Botanical Name : Tinospora cardifolia Family Name: Menispermaceae Vernacular Names: Sans Guruchi; Hind: Amrita SANSKRIT NAME:Guduchi,Madhuparni,Amrita,Chinnaruha,
Vatsadaani,Tantrika,Kundalini,Chakralakshanika LOCAL NAMES: (in India) Giloya, Guduchi (Hindi), Gulancha(Bengali),Tippaatigo (Telugu), Shindilakodi (Tamil), Gulavel (Marathi),Galo (Gujarati),Amrita balli(kannada).
Habitat : Found throughout tropical India, ascending to an altitude of 1000 ft
Description:A big climber (glabrous).Climbs on large trees.Stems:-Fleshy.Roots:-long thread like, aerial,arise from branches.
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Bark Thin, greyish or creamy white in colour,When peeled fleshy stem is exposed. Leaves:– Cordate(heart shaped), membranous,juicy. Flowers:- Bloom during summer Male flower:-Small,yellow or green coloured occur in clusters.
Female flower Occur singly. Fruits:–Pea shaped,fleshy,shiny turn red when boiled.Occur in winter
Seeds:- curved,pea sized. Flowers and fruits . .
Cultivation : It grows well in almost all types of soils and under varying climatic conditions.
Chemical Constituents: alkaloid – Berberine and a glucosoid – Giloin.
Sesquiterpene tinocordifolin, Sesquiterpene glucoside tino cordifolioside, tinosponone, tinosrfioside, sordioside furanoid diterpene;
Medicinal Uses : It is useful in burning sensation hyperdipsia, helminthiasis, dyspepsia, flatulence, gout, vomiting, skin diseases, leprosy, erysipelas, anemia, cough, asthma, jaundice, seminal weakness, uropathy and splenopathy.
Studies on induced oedema and arthritis and on human arthritis proved anti-inflammatory potency of the water extract of plant. It also has antipyretic action.This drug relaxes the intestinal and uterine smooth muscles.It is proved effective in prevention of fibrosis and in stimulating regeneration in hepatic tissue
As per Ayurveda:The plant is guru, ushnaveerya, tikta, kasaya, antipyretic, beneficial in burning swnsation, pain, vomiting, dyscrasia, vitiated vata, polyuria, anaemia and vertigo
Parts used: Leaves and stem.
Therapeutic uses :
The stem is bitter, astringent, sweet, thermogenic, antispasmodic, anti inflammatory , antipyretic, digestive, carminative, appetizer, stomachic, cardiotonic, aphrodisiac, rejuvenating, galacto-purifier, useful in vitiated, vata, burning sensation, dyspepsia, flatulence, intermittent fever, inflammations, gout, vomiting, cardiac debility, jaundice, anaemia, seminal weakness, asthma, cough, uropathy, splenopathy, skin diseases and general debility.
Stem-juice is valued in high fever and also given in jaundice either alone or mixed with honey.
Decoction of the stem is used for rheumatic fever and vomiting due to excessive bile secretion; slow fever associated with cough is arrested by the administration of its decoction mixed with Piper longum (fruits) and honey.
Stem, pasted with a little ginger, is prescribed in urticaria.
A kind of starch, called ‘Palo’, prepared from the aqueous extract of dried stem, is considered to have antacid, antidiarrhoeal and antidysenteric properties.
Leaves of the plant are rich in protein, calcium and phosphorus with no toxic effect and as such prescribed in fever. Aqueous extract of the plant is a fabrifuge.
Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
An eating disorder is a compulsion to eat, or avoid eating, that negatively affects both one’s physical and mental health. Eating disorders are all encompassing. They affect every part of the person’s life. According to the authors of Surviving an Eating Disorder, “feelings about work, school, relationships, day-to-day activities and one’s experience of emotional well being are determined by what has or has not been eaten or by a number on a scale.” Anorexia nervosaand bulimia nervosa are the most common eating disorders generally recognized by medical classification schemes, with a significant diagnostic overlap between the two. Together, they affect an estimated 5-7% of females in the United States during their lifetimes. There is a third type of eating disorder currently being investigated and defined – Binge Eating Disorder. This is a chronic condition that occurs when an individual consumes huge amounts of food during a brief period of time and feels totally out of control and unable to stop their eating. It can lead to serious health conditions such as morbid obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. ANAD, or the National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders is a non profit organization aimed at fighting these disorders. They work primarily in areas such as research, educating the public and running a hotline which is dedicated to referring those afflicted by disorders to support groups, therapists, or inpatient/outpatient clinics.
