Tag Archives: Annual plant

Spigelia marylandica

Botanical Name : Spigelia marylandica
Family: Loganiaceae
Genus: Spigelia
Species: S. marilandic
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Synonyms: Maryland Pink. Wormgrass. American Wormgrass. Carolina-, Maryland-, American-Wormroot. Starbloom.

Common Names: Pink Root, Indian pink or Woodland pinkroot

Parts Used: Dried rhizome and rootlets, or entire plant.

Habitat: Spigelia marylandica is native to South-eastern N. America – New Jersey to Florida. It grows in rich, dry soils on the edges of woods.

Description:
Spigelia marylandica is a herbaceous perennial plant. It has several smooth simple stems, arising from the same rhizome; these stems are rounded below and square above. Leaves, few, opposite, sessile, ovatelanceolate, at apex acuminate, tapering at the base. It grows 1 to 2 feet high with a spread of 0.5 to 1.5 feet. The flowers are borne in a brilliant red-pink spike at top of the stem, the long corollas (terminating in spreading, star-like petals), externally red, yellow within, surrounding a double, many-seeded capsule. It flowers from May to July. The entire plant is collected in autumn and dried, but only the rhizome and rootlets are official in the United States Pharmacopceia, though in several other pharmacopoeias on the Continent, in which Spigelia is official, a closely allied species is named and the flowering plant is specified. The rhizome is tortuous, knotty and dark-brown externally, with many thin, wiry motlets attached to it and the short branches on the upper side are marked with scars of the stems of former years; internally, the rhizome is whitish, with a darkbrown pith; the rootlets are lighter coloured than the rhizome, thin, brittle and long. Odour, aromatic; taste, bitter, sweetish, pungent and somewhat nauseous. It is usually powdered and then is of a greyish colour. Age impairs its strength. When imported from the Western United States, where it is very abundant, it is received in bales and casks……….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most fertile soils in semi-shade. Tolerates full sun if the soil remains reliably moist in the growing season, in a shady position it tolerates considerably drier soils. Plants are hardy to about -15°c. A very ornamental plant.

Propagation:
Seed requires stratification, pre-chill for 3 weeks prior to sowing. It will usually germinate in 1 – 3 months at 20°c. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots once they are large enough to handle and grow on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Division in the spring. Basal cuttings in late spring. Harvest the shoots with plenty of underground stem when they are about 8 – 10cm above the ground. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer.

Constituents: A poisonous alkaloid, named Spigeline; also a bitter acrid principle, soluble in water or alcohol, but insoluble in ether; a small amount of volatile oil, a tasteless resin, tannin, wax, fat, mucilage, albumen, myricin, a viscid, saccharine substance, lignin, salts of sodium, potassium and calcium. The reactions of the poisonous alkaloid resemble those of nicotine, lobeline and coniine.
Medicinal Uses:
Anthelmintic; Narcotic.

The whole plant, but especially the root, is anthelmintic and narcotic. A safe and effective anthelmintic when used in the proper dosage, it is especially effective with tapeworms and roundworm. Its use should always be followed by a saline aperient such as magnesium sulphate otherwise unpleasant side effects will follow. Another report says that it can be used with other herbs such as Foeniculum vulgare or Cassia senna. These will ensure that the root is expelled along with the worms since the root is potentially toxic if it is absorbed through the gut. The root is best used when fresh but can be harvested in the autumn then dried and stored. It should not be stored for longer than 2 years. Use with caution and only under professional supervision. The plant contains the alkaloid spigiline,which is largely responsible for the medicinal action but side effects of an overdose can include increased heart action, vertigo, convulsions and possibly death.
Known Hazards: This plant is poisonous in large quantities.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spigelia_marilandica
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/p/pinkro39.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Spigelia+marilandica

Cynodon dactylon (Bengali Durba ghas)

Botanical Name: : Cynodon dactylon
FamilyPoaceae
Genus: Cynodon
Species: C. dactylon
Kingdom: Planta
Order: Poales

Common Names  Dorva  grass, Dhoob, Bermuda grass, Dubo, Dog’s tooth grass, Bahama grass, Devil’s grass, Couch grass, Indian doab, Arugampul, Grama, and Scutch grass.

Other Names: In Hindi it is known as dhub, doob, or harialil; other common names include durba (Bengali), garikoihallu (Kanarese), durva (Marathi), durva or haritali (Sanskrit), arugampullu (Tamil), garikagoddi (Telugu) and dhubkhabbal (Punjabi) (Sastry and Kavathekar, 1990). Although a problem for farmers.

Habitat : Cynodon dactylon  is  native to Bermuda, it is an abundant invasive species there. It is presumed to have arrived in North America from Bermuda, resulting in its common name.

