Researchers at Processed Foods Research and Produce Safety and Microbiology units of Western Regional Research Centre from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) investigated the effectiveness of the oils by incorporating them in thin, tomato-based antimicrobial coatings known as edible films.
In addition to its flavour properties, tomatoes are reported to possess numerous beneficial nutritional and bioactive components that may benefit human health.
Edible tomato films containing antimicrobials may protect food against contamination by pathogenic microorganisms.
The findings revealed that oregano oil consistently inhibited the growth of all three bacteria.
Although garlic oil was not effective against E. coli or Salmonella, but was effective against Listeria.
Vapour tests of oregano and allspice oils indicated that these two oils diffuse more efficiently through the air than through direct contact with the bacteria.
Listeria was less resistant to EO vapors while E. coli was more resistant.
“The results show that apple-based films with allspice, cinnamon or clove bud oils were effective against the three bacteria. The essential oils have the potential to provide multiple benefits to consumers,” said lead researcher R. J. Avena-Bustillos.
Botanical Name:Laurus nobilis Family: Lauraceae Genus: Laurus Species:L. nobilis Kingdom: Plantae Order: Laurales Common Name :bay laurel, sweet bay, bay tree (esp. United Kingdom), true laurel, Grecian laurel,laurel tree or simply laurel.
Habitat:The bay laurel is a native plant of the Mediterranean region. The plant grows best in damp and shady sites in gardens. As it is extensively used in many Mediterranean cuisines, the bay laurel is a very popular garden herb especially in Europe. Leaves from the bay laurel are picked all year round and used in many culinary preparations.
Bay Laurel is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub reaching 10–18 m tall, native to the Mediterranean region.
The leaves are 6–12 cm long and 2–4 cm broad, with a characteristic finely serrated and wrinkled margin. It is dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate plants; each flower is pale yellow-green, about 1 cm diameter, borne in pairs together beside a leaf. The fruit is a small black berry about 1 cm long.
Sweet Bay can withstand the heat of summer and will grow best when allowed to spend as much time outdoors as possible. Delay bringing your Bay Laurel inside until late fall but don’t subject the plants to any freezing weather conditions.
Once the plants are moved indoors stop applying fertilizer and cut back on the amount of water that you provide over the winter, but don’t let the container completely dry out. Place the Bay Laurel in a relatively cool, well lit area, or use a grow light bulb to supplement the amount of light that the herb plant receives.
In early spring gradually allow the Bay Laurel plants to acclimate to the outdoors in the same manner that you would harden off vegetable transplants. The hardening off process can be completed in a shorter timeframe than for vegetable seedlings, but the Bay plants will need sufficient time to adjust to the harsher outdoor growing conditions before they resume their life outdoors.
The bay laurel can succeed in any kind of soil that is moderately fertile and well watered, though it tends to grow best in soils that retain moisture and are well drained. The bay laurel can also grow without problems in all types of dry soils. The bay laurel prefers exposure to full sunlight but can also grow well in sites with light shade. Bay laurel plants are fairly resistant to high winds; however, the plants suffer if exposed to extreme maritime contact or cold dry winds for long periods of time. Growing bay laurel plants may need protection from the cold during severe winters and the plant is not fully hardy in all areas of temperate countries such as Britain. In a dormant state, bay laurel plants are reliably hardy to temperatures of about -5°c, and can withstand occasional lows of up to -15°c – such low temperatures may lead to the defoliation of the tree but the tree usually recovers and brings forth new leaves late in the spring or by the summer. The plant botanists call the Laurus nobilis angustifolia – Syn ‘Salicifolia’ – a little hardier and possesses similar aromatic qualities. Many people also cultivate the bay laurel tree as an ornamental plant in gardens; the added bonus is such cultivated yields leaves that can be used to flavor food. The leaves of the bay laurel give off a sweet and aromatic scent when bruised. Bay laurel trees are also strongly resistant to all insect pests and plant diseases – this plant is notably resistant to the honey fungus. The beneficial properties of this plant species has been known since ancient times and many ancient peoples held the tree in high esteem. The ancient Greeks dedicated this plant to Apollo, the god of light, the plant also served as a symbol of peace and victory for the Greeks. The bay laurel was also utilized in making wreaths for ancient emperors, generals and poets. The bay laurel is a dioecious plant and individual plants have a specific sex. If seeds are required, it is necessary to grow both the male and female plants in the garden.
The bay laurel can be propagated in three basic methods – by layering, sowing seeds or by taking cuttings from individual plants.