Eating disorders often are long-term illnesses that may require long-term treatment. In addition, eating disorders frequently occur with other mental disorders such as depression, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders (NIMH, 2002). The earlier these disorders are diagnosed and treated, the better the chances are for full recovery.
Who Is At Risk?
Eating disorders,many people believe, occur mainly among young white females. This is not the case. While eating disorders do mainly affect women between the ages of 12 and 35, other groups are also at risk of developing eating disorders. Eating disorders affect all ethnic and racial groups and while the specific nature of the problem and the risk factors may vary, no population is exempt. Younger and younger children seem to be at risk of developing eating disorders. While most children who develop eating disorders are between 11 and 13, studies have shown that 80% of 3rd through 6th graders are dissatisfied with their bodies or their weight and by age 9 somewhere between 30 and 40% of girls have already been on a diet. Between ages 10 and 16, the statistic jumps to 80%. Many eating disorder experts attribute this behavior to the effects of cultural expectations. Stress is also considered to be a factor in the development of eating disorders. According to Abigail Natenshon, a psychotherapist specializing in eating disorders, children as young as 5 show signs of stress related eating disorders. This includes compulsively exercising and running to burn off calories. Natanshon notes that as children reach puberty younger and younger, they are less equipped to understand the changes in their bodies. They understand the message of the media to be “thin” and try to fit in without comprehending the effects on their bodies. While eating disorders affect younger and younger children, not only girls but also boys suffer from eating disorders. Boys who participate in sports where weight is an issue and often boys who experience issues regarding sexual identity are at risk of developing eating disorders.
Anorexia nervosa is deliberate and sustained weight loss driven by a fear of becoming overweight and a distorted body image. It is not to be confused with anorexia, which is its symptomatic general loss of appetite or disinterest in food. DSM-IV characterizes anorexia nervosa as:
* An abnormally low body weight (the suggested guideline = 85% of normal for age and height, or BMI = 17.5).
* For postmenarcheal females, amenorrhea (the absence of three consecutive menstrual cycles).
* An intense fear gaining weight or becoming fat and a preoccupation with body weight and shape.
Most anorexics become so as adolescents, with 76% reporting onset of the disorder between the ages of 11 and 20.The mortality rate for those diagnosed with anorexia nervosa is approximately 6%—the highest of any mental illness—with roughly half of those due to suicide.There is a third type of eating disorder currently being investigated – Binge Eating Disorder. People who suffer from this disorder experience chronic episodes where they consume huge amounts of food in a very brief period. They experience feelings of being out of control. Unlike bulimia nervosa, they do not purge. Binge eating can lead to serious health risks such as morbid obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and an increased likelihood of cardiovascular disease.
Anorexics are commonly perfectionists, driven to succeed; yet they set unattainable standards of performance for themselves. When they fail to meet these standards, they look for a part of their lives they can control; food and weight become that “control” for them. Low self-esteem and constant self-criticism cause anorexics to constantly fear losing control, and even consuming a small amount of food could be considered a loss of control.
Bulimia nervosa………..CLICK & SEE Bulimia nervosa is a cyclical and recurring pattern of binge eating (uncontrolled bursts of overeating) followed by guilt, self-recrimination and overcompensatory behaviour such as crash dieting, overexercising and purging to compensate for the excessive caloric intake.
Bulimics often have “binge food,” which is the food they typically consume during binges. Some describe their binge episodes as a physical high they feel, numbing out, going into auto-pilot, losing all control, immediate comfort, etc. The reasoning or triggers behind a binge may serve different purposes for different people. This binge episode leads the individual to feel guilt, shame, embarrassment, and complete failure. Bulimics try to regain control of themselves and the situation by purging the food–making up for their mistake. This leads to feeling famished and empty again, and therefore, another uncontrollable binge, followed by feeling powerless, and the vicious binge/purge cycle continues. Bulimics have extreme eating and exercising habits, instead of demonstrating moderation. This compulsive behavior is often echoed in similar destructive behavior such as sexual promiscuity, pathological lying, and shoplifting. Some bulimics not only struggle with the eating disorder, but these other harmful behaviors as well.