Description:
Cynodon dactylon Pers. (Poaceae), a hardy perennial grass, is one of the most commonly occurring weeds in India.The blades are a grey-green colour and are short, usually 2–15 cm (0.79–5.91 in) long with rough edges.  The erect stems can grow 1–30 cm (0.39–11.81 in) tall. The stems are slightly flattened, often tinged purple in colour….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The seed heads are produced in a cluster of two to six spikes together at the top of the stem, each spike 2–5 cm (0.79–1.97 in) long.

It has a deep root system; in drought situations with penetrable soil, the root system can grow to over 2 metres (6.6 ft) deep, though most of the root mass is less than 60 centimetres (24 in) under the surface. The grass creeps along the ground and roots wherever a node touches the ground, forming a dense mat. C. dactylon reproduces through seeds, runners, and rhizomes. Growth begins at temperatures above 15 °C (59 °F) with optimum growth between 24 and 37 °C (75 and 99 °F); in winter, the grass becomes dormant and turns brown. Growth is promoted by full sun and retarded by full shade, e.g., close to tree trunks.

Varieties:
*Tifgreen (Most drought resistant)
*Tifway
*LaPaloma
*Riviera
*SR9554
*Laprima
*Veracruz
*Wrangler
*Yukon

Cultivation:
Cynodon dactylon is widely cultivated in warm climates all over the world between about 30° S and 30° N latitude, and that get between 625 and 1,750 mm (24.6 and 68.9 in) of rainfall a year (or less, if irrigation is available). It is also found in the U.S., mostly in the southern half of the country and in warm climates.

It is fast-growing and tough, making it popular and useful for sports fields, as when damaged it will recover quickly. It is a highly desirable turf grass in warm temperate climates, particularly for those regions where its heat and drought tolerance enable it to survive where few other grasses do. This combination makes it a frequent choice for golf courses in the southern and southeastern U.S. It has a relatively coarse-bladed form with numerous cultivars selected for different turf requirements. It is also highly aggressive, crowding out most other grasses and invading other habitats, and has become a hard-to-eradicate weed in some areas (it can be controlled somewhat with Triclopyr, Mesotrione, Fluazifop-p-butyl, and Glyphosate).  This weedy nature leads some gardeners to give it the name of “devil grass”.

Medicinal Uses:
Cynodon dactylon  or durba ghas is a valuable herbal medicinal and used as first aid for minor injuries. Farmers traditionally apply crushed leaves to minor wounds as a styptik to stop bleeding similar to Tridax procumbens, Achyranthes aspera, and Blumea iacera, Oudhia, and Pal, 2000). Cynodon has a renown position in Indian systems of medicine and many parts of the plants are assumed to have medicinal properties. A traditional use of Cynodon is for eye disorders and weak vision; the afflicted are advised to walk bare foot on dew drops spread over Cynodon plant each morning. According to Ayurveda, India’s traditional pharmacopoeia, Cynodon plant is pungent, bitter, fragrant, heating, appetizer, vulnerary, anthelmintic, antipyretic, alexiteric. It destroys foulness of breath, useful in leucoderma, bronchitis, piles, asthma, tumors, and enlargement of the spleen. According to Unani system of medicine, Cynodon plant is bitter, sharp hot taste, good odor, laxative, brain and heart tonic, aphrodisiac, alexipharmic, emetic, emmenagogue, expectorant, carminative and useful against grippe in children, and for pains, inflammations, and toothache. Virus-affected discolored leaves of Cynodon are used for the treatment of liver complaints.. In Homoeopathic systems of medicine, it is used to treat all types of bleeding and skin troubles.

Other Uses:
Cynodon dactylon  is sometimes grown as a cover for warm sunny banks and are sometimes used for lawns. They stay green even in hot and dry weather. It give complete ground cover in 4-8 weeks when planted 30-45 cm apart. They succeed on most soil types and requires very little mowing on poor soils. Valuable for soil conservation due to its long runners that root at the nodes. Grasses  are used to produce biomass. Annual productivity ranges from 4 to 52 tonnes per hectare.

This grass is used  by Hindus in their puzas, marages and several other social celebrations.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynodon_dactylon
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/CropFactSheets/doob.html
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/g/grasse34.html

Solanum ptychanthum

 

Botanical Name: Solanum ptychanthum
Family:    Solanaceae
Genus:    Solanum
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:    Solanales

Common Names: Solanum ptychanthum, Eastern black nightshade or West Indian nightshade

Habitat: Eastern black nightshade is found principally in the Eastern United States. Eastern black nightshade grows in landscapes, and mixed in among most crops. It is most likely to be found growing near crops of related species such as tomatoes and potatoes. It can grow on sandy and poor soil, but prefers fertile and cultivated soil types.

