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Crataegus coccinoides

Botanical Name: Crataegus coccinoides
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Crataegus
Series: Diltatae
Kingdom:Plaantae
Order: Rosales

Common Names;Kansas hawthorn, Red hawthorn and Large-flowered cockspurthorn.

Habitat: Crataegus coccinoides is native to Central N. America – Illinois and Missouri to Kansas, Oklahoma and Arkansas. Uncommon in Oklahoma.It grows in the dry uplands on limestone hills.

Description:
Crataegus coccinoides is a spiny large deciduous shrub or a small tree, to 4.6 m (15 ft) in height and 10 cm (4 in) in diameter. Crown broad and rounded with spreading branches. Bark dark brown and scaly. Twigs lustrous brown, glabrous; with many spines up to 5 cm (2 in) in length. Leaves alternate,simple, broadly ovate, 6-7.5 cm (2.4-3 in) long and 5-6 cm (2-2.4 in) wide, glabrous,dull dark green above, paler beneath, pubescent when young, glabrous with age, variable, either acute, rounded or narrow at base, acute at apex, serrate or doubly serrate with several shallow lobes above the middle, turning dull dark green above, paler beneath. Flowers in corymbs, glabrous, 4-7, 1.9 cm (0.75 in) wide, calyx-tube broadly obconic and glabrous; petals 5, white; styles 5; stamens 20, anthers rose colored; flowers appear in May. Fruits pomes, 2 cm (0.8 in) diameter, subglobose and terminally flattened, shiny dark red with many pale dots, pulp thick and juicy; seeds 5.

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It is in flower in May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Midges.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.
Cultivation:
A very easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained moisture retentive loamy soil but is not at all fussy. Once established, it succeeds in excessively moist soils and also tolerates drought. It grows well on a chalk soil and also in heavy clay soils. A position in full sun is best when plants are being grown for their fruit, they also succeed in semi-shade though fruit yields and quality will be lower in such a position[11, 200]. Most members of this genus succeed in exposed positions, they also tolerate atmospheric pollution. Seedling trees take from 5 – 8 years before they start bearing fruit, though grafted trees will often flower heavily in their third year. The flowers have a foetid smell somewhat like decaying fish. This attracts midges which are the main means of fertilization. When freshly open, the flowers have more pleasant scent with balsamic undertones. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Seedlings should not be left in a seedbed for more than 2 years without being transplanted.
Propagation:
Seed – this is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, some of the seed will germinate in the spring, though most will probably take another year. Stored seed can be very slow and erratic to germinate, it should be warm stratified for 3 months at 15°c and then cold stratified for another 3 months at 4°c. It may still take another 18 months to germinate[78]. Scarifying the seed before stratifying it might reduce this time[80]. Fermenting the seed for a few days in its own pulp may also speed up the germination process. Another possibility is to harvest the seed ‘green’ (as soon as the embryo has fully developed but before the seedcoat hardens) and sow it immediately in a cold frame. If timed well, it can germinate in the spring. If you are only growing small quantities of plants, it is best to pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in individual pots for their first year, planting them out in late spring into nursery beds or their final positions. When growing larger quantities, it might be best to sow them directly outdoors in a seedbed, but with protection from mice and other seed-eating creatures. Grow them on in the seedbed until large enough to plant out, but undercut the roots if they are to be left undisturbed for more than two years
Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked. Firm and sub-acid. The fruit can be used in making pies, preserves, etc, and can also be dried for later use. The fruit is borne in small clusters and is up to 17mm in diameter. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed.
Medicinal Uses:
Cardiotonic; Hypotensive.

Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic[222]. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.

Other Uses:
Wood – heavy, hard, tough, close-grained. Useful for making tool handles, mallets and other small

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crataegus_coccinioides
http://www.biosurvey.ou.edu/shrub/crat-coc.htm
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Crataegus+coccinoides

Crataegus champlainensis

Botanical Name: Crataegus champlainensis
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Crataegus
Series: Molles
Species: C. submollis
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: Crataegus submollis, Northern downy hawthorn, Northern red haw, Quebec hawthorn, or Hairy cockspurthorn