Binge-eating disorder……..CLICK & SEE
People with this recently recognized disorder have frequent episodes of compulsive overeating, but unlike those with bulimia, they do not purge their bodies of food (NIMH, 2002). During these food binges, they often eat alone and very quickly, regardless of whether they feel hungry or full. They often feel shame or guilt over their actions. Unlike anorexia and bulimia, binge-eating disorder occurs almost as often in men as in women (National Eating Disorders Association, 2002).
The media may be a significant influence on eating disorders through its impact on values, norms, and image standards accepted by modern society. Both society’s exposure to media and eating disorders have grown immensely over the past decade. Researchers and clinicians are concerned about the relationship between these two phenomena and finding ways to reduce the negative influence thin-ideal media has on women’s body perception and susceptibility to eating disorders. The dieting industry makes billions of dollars each year by consumers continually buying products in an effort to be the ideal weight. Hollywood displays an unrealistic standard of beauty that makes the public feel incredibly inadequate and dissatisfied and forces people to strive for an unattainable appearance. This takes an enormous toll on one’s self-esteem and can easily lead to dieting behaviors, disordered eating, body shame, and ultimately an eating disorder.
Patients with severe obsessive compulsive disorder, depression or bulimia patients were all found to have abnormally low serotonin levels. Neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine are secreted by the intestines and central nervous system during digestion.
Researchers have also found low cholecystokinin levels in bulimics. Cholecystokinin is a hormone that causes one to feel full and decreases eating. Low levels of this hormone are likely to cause a lack of satiative feedback when eating, which can lead to overeating. Another explanation researchers found for overeating is abnormalities in the neuromodulator peptides, neuropeptide Y and peptide YY. Both of these peptides increase eating and work with another peptide called leptin. Leptin is released by fat cells and is known to decrease eating. Research found the majority of people who overate produced normal amounts of leptin but they might have complications with the blood-brain barrier preventing an optimal amount to reach the brain.
Cortisol is a hormone released by the adrenal cortex which promotes blood sugar and increases metabolism.High levels of cortisol were found in people with eating disorders. This imbalance may be caused by a problem in or around the hypothalamus. A study in London at Maudsley Hospital found that anorexics were found to have a large variation of serotonin receptors and a high level of serotonin.
Many of these chemicals and hormones are associated with the hypothalamus in the brain. Damage to the hypothalamus can result in abnormalities in temperature regulation, eating, drinking, sexual behavior, fighting, and activity level.
While scientists have determined that there are possible biochemical or biological causes leading to eating disorders because certain chemicals which control hunger, appetite or digestions are out of balance, experts such as Dr. Edward J. Cumella, executive director of the Remuda Treatment Programs, states that there are three components to eating disorders: 1. The genetic component; 2. The unique environmental factors, such as personal experiences; and 3) The shared environmental factors, such as culture. According to Dr. Cumella, “Some people are born with a predisposition to having an eating disorder and there are genetic markers that can push a person in the direction of anorexia or bulimia…but it does not guarantee that a person will automatically suffer from an eating disorder. The environment – a person’s life experience – still has to pull the trigger.”
Research from a family systems perspective indicates that eating disorders stem from both the adolescent’s difficulty in separating from over-controlling parents, and disturbed patterns of communication. When parents are critical and unaffectionate, their children are more prone to becoming self-destructive and self-critical, and have difficulty developing the skills to engage in self-care giving behaviors. Such developmental failures in early relationships with others, particularly maternal empathy, impairs the development of an internal sense of self and leads to an over-dependence on the environment. When coping strategies have not been developed in the family system, food and drugs serve as a substitute.
Eating disorders should also be understood in the context of experienced trauma, with many eating problems beginning as survival strategies rather than vanity or obsession with appearance. According to sociologist Becky Thompson, eating disorders stemming from women of varying socio-economic status, sexual orientation and race, and finds that eating disorders and a disconnected relationship with ones body is commonly a response to environmental stresses, including sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, racism, and poverty. This reality is further detrimental for women of color and other minority women, since they are forced to live in a culture that embraces a narrowly defined conception of beauty: “people furthest from the dominant ideal of beauty, specifically women of color, may suffer the psychological effects of low self-esteem, poor body image, and eating disorders.
“Frequent dieting and trying to look like persons in the media were independent predictors of binge eating in females of all ages. In males, negative comments about weight by fathers was predictive of starting to binge at least weekly.