Description:
Eastern black nightshade  is an annual or occasionally perennial plant . It is typically 15–60 cm tall and has many branche.The leaves of Eastern black nightshade are triangular to elliptic. The stems are circular, and sometimes slightly hairy. The flowers are small, white, and star-shaped, and they occur in small umbels of 5-7. The flowers ripen into glossy, black berries, each 10 mm in diameter and containing between 50 and 100 seeds. The ripened fruits have been shown to be not poisonous in low to moderate amounts,  however the foliage and unriped berries are toxic. The berries are eaten and dispersed by birds……..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Eastern black nightshade grows as weeds. It is, however, shade tolerant and so an infestation can survive and continue to grow even in the shade of crop plants. There are no easy chemical methods for controlling Eastern black nightshade, but night tillage reduces emergence by 50% to 75%. Planting soybeans in 7.5-inch rows also reduces growth significantly, and is the recommended method of control.
Edible  & medicinal  uses:
You may click & see:-
1) .http://www.eattheweeds.com/american-nightshade-a-much-maligned-edible/

2)...http://kentuckyforager.com/2013/03/17/a-look-back-at-2012-and-solanum-ptycanthum-eastern-black-nightshade/

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solanum_ptychanthum

Graphalium uliginosum

Botanical Name: Graphalium uliginosum
Family:
Asteraceae
Genus:     
Gnaphalium
Species:
G. uliginosum
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:     
Asterales

Synonyms:  Cotton Weed. March Everlasting.

Common Name:Marsh Cudweed

Habitat:Graphalium uliginosum is found in the British Isles and Europe. It grows in  marshy places in most parts of Europe.

Description:
Graphalium uliginosum is a very wooly annual plant, growing 4–20 cm tall.

The leaves are wooly on both sides. They are 1 to 5 cm long, narrow oblong shaped.

The flower heads are 3 to 4 mm long. They are arranged in clusters of 3 to 10, surrounded by long leaves. The flower head bracts are wooly, and pale below, with dark chaffy hairless tips. The florets are brownish yellow. The stigmas are pale.

It flowers from July until September.
Fruits: Achenes small, nerveless.

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Stalk branched, diffused; flowers crowded, termina tiny; leaves elliptical, tapering into a long foot-stalk, slightly downy and greenish above, whitish and more downy underneath. The ends of the branches crowded with nurnerous heads of nearly sessile flowers which appear in August.

Medicinal Uses:
Part Used: Herb.
Quinsy, gargle astringent, infusion 1 OZ. to 1 pint boiling water taken internally in wineglassful; also used as a gargle.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gnaphalium_uliginosum
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cudwe126.html

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Centaurea jacea

Botanical Name: Centaurea jacea
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cynareae
Genus: Centaurea
Species: C. jacea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Names:Knapweed,Brown Knapweed or Brownray Knapweed

Habitat :Centaurea jacea is native to dry meadows and open woodland throughout Europe.

Description:
Centaurea jacea is a PERENNIAL plant growing to 0.6 m (2ft).
It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from Aug to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, lepidoptera, self.The plant is self-fertile.

• Flower size: flowerheads 1 to 1-1/4 inch across
Flower color: magenta
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in ordinary garden soil. Prefers a well-drained fertile soil and a sunny position. Tolerates dry, low fertility and alkaline soils. Plants are suitable for the wild garden and for naturalising. This species is hardy to at least -15°c. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation :
Seed – sow April in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer. Division in autumn. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer or following spring. This should be done at least once every three years in order to maintain the vigour of the plant. Basal cuttings in spring. Harvest the shoots when they are about 10 – 15cm long with plenty of underground stem. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer.

Medicinal Uses:
Bitter;  Diuretic;  Ophthalmic;  Stomachic;  Tonic.

The root is bitter tonic, diuretic and stomachic. An excellent bitter for treating difficult digestive systems, it is still used in rural areas as a digestive and also to reduce the temperature of feverish children. A distilled water made from the leaves is used as an eye lotion in the treatment of conjunctivitis

As an astringent it is used for piles, a decoction of the herb being taken in doses of 1-2 fl oz three times a day. This will also be useful for sore throat if used as a gargle.  An infusion of the flowering part is also helpful in diabetes mellitus.  The root is bitter tonic, diuretic and stomachic. An excellent bitter for treating difficult digestive systems, it is still used in rural areas as a digestive and also to reduce the temperature of feverish children. A distilled water made from the leaves is used as an eye lotion in the treatment of conjunctivitis. It was also applied as a vulnerary and was used internally. Culpepper describes it as a mild astringent, ‘helpful against coughs, asthma, and difficulty of breathing, and good for diseases of the head and nerves,’ and tells us that ‘outwardly the bruised herb is famous for taking away black and blue marks out of the skin.’

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Centaurea+jacea
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centaurea_jacea
http://www.ct-botanical-society.org/galleries/centaureajace.html
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm

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