Tag Archives: Aristolochiaceae

Aristolochia debilis

Botanical Name :Aristolochia debilis
Family: Aristolochiaceae
Subfamily: Aristolochioideae
Genus: Aristolochia
Species: Aristolochia debilis
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Magnoliids
Order: Piperales

Synonyms : A. recurvilabra. Hance.

Common Name : Ma Dou Ling,  Birthwort, Frail

Habitat :Aristolochia debilis is native to  E. Asia – C,hina, Japan. It grows in the roadside thickets and meadows in lowland, C. and S. Japan and in China.

Description:
Aristolochia debilis is a perennial herb growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 1 m (3ft 3in).
It is hardy to zone 8. It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies.

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The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a well-drained loamy soil, rich in organic matter, in sun or semi-shade. Succeeds in ordinary garden soil. This species is not very hardy in Britain, tolerating temperatures down to about -5°c. Most species in this genus have malodorous flowers that are pollinated by flies.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Pre-soak stored seed for 48 hours in hand-hot water and surface sow in a greenhouse. Germination usually takes place within 1 – 3 months at 20°c. Stored seed germinates better if it is given 3 months cold stratification at 5°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer after the last expected frosts. Division in autumn. Root cuttings in winter[

Edible Uses:Leaves are edible.They are cooked. It is said that the leaves of this species are not poisonous but caution is advised.

Medicinal Uses:
Alterative;  Anodyne;  Antibacterial;  Antifungal;  AntiinflammatoryAntitussiveCarminative;  Cytotoxic;  Diuretic;  Expectorant;  Hypotensive;
Stomachic;  Tonic.

Alterative, antibacterial, antifungal, diuretic. Stimulates energy circulation. The fruit and its capsule are antiasthmatic, antiseptic, antitussive and expectorant. It is used internally in the treatment of asthma and various other chest complaints, haemorrhoids and hypertension. The root is anodyne and anti-inflammatory. It is used internally in the treatment of snakebite, gastric disorders involving bloating, and is clinically effective against hypertension. It is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. The whole plant is antitussive, carminative, stimulant and tonic. The root contains aristolochic acid. This has anti-cancer properties and can be used in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Aristolochic acid can also be used in the treatment of acute and serious infections such as TB, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and infantile pneumonia. It also increases the cellular immunity and phagocytosis function of the phagocytic cells. Aristolochic acid is said to be too toxic for clinical use

Internally used for arthritis, purulent wounds, hypertension, snake and insect bites, and gastric disorders involving bloating (roots); for asthma, wet coughs, bronchitis, hypertension and hemorrhoids (fruits). Indications: heat in the lungs manifested as cough with profuse yellow sputum and asthma.  The fruit (Madouling) is used with Loquat Leaf, Peucedanum root, Mulberry bark and Scutellaria root.  Deficiency of the lungs manifested as cough with scanty sputum or with bloody sputum and shortness of breath.  Fruit is used with Glehnia root, Ophiopogon root, Aster root and Donkey hide gelatin.

Known Hazards: No specific details for this species is known  but most members of this genus have poisonous roots and stems. The plant contains aristolochic acid, this has received rather mixed reports on its toxicity. According to one report aristolochic acid stimulates white blood cell activity and speeds the healing of wounds, but is also carcinogenic and damaging to the kidneys. Another report says that it is an active antitumour agent but is too toxic for clinical use. Another report says that aristolochic acid has anti-cancer properties and can be used in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and that it also increases the cellular immunity and phagocytosis function of the phagocytic cells

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aristolochia%20debilis
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm
http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Aristolochia_debilis
http://www.exot-nutz-zier.de/images/prod_images/Aristolochia_debilis.jpg
http://www.georgiavines.com/cart/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=9_10&products_id=118

http://www.asianflora.com/Aristolochiaceae/Aristolochia-debilis.htm

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Birthwort

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Botanical Name:Aristolochia clematitis
Family: Aristolochiaceae
Genus: Aristolochia
Species: A. clematitis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Piperales

Synonyms:
Heterotypic
Aristolochia infesta Salisb., Prodr. stirp. Chap. Allerton, 215. 1796, nom. illeg.
Aristolochia longa Georgi, Beschr. russ. Reich vol. 3, 5, 1274. 1800, nom. illeg. (non L.).
Aristolochia rotunda Georgi, Beschr. russ. Reich vol. 3, 5, 1274. 1800, nom. illeg. (non L.).