Common Name : Quebec hawthorn

Habitat:Crataegus champlainensis is native to Northern N. America – Quebec to New York and Ontario. It grows in thickets, streambanks and hillsides. Limestone ridges.
Description:
Crataegus champlainensis is a deciduous Tree growing to 6 m (19ft 8in). It is not frost tender. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Midges.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution. CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
A very easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained moisture retentive loamy soil but is not at all fussy. Once established, it succeeds in excessively moist soils and also tolerates drought. It grows well on a chalk soil and also in heavy clay soils. A position in full sun is best when plants are being grown for their fruit, they also succeed in semi-shade though fruit yields and quality will be lower in such a position. Most members of this genus succeed in exposed positions, they also tolerate atmospheric pollution. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Seedling trees take from 5 – 8 years before they start bearing fruit, though grafted trees will often flower heavily in their third year. The flowers have a foetid smell somewhat like decaying fish. This attracts midges which are the main means of fertilization. When freshly open, the flowers have more pleasant scent with balsamic undertones. Seedlings should not be left in a seedbed for more than 2 years without being transplanted. Closely related to C. submollis, and included in that species by some botanists. This species is possibly no more than a part of C. rotundifolia.
Propagation:
Seed – this is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, some of the seed will germinate in the spring, though most will probably take another year. Stored seed can be very slow and erratic to germinate, it should be warm stratified for 3 months at 15°c and then cold stratified for another 3 months at 4°c. It may still take another 18 months to germinate. Scarifying the seed before stratifying it might reduce this time[80]. Fermenting the seed for a few days in its own pulp may also speed up the germination process. Another possibility is to harvest the seed ‘green’ (as soon as the embryo has fully developed but before the seedcoat hardens) and sow it immediately in a cold frame. If timed well, it can germinate in the spring. If you are only growing small quantities of plants, it is best to pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in individual pots for their first year, planting them out in late spring into nursery beds or their final positions. When growing larger quantities, it might be best to sow them directly outdoors in a seedbed, but with protection from mice and other seed-eating creatures. Grow them on in the seedbed until large enough to plant out, but undercut the roots if they are to be left undisturbed for more than two years.
Edible Uses:

Fruit – raw or cooked. A nice sweet flavour, the fruit is about 1.5cm in diameter. The fruit can be used in making pies, preserves, etc, and can also be dried for later use. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed.
Medicinal Uses:

Cardiotonic; Hypotensive.

Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.

Other Uses :
Wood – heavy, hard, tough, close-grained. Useful for making tool handles, mallets and other small items

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crataegus_submollis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Crataegus+champlainensis

Rhododendron lapponicum

Botanical Name : Rhododendron lapponicum
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Rhododendron
Species:R. lapponicum
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Ericales

Synonyms:
*Azalea lapponica L.
*Rhododendron confertissimum Nakai
*Rhododendron lapponicum subsp. parvifolium (Adams) T. Yamaz.
*Rhododendron palustre Turcz.
*Rhododendron parviflorum F. Schmidt
*Rhododendron parvifolium Adams
*Rhododendron parvifolium subsp. confertissimum (Nakai) A.P. Khokhr.

Common Names: Lapland rosebay

Habitat : Rhododendron lapponicum is native to N. Europe, N. Asia. Northern N. AmericaAlaska to Quebec. It grows on the rocky barrens and sub-alpine woods.It is found in subarctic regions around the world, where it grows at altitudes ranging from sea level to 1900 meters.

Description:
Rhododendron lapponicum is an evergreen perennial Shrub growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 1 m (3ft 3in).Leaves are thick, leathery, evergreen, and 1 to 1.5 cm long, growing to 30 cm in height they are leathery, evergreen, elliptic, and covered with many small scales, much longer than wide. Flowers few, 1.5 cm wide, bright purple, bell-shaped, developing at the end of the branches. Fruits are 5 mm wide.