Clinically, eating disorders are evaluated using instruments such as the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns (QEWP), which has specialized versions for adolescents and parents (QEWP-A, and QEWP-P). In addition to evaluating eating patterns, these tests also measure depression.
Medical problems that may arise as a result of eating disorders:
* Anorexia nervosa – Anorexia can slow the heart rate and lower blood pressure, increasing the chance of heart failure. Those who use drugs to stimulate vomiting, bowel movements, or urination are also at high risk for heart failure. Starvation can also lead to heart failure, as well as damage the brain. Anorexia may also cause hair and nails to grow brittle. Skin may dry out, become yellow, and develop a covering of soft hair called lanugo. Mild anemia, swollen joints, reduced muscle mass, and light-headedness also commonly occur as a consequence of this eating disorder. Severe cases of anorexia can lead to brittle bones that break easily as a result of calcium loss. * Bulimia nervosa – The acid in vomit can wear down the outer layer of the teeth, inflame and damage the esophagus (a tube in the throat through which food passes to the stomach), and enlarge the glands near the cheeks (giving the appearance of swollen cheeks). Damage to the stomach can also occur from frequent vomiting. Irregular heartbeats, heart failure, and death can occur from chemical imbalances and the loss of important minerals such as potassium. Peptic ulcers, pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas, which is a large gland that aids digestion), and long-term constipation are also consequences of bulimia. * Binge-eating disorder – Binge-eating disorder can cause high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels. Other effects of binge-eating disorder include fatigue, joint pain, Type II diabetes, gallbladder disease, and heart disease.
Treatment: * Anorexia nervosa – The first goal for the treatment of anorexia is to ensure the person’s physical health, which involves restoring a healthy weight (NIMH, 2002). Reaching this goal may require hospitalization. Once a person’s physical condition is stable, treatment usually involves individual psychotherapy and family therapy during which parents help their child learn to eat again and maintain healthy eating habits on his or her own. Behavioral therapy also has been effective for helping a person return to healthy eating habits. Supportive group therapy may follow, and self-help groups within communities may provide ongoing support. * Bulimia nervosa – Unless malnutrition is severe, any substance abuse problems that may be present at the time the eating disorder is diagnosed are usually treated first. The next goal of treatment is to reduce or eliminate the person’s binge eating and purging behavior (NIMH, 2002). Behavioral therapy has proven effective in achieving this goal. Psychotherapy has proven effective in helping to prevent the eating disorder from recurring and in addressing issues that led to the disorder. Studies have also found that Prozac, an antidepressant, may help people who do not respond to psychotherapy (APA, 2002). As with anorexia, family therapy is also recommended.
.* Binge-eating disorder – The goals and strategies for treating binge-eating disorder are similar to those for bulimia. Binge-eating disorder was recognized only recently as an eating disorder, and research is under way to study the effectiveness of different interventions (NIMH, 2002).
He says that although leech treatment is affordable for the poor, he does not expect its use in allopathic hospitals in the near future: “Fresh research on leech therapy is going on, but as of yet, there is not a strong case for its use.”
Common names of Bhatkatiya, Indian Nightshade
Biological Name:Solanum indicum Other Names: Brihati, Kantakari, Birhatta
Hindi name:Kateli, Ringani, Katai
.Gujarati name:Bhayaringni Marathi name:Bhuirungani Malyalam & Tamil name: Kandan Kathiri Sanskrit name:Kantakari, Nidigadhika, Brihati Telugu name:Nelamulaka, Vankuda. Kanarese name:Chikkasande, Nele Rama-gulla Description: This herb is found throughout India.
Parts Used: Fruit, root, plant, seeds
The purple flowered species is most common. The traditional healers and natives specialised in medicinal uses of Bhatkatiya give preference to white flowered species. In reference literatures related to different systems of medicine in India, not much has been written on this white flowered species. Also, in reference literatures on botany, very little information is available. It is common belief among natives that the presence of white flowered species in wild indicates the presence of secret treasure around it. Many old natives informed that one can see this species in old forts and palaces, where according to belief, the secret treasures still exist. The natives involved in Tantra activities, consider the white flowered species most valuable.
The crude drug extracts caused transient hypotensive effect which is partly inhibited by atropine. The gluco alkaloid, saponin and resin fraction increased the force of contraction of isolated frog’s heart and caused gradual rise in blood pressure levels. The alcoholic leaf extract, resinous and crystalline fi-acons caused contraction of dog tracheal chain while the glucoalkaloid and alcoholic stem extract after initial potentiation caused refractoriness to the constrictor responses of acetylcholine and histamine. Histamine releasing effects have been shown.
