Warnings Regarding Pain Medication:

In general, each one of these drugs is safe for most people when taken as directed. There are some exceptions. Don’t give aspirin to children or teenagers because it can cause Reye’s syndrome, a rare life threatening condition. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs shouldn’t be taken by people who have ulcers or take blood thinning drugs, or by pregnant women. Acetaminophen is usually okay for pregnant women looking for short-term pain relief. In addition, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs shouldn’t be given to children under 12 without first consulting a doctor. While acetaminophen is considered to be safe for children, pay close attention to dosage. Acetaminophen overdose is a common cause of drug-related deaths in children and adolescents.

Choose a Pain Medication:
So with all these choices, how should you decide which over-the-counter pain medication is best for you? It partly depends on your symptoms. They all help with pain and fever, but since acetaminophen doesn’t work for inflammation, you’ll need to use one of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce swelling. Because people respond in different ways to each of these drugs, most doctors suggest that you stick with the one that has worked for you in the past. That increases the chances that the drug will be effective and lowers the odds that you will suffer any side effects.

So do you need a cabinet full of over-the-counter pain medications?
Not really. You’re probably better off with just the one or two that work best for you. And if you’ve inadvertently collected more than a couple different kinds, some of them have probably expired anyway. So it may be worth checking to see what you’ve got. And what you can toss out.

Natural and Ayurvedic Pain relief Medication is most of the time hermless and can be safely used even without consulting any one.The main advantage is that they have no side effect.

Herbal Pain Relief

Drug Free Pain Relief

Natural Pain Relief Medication

Finding Hope for Chronic Pain Relief

Homeopathic Pain Relief

Help taken from:video.about.com