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It is in flower from Apr to May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects
Cultivation:
Succeeds in a most humus-rich lime-free soils except those of a dry arid nature or those that are heavy or clayey[1]. Prefers a peaty or well-drained sandy loam. Succeeds in sun or shade, the warmer the climate the more shade a plant requires. A pH between 4.5 and 5.5 is ideal. Succeeds in a woodland though, because of its surface-rooting habit, it does not compete well with surface-rooting trees. Plants need to be kept well weeded, they dislike other plants growing over or into their root system, in particular they grow badly with ground cover plants, herbaceous plants and heathers[200]. Plants form a root ball and are very tolerant of being transplanted, even when quite large, so long as the root ball is kept intact. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn and given artificial light. Alternatively sow the seed in a lightly shaded part of the warm greenhouse in late winter or in a cold greenhouse in April. Surface-sow the seed and do not allow the compost to become dry[200]. Pot up the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a greenhouse for at least the first winter. Layering in late July. Takes 15 – 24 months[78]. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, August in a frame. Easy

Edible Uses:: A tea is made from the leaves and flower tips.

Medicinal Uses: Not yet known.

Known Hazards: Although no specific mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where many members have poisonous leaves. The pollen of many if not all species of rhododendrons is also probably toxic, being said to cause intoxication when eaten in large quantities.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rhododendron+lapponicum
http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/EndangeredResources/Plants.asp?mode=detail&SpecCode=PDERI150G0
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhododendron_lapponicum

Arabis hirsuta

Botanical Name : Arabis hirsuta
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Arabis
Species:A. hirsuta
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Common Names: Hairy rockcress, Mountain rockcress, Creamflower rockcress

Habitat : Arabis hirsuta is native to Most of Europe, including Britain, N. Africa and N. Asia to Japan. It grows on the chalk and limestone slopes, limestone rocks and walls, dunes and dry banks.

Description:
Arabis hirsuta is a binnial/perennial plant, growing to 0.6 m (2ft).
This erect, high hairy plant is usually unbranched, with a long spike of flowers. Lower leaves form a rosette, the stalkless upper-leaves clasp the stem. The white petals are twice as long as the sepals, flowers June–August. The fruits are cylindrical and pressed close to the stem and the slightly winged seeds are reddish brown. The hairs are stiff and forking,. The species grows on chalk slopes, dunes, hedgebanks, walls and rocks. ...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, lepidoptera, insects.
Cultivation: Easily grown in ordinary well-drained soil. Succeeds in dry soils and on walls.

Propagation:
Seed – it is best to surface sow the seed as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame. Seed can also be sown in spring. It usually germinates in 2 – 3 weeks at 21°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. Division after flowering. Very easy, the divisions can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required. Cuttings in a shady border in summer.

Edible Uses: ...Young leaves – cooked and eaten.

Medicinal Uses: Couldnot find anywhere.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabis_hirsuta
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Arabis+hirsuta

Sium latifolium

Botanical Name: Sium latifolium
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Sium
Species: S. latifolium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales

Synonym: Water Hemlock

Common Names: Great water-parsnip, Greater water-parsnip and Wideleaf waterparsnip

Habitat : Sium latifolium occurs in most of Europe, including Britain, excluding the northwest, Portugal, Greece and Turkey. It grows in fens and other wet places, often in water, avoiding acid conditions.

Description:
Sium latifolium is a perennial herb, growing to 2 m (6ft 7in). . It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Beetles, flies, bees.The plant is self-fertile. The long creeping root-stock of this and the somewhat smaller, closely allied species S. angustifolium is poisonous, but pigs and oxen eat the stem and leaves without harm. However, cows in milk should not be allowed to eat it, as it communicates a disagreeable taste to the milk……..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

It is easily recognized by it’s pinnate leaves, the leaf-stalks carrying about six to eight pairs of ovate, toothed leaflets. The umbels of white flowers are flat and have a general involucre composed of broadish or lance-shaped bracts, and there is also an in volucel. The fruit bears slender ribs. Theerect, furrowed stems are from 3 to 6 feet high.

Cultivation: Prefers a light, rich, moisture retentive soil in full sun[200]. A plant of wet ground and shallow water, it grows best in about 20cm of water.

Propagation: Seed – sow late winter to early spring in a cold frame. The seed can be slow to germinate[200]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer if they are large enough. Otherwise, grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter and plant them out in the following spring. Division in early spring just before new growth begins. Use the side roots. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summer
Edible Uses: …..Leaves are cooked and eaten.

Medicinal Uses: Not yet found any.

Other Uses: An essential oil is obtained from the seed.

Known Hazards: The entire plant, and especially the root, is poisonous. Firm proof of this is not available.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sium_latifolium
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Sium+latifolium
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/p/parwat13.html