Roots are one of the constituents of Dasamulasava. The plant is useful in fever, cough, asthma, constipation. Seeds are used as diuretic. The juice of the berries is reported to he useful in sore throat. A decoction of plant is used in gonorrhoea and it also said to promote conception in females. A. clinical trial showed kantakari to be useful in cases of Kasa Roga (cough) and also in Tamakswasa (bronchial asthma). The plant has a definite effect in diminishing the intensity of cough and dyspnoea.
In Ayurveda, this herb has several uses. It is used for treating the following ailments:
Asthma, catarrh ,chest pains ,chronic fevers, colic ,cough, dry and spasmodic ,edema, gas, scorpion stings ,toothache, difficult urination, worms.
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Herbal Power of Ashwagandha is standardized to contain the highest percentage of Withanolides (8%), the active compounds in Withania Somnifera that is responsible for the adaptogenic & tonic effects. Most Ashwagandha in the market contains <5% Withanolides.
The name Ashwagandha is from the Sanskrit language and is a combination of the word ashva, meaning horse, and gandha, meaning smell. The root has a strong aroma that is described as “horse-like”. In Ayurvedic, Indian, and Unani medicine, ashwagandha is described as “Indian ginseng“.
Traditional Use of Ashwagandha
Ashwagandha has been used throughout India for thousands of years as a rejuvenating tonifier (rasayana in Ayurvedic herbalism). It was widely used to support vitality in people of all ages, including children, and to enhance reproductive function in both men and women. Traditionally, this herb has been used as an aphrodisiac, liver tonic, anti-inflammatory agent, and astringent. The results of clinical trials indicate that ashwagandha has anti-aging, immunomodulatory, antidepressive, and other therapeutic effects.
Ashwagandha contains several active constituents including alkaloids (isopelletierine, anaferine), steroidal lactones (withanolides, withaferins), and saponins. Withanolides serve as hormone precursors that can convert into human physiologic hormones as necessary. Preliminary animal evidence suggests ashwagandha may have a variety of pharmacological effects including analgesic, antipyretic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects.
Ashwagandha– Powerful Adaptogen
The high stress levels of our society have a profound impact on well-being, impacting our bodies and health in ways that are continually being revealed by new research. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is widely used in modern Western herbalism as an adaptogenâ€”a substance that can help our bodies healthfully adapt to physiological and psychological stress, thus increasing resistance to stressors. Adaptogenic botanicals are increasingly important in todayâ€™s society, where high stress levels negatively impact many different body systems. Many health practitioners believe adaptogens are just as important to our health as better-known nutrients and botanicals, such as antioxidants. Research suggests the mechanism of action of adaptogens may include modulation of the pituitary-hypothalamus-adrenal gland axis. They increase resistance against external stressors, have a balancing effect and stabilize normal body functions.
Ashwagandha has been shown to increase stress resistance, improve memory-related performance, and protect against stress induced responses such as anxiety, and physiological imbalances, according to numerous animal studies and several human studies. Some researchers think ashwagandha has a so-called “anti-stressor” effect. Preliminary evidence suggests ashwagandha might suppress stress-induced increases of dopamine receptors in the corpus striatum of the brain. A comparison of the anxiety-reducing and antidepressive actions of ashwagandha with those of the benzodiazepine lorazepam was made in mice. Mice treated with both agents exhibited a reduction in brain concentrations of a marker of clinical anxiety. In addition, ashwagandha exhibited an antidepressive effect. The results of similar studies support the use of ashwagandha as an anti-stress adaptogen. In a rat model of chronic stress, the stress-reducing activities of extracts from ashwagandha were compared with those of Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng). Both agents reduced the number and severity of chronic stressâ€“induced ulcers, reversed the chronic stressâ€“induced inhibition of male sexual behavior, and inhibited the adverse effects of chronic stress on the retention of learned tasks. Well-controlled clinical studies are needed to further confirm ashwagandhaâ€™s benefits for humans.
The anti-aging effects of Ashwagandha were shown in a double-blind clinical trial in which 101 healthy men aged 50â€“59 years received a dosage of 3 grams Ashwagandha for 1 year. Specifically, significant improvements in hemoglobin, red blood cell counts, hair melanin concentrations, and serum cholesterol concentrations were observed.