Common Name:Birthwort

Habitats:  Birthwort  is native to   east  and south east Europe. Naturalized in Britain. It grows in the waste ground, gardens, orchards etc.

Description:   Birthwort is a evergreen and deciduous woody vines and herbaceous perennials plant, growing to 0.7 m (2ft 4in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). The smooth stem is erect or somewhat twining. The simple leaves are alternate and cordate, membranous, growing on leaf stalks. There are no stipules.

The flowers grow in the leaf axils. They are inflated and globose at the base, continuing as a long perianth tube, ending in a tongue-shaped, brightly colored lobe. There is no corolla. The calyx is one to three whorled, and three to six toothed. The sepals are united (gamosepalous). There are six to 40 stamens in one whorl. They are united with the style, forming a gynostemium. The ovary is inferior and is four to six locular.

It is in leaf 11-May It is in flower from Jul to September. These flowers have a specialized pollination mechanism. The plants are aromatic and their strong scent attracts insects. The inner part of the perianth tube is covered with hairs, acting as a fly-trap. These hairs then wither to release the fly, covered with pollen.

The fruit is dehiscent capsule with many endospermic seeds.

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The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a well-drained loamy soil, rich in organic matter, in sun or semi-shade[1, 134]. Succeeds in ordinary garden soil. The plant has an invasive root system. Most species in this genus have malodorous flowers, often smelling like decaying flesh, that are pollinated by flies. The insects that pollinate this plant become trapped in the hairy throat of the flower. Birthwort was formerly cultivated as a medicinal plant in most of Europe.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Pre-soak stored seed for 48 hours in hand-hot water and surface sow in a greenhouse. Germination usually takes place within 1 – 3 months at 20°c. Stored seed germinates better if it is given 3 months cold stratification at 5°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer after the last expected frosts. Division in autumn. Root cuttings in winter

Medicinal Uses;

AbortifacientAntiinflammatory;  Antispasmodic;  Diaphoretic;  EmmenagogueFebrifuge;  Oxytoxic;  Stimulant.

Birthwort has a very long history of medicinal use, though it has been little researched scientifically and is little used by present-day herbalists. It is an aromatic tonic herb that stimulates the uterus, reduces inflammation, controls bacterial infections and promotes healing. The juice from the stems was used to induce childbirth. The plant contains aristolochic acid which, whilst stimulating white blood cell activity and speeding the healing of wounds, is also carcinogenic and damaging to the kidneys. The flowering herb, with or without the root, is abortifacient, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, oxytocic and stimulant. Another report says that the root is used on its own whilst a third says that either the fresh flowering herb or the dried rootstock can be used. The plant should not be used internally without experienced supervision, externally it is used in the treatment of slow-healing cuts, eczema, infected toe and finger nails etc. Use with caution, internal consumption can cause damage to the kidneys and uterine bleeding. It should not be used by pregnant women

Used to treat: abdominal complaints, cancer, cancer (nose), depurative, leg ulcers, menstrual troubles, polyps (nose), tumor, wounds.  Not used much today, birthwort was formerly used to treat wounds, sores, and snake bite.  It has been taken after childbirth to prevent infection and is also a potent menstruation-inducing herbs and a (very dangerous) abortifacient.  A decoction was taken to encourage healing of ulcers.  Birthwort has also been used for asthma and bronchitis.
Chinese research into aristolochic acid has shown it to be an effective wound healer.  Aristolochia species are used in China, but the medicinal use has been banned in Germany because of the toxicity of aristolochic acid.  Chinese herbalists use the fruit when there is lung heat and inflammation, with or without deficiency, but with the presence of phlegm. For these conditions, it stops coughing and wheezing. It is also used internally to treat bleeding hemorrhoids.