The ideal time to sow the seeds of the bay laurel is in the spring. Seeds are ideally sown in moist, but definitely not water saturated compost seed beds. When seeds are sown, the seeds must be placed on the surface of the soil and lightly covered using some dry compost. The container of the seed bed must be placed in the dark, the site must ideally be at a temperature of about 65°F (21°C) for germination to occur.
It is difficult to predict a successful germination, which is a rather erratic event and bay laurel seeds can take as long as three months to sprout out. However, the normal time for germination is about three to four weeks from the date on which the seeds are sown. The greatest hindrance to successfully growing the bay laurel from seeds lies in the fact that the seeds can rot before they germinate in the seed bed.
The stem cuttings can be done late in the summer and even early in the fall. Propagating this plant from cuttings is rather hard and successful growth using cuttings is not easy to achieve. To get the best cuttings, one must cut ripe shoots in lengths of 9 to 15cm – 4 to 6 inches, using a knife, the cutting must also include part of the main stem – the heel. Once the shoots have been cut to the desired length, they must be trimmed so only three or four leaves stay on the shoot, this cutting can then be planted in a small pot filled with potting compost. Each individual cutting that has been planted must be labeled and placed in a site without direct sunlight – ideally, a cold frame is the best solution. A heated propagating frame may also give a good chance of success, as high humidity in the ambient air is essential for the proper growth of the plant. Once they are planted in a site, cuttings give out roots within the span of a year or a little longer.
The process of layering of the germinating plants is carried out as normal for all the seedlings. To correctly layer the growing plant, bend each stem down to the ground then use a penknife and make a small cut in the stem in the spot touching the soil. The cut region of the bent stem can then be covered with some soil and secured in the soil using stones or it can be held in place with wires. The cut region of the stem will give off shoots in six to twelve months if the process has been correctly carried out. Bay laurel plants are ideally layered during the spring season.
It is believed that this herb is used in the rituals and spells for money and success.It is believed that if this leaf is burned it will enhance psychic powers and produce visions. Moreover if worn in an amulet will provide protection from evil and negativity. People say that any wish written on bay leaf comes true..
Bay Laurel is the source of the bay leaves which are used for their flavour in cooking. It was also the source of the laurel wreath of ancient Greece, and therefore the expression of “resting on one’s laurels”. A wreath of bay laurels was given as the prize at the Pythian Games because the games were in honor of Apollo and the laurel was one of his symbols ever since his unsuccessful pursuit of Daphne. In the Bible, the sweet-bay is often an emblem of prosperity and fame. In Christianity it is said to symbolize the Resurrection of Christ and the triumph of Humanity thereby.
It is also widely cultivated as an ornamental plant in regions with mediterranean or oceanic climates, and as an indoor plant in colder regions.
Harvesting and Cooking with Bay Leaves:
To harvest leaves from your Sweet Bay plant cut the older leaves from the stem with a pair of scissors, or if you’re careful you can simply pull the leaves off of the stem by hand. The large, older Bay leaves are preferred for cooking because they will contain more of the plant’s essential oil and impart more flavor to your favorite recipes.
A single Bay Laurel plant can supply the family chef with more than enough fresh leaves to season meals for the entire year. Harvest the Bay leaves from the plant as they are needed in the kitchen or remove and dry the leaves for future uses.
The soap making industry also utilizes an essential oil obtained from the fruit of the bay laurel in the manufacture of some types of soaps. Bay laurel is a very hardy and strong plant; it is very resistant to all sorts of plant pests and common plant diseases. A bay laurel plant is said to protect even the other plants growing near it from all insect and pest related problems. Bay laurel leaves are strongly aromatic and are used as natural insect repellents, dried bay laurel leaves are often used in silos to protect stored beans, grains from weevils and other grain eating insects. As it possesses both anti-septic properties as well as an aromatic scent, the bay laurel is often used as a strewing herb. The plant is very tolerant to clipping and pruning activities, it can also be grown as a screen or hedge plant in regions with suitable weather for its cultivation outdoors. The wood of the bay laurel is also very sweetly scented and the smell does not wear off quickly even after a long period of time. The wood is employed in marqueterie work, it is also used to make walking sticks and as friction sticks to start fires.
Fresh Bay leaves will be stronger than the dried herb and if you keep a live Bay plant around there’s really no need to preserve the leaves or purchase the spice from your grocer. Bay Laurel leaves are commonly used to season and add flavor to soups, stews, pot roasts, and other slow cooking kitchen recipes. Remove the leaves before serving because the leaves are tough and may have sharp edges.