Click to see :Overview of Aristolochia Clematitis (Arist-c) as a homeopathic remedy. :

Known Hazards:
The root and stem are poisonous. The plant contains aristolochic acid, this has received rather mixed reports on its toxicity. According to one report aristolochic acid stimulates white blood cell activity and speeds the healing of wounds, but is also carcinogenic and damaging to the kidneys. Another report says that it is an active antitumour agent but is too toxic for clinical use. Another report says that aristolochic acid has anti-cancer properties and can be used in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and that it also increases the cellular immunity and phagocytosis function of the phagocytic cells

Medicinal problems:
It was formerly used as a medicinal plant (though poisonous) and is now occasionally found established outside of its native range as a relic of cultivation. A recent study suggests that it is the cause for thousands of kidney failures in Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia and Croatia where the plant is unintentionally consumed through flour. This has been discovered after a clinic for obesity in Belgium used Aristolochiaceae as a diuretic, after a few months some of the subjects suffered from kidney carcinoma and kidney failure.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristolochia_clematitis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aristolochia%20clematitis
http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Aristolochia_clematitis

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Aristolochia indica

Botanical name: Aristolochia indica
Family: Aristolochiaceae
Genus: Aristolochia
Species: A. indica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Piperales

English name: Indian birthwort.
Common name: Indian birthwort, Hooka-bel (Hindi), Isvaberusa (Kannada), Isvaramuli (Tamil), Esvaraveru (Telugu), Arkmula (Gujarati), Sampsun (Marathi), Garudakkoti (Malayalam)

Sanskrit name: Ishvari.
Vernacular names: Ben and Hin : Isharmul; Mal: Isvaramuli; Mar: Sapasan; Tel: Eswaramuli.
Trade name: Iswarmul.
Habitat:Found throughout the subcontinent, mainly in the plains and lower hilly regions from Nepal to Bangladesh.
Ecology and cultivation: Found in open scrub jungles; wild.
Medicinal Parts used:Root, aerial parts.
Description:
Twining herb, semiwoody, having more or less swollen nodes; leaves cordate or ovate, exstipulate; flowers irregular, often offensively smelling, perianth globose with a purple dilated and trumpet-shaped mouth with a strap-shaped brown purple appendage or lip behind; fruit a subglobose capsule.

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THE PLANT

Indigenous to Mediterranean regions, Asia Minor, and the Caucasus, this perennial is also found in numerous other regions. The plant grows to about three feet and has an unpleasant smell. The flowers are a dirty yellow and briefly trap the insects that pollinate them.

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The Duck Flower grows in the southern part of Mexico to Panama. It is a hairy vine that grows along streams and in other wet areas. The leaves are long-stemmed and appear heart-shaped. Before opening, the vine resembles the shape of a duck with the stalk appearing like a bill and a slender tail dangling at the other end. Flowering: June to October; Fruiting: November to March.


History:

Aristolochia means “excellent birth” and refers to the traditional use of the fresh juice to induce labour. Indian Root was used mainly in childbirth. In England, it was known as birthwort and used for this purpose.
Theophrastus (c. 372-286 BCE) records that the plant was used to treat disorders of the uterus, reptile bites, and sores to the head.

Of the 350 or so species of Aristolochia, several carry the common name of snakeroot because many of the species were used by Native Americans to treat snake bites. They also employed the plants to treat stomachaches, toothaches, and fevers.

In the 16th century when Francisco Hernández was cataloging the flora of “New Spain”, he came across a plant that looked like the same as the herb he knew back in Europe. The Mexican species, however, can have enormous flowers. He reported that the Aztecs used it to treat abscesses, dysentery, deafness, and various other ailments.

Chemical contents: aristolochic acids, volatile oil and tannins
Root:
A crystalline substance-probably a glucoside, a micro-crys­talline principle glucosidic in nature named isoaristolochic acid, allantoin, 0.05% carbonyl compounds and a small amount of an oil, with the odour of isovanillin, ishwarone, ishwarane, aristolochene.

Medicinal Uses:It is anti-inflammatory ,antibiotic ,analgesic ,abortifacient ,diaphoretic ,induces menstration ,nervine ,tonic and wound healer

UNANI: a constituent of ‘Majnoon-e-Flasfa’.

Modern use: Plant: used as abortifacient; EtOH (50%) extract: diuretic and anti­inflammatory; Dried stem and root: used as drug, which should be used in minimal doses; the drug promotes digestion and controls menstruation; in higher doses, it may prove lethal, it is used as a stimulant, tonic and for fevers; in moderate doses, it is used as a gastric stimulant and in dyspepsia; Root: considered as a stimulant, tonic and emmenagogue and also used in intermittent fever and in bowl troubles of children; shows antifertility activity in experimental animals.

Traditional Uses:
Root:
tonic, stimulant, emetic, emmenagogue, in fever, in powder form is given with honey for leucoderma; Root-decoction: in impotency; Crushed root: applied on itching; Juice of leaf: in snake bite, used for cough; Seed: inflammations, biliousness and dry cough.
*Birthwort was formerly used induce labour; and, when taken after childbirth, it prevented infection while inducing menstruation.

*A decoction was taken to heal ulcers, as well as for asthma and bronchitis.

*It was also used to treat wounds, sores, and snakebites. Poultices and infusions were used by Native Americans for snakebites. It was also used for this purpose in the Amazon.

*Although used in China for lung disorders, pain, and fluid retention, Germany has banned the plant because of the toxicity of aristolochic acid. It is used in a wide variety of ways in nearly all European countries.

*It was also considered a strong fever remedy.

*In the Sudan, it is used for scorpion stings.

*In Iran, the European variety is used as a tonic and to induce menstruation.

*In India, it is used as a contraceptive.

*In Mexico, it has long been recommended for snake bite; and, interestingly, half a world away in Taiwan, a 1974 study of another species also effectively inactivated snake venom.

*It is used to stimulate the immune system, as well as in the treatment of allergically caused gastrointestinal and gallbladder colic.

*In Chinese medicine, it is used for joint pain, stomachache, malaria, and abscesses.

*Homeopathic uses include gynecological disorders and in the treatment of wounds and ulcers.

*It has been used in treatment after major surgery and in ear-nose-throat treatments.

Duck Flower has a number of reported uses in Central America. Generally not available in the US, it is available south of that border. Michael Balick and Rosita Arvigo state that it is one of the most popular herbal remedies used in Belize, where decoctions and infusions are commonly made from the vine. It can often be seen soaking in a bottle of rum in saloons since it is taken by the shot for hangovers, flu, flatulence, late menstrual periods, and irregular heartbeat. However, it is advised that it be used under the guidance of a knowledgeable professional as it is poisonous and contains a mutagen and carcinogenic.

It contains Aristolochic acid which not only stimulates white blood cell activity, it is also carcinogenic and damaging to the kidneys. However, it is an effective wound healer, according to Chinese research.

CAUTIONS:
*This genus of plant is rarely used anymore because it is so dangerous. Therefore, it should be used only under strict knowledgeable supervision.

*It is contraindicated in pregnancy.

*Since it is highly toxic, it can lead to the development of tumors if low doses are taken over an extended period of time.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.bsienvis.org/medi.htm#Aristolochia%20indica
http://www.innvista.com/health/herbs/birthwor.htm
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Indian%20Birthwort.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristolochia_indica

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