In the fruit there are essential oils and fatty oils present. The fruit is pressed and water extracted to obtain these products. The fruit contains up to 30% fatty oils and about 1% essential oils (terpenes, sesquiterpenes, alcohols and ketones).
The leaves contain about 1.3% essential oils (Ol. Lauri folii), consisting of 45% eucalyptol, 12% terpenes, 3-4% sesquiterpenes, 3% methyleugenol and other a- und ß-pinenes, phellandrene, linalool, geraniol and terpineol.
This herb also known as Oswego tea and Bee Balm is good for the treatment of nausea, vomiting, cold and flu. If used in oil form is an effective treatment for acne, coughs, fevers, tension, stress, and depression.
It is also the source of the word baccalaureate (laurel berry), and of poet laureate. Some evidence from the medical literature supports Bay Laurel having these uses:
In Chinese folklore there is a great laurel tree on the moon, and the Chinese name for the laurel, (traditional Chinese: ), literally translates to “moon-laurel”. This is the subject of a story of Wu Gang, a man who aspired to immortality and neglected his work. When the deities discovered this they sentenced Wu Gang to fell the laurel tree, whereupon he could join the ranks of the deities; however, since the laurel regenerated immediately when cut, it could never be felled. The phrase (simplified Chinese) (“Wu Gang felling the tree”) is sometimes used to refer to endless toil, analogous to Sisyphus in Greek mythology.
The herb known as the bay laurel or the sweet bay is native to Asia Minor and the Mediterranean region in general – it is a small evergreen shrub or tree. The early Greeks and Romans admired the bay laurel for its beauty and used the aromatic leaves in many different ways. Bay laurel possesses leathery leaves that are lanceolate and pointed in shape. The leaves also have the maximum oil content during early and mid-summer and this oil content tends to decreases in other seasons. The name “bay” is used to refer to several botanicals – for example the West Indian bay – botanical name Pimenta racemosa, and the California bay – botanical name Umbellularia californica. Therefore, any of these plants can be called by the name “bay” in the existing herb literature; what is more, some other plants are also called ‘Bay’.
The solution made from the bay laurel is a very potent anti-dandruff rinse and can help a person suffering from excess dandruff in the hair. To prepare this herbal rinse, bring a quart of water to boil, to the boiled water add about three level teaspoons of crumpled bay leaves and let the leaves steep in the covered pot for about twenty five minutes. The herbal tea can be strained and then refrigerated for later use. This herbal tea can be used to wash the hair, when doing this, it is necessary to first rinse all the soap out of the hair using plain water. Once hair has been washed with water and soap, some of the liquid bay laurel tea can be poured on to the head and can be used to massage the scalp thoroughly. This initial massage with the herbal tea can be followed with similar rinses using few more ounces of the herbal tea; the tea must be worked well on to the scalp using the fingertips. The hair so treated can be left as such for about an hour; it must then be rinse thoroughly using plain water. This treatment will be sufficient to keep dandruff from recurring if it is used faithfully every day on a long term basis.
Disorders such as bronchitis and a hacking cough or other related chest complaints can be relieved by applications of a poultice made from the boiled bay leaves; the poultice must be rubbed into the chest and covered with a cloth.
To gain relief from swellings in the tendons, as well as to soothe arthritic aches and pains or muscle sprains – use the oil of the bay laurel as a daily rub. This oil can be prepared by heating some bay leaves in a little olive oil using very low heat on a stove, the leaves must be heated for about twenty minutes – the low heat is to ensure that the oil is not cooked or brought to burn and smoke in the pan. Once they are heated, the leaves can be set aside and allowed to simmer for some more time in the pan. The oil obtained from the leaves must be strained once and cooled, and this oil is to be used as rubbing oil for any of these conditions or for other problems such as lower backache, prominent and painful varicose veins and many other disorders.
Remedies made from the bay laurel are mainly used in the treatment of the disorders affecting the upper digestive tract and to ease all kinds of arthritic aches and pains affecting a person. The remedies made from the bay laurel also has a tonic effect and is good to have a settling effect on the stomach, the bay laurel remedy also stimulates general appetite and aids in the hastening the secretion of digestive juices in people with digestive disorders. The bay laurel leaves are also used as an ingredient in cooking, where they aid in the process of digestion and absorption of food in the stomach. Bay laurel leaves possess many of the same positive effects as seen in the spearmint – botanical name Mentha spicata, and the rosemary – Rosmarinus officinalis – especially in assisting in the breakdown of heavy foods, such as protein rich meat. The onset of menstruation is also promoted by remedies made from the bay laurel. In addition, the essential oil obtained from the bay laurel is mainly employed as a friction rub for topical problems, this rubbing oil is prepared by first diluting the raw oil in carrier oil and it is then massaged on aching muscles and joints for a soothing effect. Bath water can also be infused with a decoction made from the bay laurel leaves to help ease aching limbs and muscles.
Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Judging Others :
Though it is human to evaluate people we encounter based on first impressions, the conclusions we come to are seldom unaffected by our own fears and our own preconceptions. Additionally, our judgments are frequently incomplete. For example, wealth can seem like proof that an individual is spoiled, and poverty can be seen as a signifier of lazinessâ€”neither of which may be true. At the heart of the tendency to categorize and criticize, we often find insecurity. Overcoming our need to set ourselves apart from what we fear is a matter of understanding the root of judgment and then reaffirming our commitment to tolerance.
When we catch ourselves thinking or behaving judgmentally, we should ask ourselves where these judgments come from. Traits we hope we do not possess can instigate our criticism when we see them in others because passing judgment distances us from those traits. Once we regain our center, we can reinforce our open-mindedness by putting our feelings into words. To acknowledge to ourselves that we have judged, and that we have identified the root of our judgments, is the first step to a path of compassion. Recognizing that we limit our awareness by assessing others critically can make moving past our initial impressions much easier. Judgments seldom leave room for alternate possibilities.
Mother Teresa said, If you judge people, you don’t have time to love them. If we are quick to pass judgment on others, we forget that they, like us, are human beings. As we seldom know what roads people have traveled before a shared encounter or why they have come into our lives, we should always give those we meet the gift of an open heart. Doing so allows us to replace fear-based criticism with appreciation because we can then focus wholeheartedly on the spark of good that burns in all human souls.
2. Draw both toes together, and with heels apart, sit on them.
Keep your hands straight on the respective knees.
3. Breathe normally with your spine straight. Relax your hands
and release the legs
4. Now lie on your back or stretch your legs in front with hands
at the back and relax.
5. Take rest for 10 counts and repeat.
6. Do this two times.
Breath normally.It is enough to do this for 5 to 10 seconds in the beginning. Afterwards gradually increase the timings to even half an hour.
It can be done after taking the food .It is the only yoga exercise that can be done after taking food.Those who are suffering from indigestion should do this exercise after taking the food.In the beginning while doing this you might feel pain in the legs due to stretching but need not discontinue the practice. Withen 4 to 5 days the pain will disappear.
Botanical Name: Laurus nobilis. Family: Lauraceae Genus: Laurus Species: L. nobilis Kingdom: Plantae Order: Laurales Origin: Probably Western Asia. Habitat :The laurel tree grows all over the Mediterranean region, with Turkey one of the main exporters. Due to poor frost-resistance, laurel is not generally native to more Northern regions, although cultivars are frequently found in cities and other warmer locations. Used Part: Leaves. Industrially, laurel oil is prepared from the fruits, which may also be used as a spice. Family: Lauraceae (laurel family). Effect& Taste : Aromatic and slightly bitter.
Etymology: The botanical genus name laurus and English laurel are derived from the Latin name of the tree, laurus. Almost all languages of Europe have related names, e.g. German lorbeer, Swedish lager, Italian alloro and Portuguese louro. The origin of laurus is not known with certainty but it is neither related to Latin laus “praise” nor loaned from Greek.
In the Ancient Greek tongue, the plant was named daphn? after the nymph Daphne who turned into a laurel shrub to escape the persecution of Apollo. Bay leaves are called dafin in Romanian, dafni in Modern Greek and defne in Turkish. There are also names meaning “leaves of Daphne”, such as Hebrew aley Daphna and Bulgarian Dafinov list.
Species name nobilis is Latin for “noble”. The English term bay leaf (Middle English baye, Old French baie) derives from the Latin bacca “berry”, referring to the fruits.
The bay tree is indigenous to Asia Minor, from where it spread to the Mediterranean and then to other countries with similar climates. According to legend the Delphi oracle chewed bay leaves, or sniffed the smoke of burning leaves to promote her visionary trances. Bay, or laurel, was famed in ancient Greece and Rome. Emperors, heroes and poets wore wreaths of laurel leaves. The Greek word for laurel is dhafni, named for the myth of the nymph Daphne, who was changed into a laurel tree by Gaea, who transformed her to help her escape Apolloâ€™s attempted rape.
Description The bay leaf is oval, pointed and smooth, 2.5 – 8 cm (1 to 3 in) long. When fresh, the leaves are shiny and dark green on top with lighter undersides. When dried the bay leaf is a matte olive green. Bouquet: Warm and quite pungent when broken and the aromatic oils are released.
Flavour: Slightly bitter and strongly aromatic.
Hotness : Mild
Preparation and Storage: Dried leaves should be whole and olive green. Brown leaves will have lost their flavour. Whole leaves are often used in cooking and crushed or ground leaves can be used for extra strength. Kept out of light in airtight containers the whole leave will retain flavour for over two years.
Uses: Bay leaves are widely used throughout the world. It may be best known in bouquets garnis or used similarly in soups, sauces, stews, daubes and courts-bouillonâ€™s, an appropriate seasoning for fish, meat and poultry. Bay leaf is often included as a pickling spice.
Bay leaves were considered holy and were associated with Apollo in Ancient Greece. Winners of the Olympic Games were originally decorated with a wreath of olive twigs, but this changed to laurel after the Pythian Games, conducted in honour of Apollo. Roman Emperors made use of laurel wreaths as a symbol of Apollo and bay leaves were a popular spice in Roman cookery.
Today, bay leaves are a common flavouring in all Western countries and are used for soups, stews, sauces, pickles and sausages. In addition, several fish dishes profit greatly from bay leaves. In contrast to the majority of leaf spices, bay leaves can be cooked for prolonged time without much loss of aroma. Fresh or dried bay leaves frequently appear in bouquet garni.
Fresh bay leaves are very strongly aromatic but also bitter. The bitterness is significantly reduced and flavour improved by quick drying, after plucking and sorting without exposure to sunlight. High-quality bay leaves are recognised by their strong aroma and their bright green colour. Bay leaves can be stored for a year, after which they lose their fragrance, turn brown and taste bitter.
The laurel fruits are less known, although they appear as part of commercial spice mixtures. Because of their robust taste, they fit best to strong sauces and gravies and are excellent with venison (together with juniper). Because of the popularity of bay leaves in the West, many exotic leaf spices are commonly known as “bay leaves” although not botanically or culinarily related. In Asia, the Indian bay leaf comes from a relative of cinnamon native to the Himalayas and Indonesian bay leaves stem from a tree of the myrtle family.
There are other “bay leaves” in the West including the aromatic Californian bay leaf, which is rarely found because of potential health hazards, and Mexican bay leaf which has little commercial value. West Indian bay leaves, which stem from a close relative of allspice, yield West Indian bay oil.
In the Middle Ages it was believed to induce abortions and to have many magical qualities. It was once used to keep moths away, owing to the leafs lauric acid content which gives it insecticidal properties. Bay leaf has many properties which make it useful for treating high blood sugar, migraine headaches, bacterial and fungal infections, and gastric ulcers. Bay leaves and berries have been used for their astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, diuretic, emetic and stomachic properties. Bay Oil, or Oil of Bays (Oleum Lauri) is used in liniments for bruising and sprains. Bay leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.It has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic.
Bay LeafAqueous extracts of bay laurel can also be used as astringents and even as a reasonable salve for open wounds.
In massage therapy, the essential oil of bay laurel is reputed to alleviate arthritis and rheumatism, while in aromatherapy, it is used to treat earaches and high blood pressure. A traditional folk remedy for rashes caused by poison ivy, poison oak, and stinging nettle is a poultice soaked in boiled bay leaves.
The chemical compound lauroside B isolated from Laurus nobilis is an inhibitor of human melanoma (skin cancer) cell proliferation at high concentrations.
Description Of Plant : Grown successfully in Mediterranean-like climates, the Bay is a hardy evergreen shrub that grows wild or cultivated. In warm areas it can grow as high as 18 m (60 ft). Inconspicuous white flowers arrive in clusters, in May. The fruits are small, red-blue single-seeded berries that later turn black about 12 mm (1/2 in) in size. Propagation is best accomplished with the cuttings from shoots. Leaves can be harvested at any time. click & see the pictures
Apolloâs Bay Leaf, Bay, Bay Laurel, Grecian Laurel, Indian Bay, Laurel, Nobel Laurel, Laurel, Roman Laurel, Royal Laurel, Sweet Bay, Sweet Laurel, Wreath Laurel
French: feuille de laurier, laurier franc
Itlaian: foglia di alloro, lauro
Spanish: hoja de laurel
In Bengal it is called Tej Pata
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider