We should think it this way:..….when we are born, we are soft, squishy watery baby with liquids flowing in and out of us. As you grow up, our body gains more form, our skin is harder, our bodily fluids are more contained. As we continue to grow, our skin becomes dryer, joints lose their flexibility, and our body begins to lose strength.
As we grow old, we experience changes both in our life circumstances, our mind and in our body.
Kapha, the combination of water and earth, dominates childhood. Moisture, stickiness, we are affectionate, emotional and carefree. We get attached easily, we cry quickly. We consume liquids- our digestive power is yet to be built.
As we grow older, we pass through the phase of Pitta, which is made up of water and fire. We are ambitious, energetic, at the prime of the strength of our faculties. You can eat and experiment with most foods, your digestion is fully developed.
And eventually, we enter the phase of Vata, which is made up of air and space. We are less fluid in our movements. We are spaced out more often, there are gastric issues. We cannot easily eat anything we like, for, our digestion is challenged. Feeling cold, dried, wrinkled skin, dry, painful joints, restlessness, forgetfulness and anxiety is Vata making its presence felt.
Definition & Causes:
Body odor, or B.O., bromhidrosis, osmidrosis and ozochrotia, is a perceived unpleasant smell our bodies can give off when bacteria that live on the skin break down sweat into acids – some say it is the smell of bacteria growing on the body, but it really is the result of bacteria breaking down protein into certain acids.
Body odor usually becomes evident if measures are not taken when a human reaches puberty – 14-16 years of age in females and 15-17 years of age in males. People who are obese, those who regularly eat spicy foods, as well as individuals with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, are more susceptible to having body odor…
People who sweat too much – those with hyperhidrosis – may also be susceptible to body odor, however, often the salt level of their sweat is too high for the bacteria to break down – it depends where the excess sweating is occurring and which type of sweat glands are involved.
.Body odour is caused by a natural process involving sweat that occurs on the skin’s surface. Sweat is odourless, but if left on the skin the bacteria that normally live there feed on it and break it down. This process releases chemicals that cause the unpleasant smell.
Some areas of the skin, such as the armpits and genitals, are more likely to produce body odour because these glands produce proteins and oily substances that bacteria feed on.
The feet produce their own characteristic odour. We tend to wrap them in socks and shoes, making them hot and humid and allowing fungi, as well as bacteria, to flourish.
According to Medilexicon’s medical dictionary:
Bromhidrosis (or bromidrosis) is a “fetid or foul-smelling perspiration. Apocrine bromhidrosis affects the axillae after puberty, and eccrine bromhidrosis is generalized, with excessive sweating.”
Sweat itself is virtually odorless to humans; it is the rapid multiplication of bacteria in the presence of sweat and what they do (break sweat down into acids) that eventually causes the unpleasant smell. The smell is perceived as unpleasant, many believe, because most of us have been brought up to dislike it. Body odor is most likely to occur in our feet, groin, armpits, genitals, pubic hair and other hair, belly button, anus, behind the ears, and to some (lesser) extent on the rest of our skin.
Body odor can have a nice and specific smell to the individual, and can be used – especially by dogs and other animals – to identify people. Each person’s unique body odor can be influenced by diet, gender, health, and medication.
Two types of acid are commonly present when there is body odor:
*Propionic acid(propanoic acid) is commonly found in sweat – propionibacteria break amino acids down into propionic acid. Propionibacteria live in the ducts of the sebaceous glands of adult and adolescent humans. Some people may identify a vinegar-like smell with propionic acid, because it is similar to acetic acid, which gives vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell.
*Isovaleric acid (3-methyl butanoic acid) is another source of body odor as a result of actions of the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis, which are also present in several strong cheese types.
Body odor can smell pleasant and specific to the individual and can be used to identify people, though this is more often done by dogs and other animals than by humans. An individual’s body odor is also influenced by diet, lifestyle, gender, genetics, health and medication.
The average human body has three to four million sweat glands, of which there are two types:
*Eccrine glands – a type of simple sweat gland that is located in almost all areas where there is skin. They produce sweat that reaches the skin’s surface via coiled ducts (tubes). When sweat evaporates from the skin the body is cooled. Eccrine glands are responsible for regulating our body’s temperature.
*Apocrine glands– these glands are found in the breasts, genital area, eyelids, armpits and ear. In the breasts they secrete fat droplets into breast milk. In the ear they help form earwax. Apocrine glands in skin and the eyelids are sweat glands.
Body odor is largely influenced by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. These are genetically determined and play an important role in immunity of the organism. The vomeronasal organ contains cells sensitive to MHC molecules in a genotype-specific way. Experiments on animals and volunteers have shown that potential sexual partners tend to be perceived more attractive if their MHC composition is substantially different. This behavior pattern promotes variability of the immune system of individuals in the population, thus making the population more robust against new diseases.
One study suggests that body odor is genetically determined by a gene that also codes the type of earwax one has. East Asians (those of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese descent) have the type of sweat glands that even after hitting puberty still don’t produce the chemicals found in the perspiration of other ancestral groups. East Asians evidently have a greater chance of having the ‘dry’ earwax type and reduced axial sweating and odor. This may be due to adaptation to colder climates.
Why you should be aware of it?
Medical research shows that people with body odour might suffer from severe problems in their personal and social relationships. It might also impact their work life — with colleagues and seniors avoiding them. They might not get full rewards of their hard work which in turn might wreck promotion prospects at work. For kids it might lead to educational under-achievement because of teasing and bullying along with enormous degrees of stress which is blamed for their frequent progression into alcoholism, excessive tobacco or drug use and in some cases to suicide.
Feelings of shame, embarrassment, low self-esteem, isolation, frustration, anxiety and depression are extremely common where body odour is present.
Although sufferers and their families have been shown to gain considerable benefit from sympathetic counseling, and while learning to deal with the stress this condition causes is certainly important – long-term strategies and approaches which deal with underlying causes of increased body odour are probably a lot more important.
It is important to know how to deal with the problem of body odour if you are suffering from it. If someone in your personal, social or professional circle suffers from body odour then there is a need to find out a way to address the issue mindfuly and delicately to avoid future embarassment to the person.
The symptom is an unpleasant smell that may be worse in hot and sweaty conditions. The actual smell varies from person to person. The ‘recipe’ of sweat is individual.
Body odour may be influenced by diet. Certain foods, such as curry, garlic and strong spices, contain chemicals that may be excreted in the skin.
The smell almost always disappears with a shower or bath, but can return rapidly, especially if a person puts on unwashed clothes covered in old sweat and bacteria.
In the vast majority of cases of body odor it is not necessary to see your doctor. The individual himself/herself may be aware of it, or a good friend or a member of the household may tell them about their body odor. There are some self-care techniques that will usually successfully treat the problem.
Most people can easily recognise body odour. Unfortunately, the person who has it may be so accustomed to their own smell that they don’t notice.
When to see your doctor:
Some medical conditions may change how much a person sweats, while others can alter how we sweat, subsequently changing the way we smell. For example, hyperthyroidism (an over-active thyroid gland) or the menopause can make people sweat much more, while liver disease, kidney disease, or diabetes can change the consistency of sweat so that the person smells differently. You should see your doctor if:
*You start sweating at night
*You start sweating much more than you normally do, without any logical reason
*You have cold sweats
*Sweating disrupts your daily routine
*You body smells differently – if it is a fruity smell it could be due to diabetes, liver or kidney disease often makes the individual have a bleach-like smell.
Treatment: #.Armpits – a large concentration of apocrine glands exist in the armpits, making that area susceptible to rapid development of body odor.
*Keep the armpits clean – wash them regularly using anti-bacterial soap, and the number of bacteria will be kept low, resulting in less body odor.
*Hair under the armpits slows down the evaporation of sweat, giving the bacteria more time to break it down into smelly substances; shaving the armpits regularly has been found to help body odor control in that area.
*Deodorant or antiperspirant – deodorants make the skin more acidic, making the environment more difficult for bacteria to thrive. An antiperspirant blocks the sweating action of the glands, resulting in less sweating. Some studies, however, have indicated that antiperspirants may be linked to breast cancer or prostate cancer risk; this study suggests that the evidence is inconclusive either way.
*Botulinum toxin – this is a toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum; it is the most poisonous biological substance known. However, very small and controlled doses are today being used in various fields of medicine. A relatively new treatment is available for individuals who sweat excessibely under the arms.
The patient is given approximately 12 injections of botulinum toxin in the armpits – a procedure that should not last more than 45 minutes. The toxin blocks the signals from the brain to the sweat glands, resulting in less sweating in the targeted area. One treatment can last from two to eight months. In countries where free universal healthcare is available, such as the NHS (National Health Service), UK, botulinum toxin therapy for excessive underarm sweating is not usually available and most patients will have to do it privately (pay for this specific treatment).
#.Wash daily with warm water – have a shower or bath at least once a day. Remember that warm water helps kill off bacteria that are present on your skin. If the weather is exceptionally hot, consider bathing more often than once a day.
#Clothing – natural fibers allow your skin to breathe, resulting in better evaporation of sweat. Natural-made fibers include wool, silk or cotton.
#Spicy foods – curry, garlic and some other spicy (piquant) foods have the potential to make some people’s sweat more pungent. Some experts believe a diet high in red meat may also raise the risk of developing more rapid body odor.
#Aluminum chloride – this substance is usually the main active ingredient in antiperspirants. If your body does not respond to the home remedies mentioned above, talk to a pharmacist or your doctor about a suitable product containing aluminum chloride. Follow the instructions given to you carefully.
#Treatment for smelly feet (bromodosis) – smelly feet are less of a problem socially than underarm B.O. because the unpleasant odor is usually contained by shoes and socks. However, the smell may become obvious if the person with smelly feet visits a home where shoes are taken off before entering, as is the custom in various countries and homes. The following steps may help control food odor:
*Wash your feet in warm water regularly – this means at least once a day. Remember that warm water is better at killing off bacteria than cold water. Tea-tree oil, when added to water, helps kill off bacteria (do not apply tea-tree oil directly to skin). Make sure you dry your feet thoroughly afterwards, including in between your toes.
*Socks – they must allow the sweat to evaporate. The best socks are those made of a combination of man-made fibers and wool. Wear a clean pair of socks each day.
*Shoes – if you wear trainers or shoes with plastic linings make sure it is not for long. A leather lining is better for sweat evaporation. If you have a problem with sweaty feet, do not wear the same pair of shoes two days in a row – shoes do not completely dry overnight.
*Pumice stone – bacteria thrive on dead skin. If the soles of your feet have patches of dead skin remove them with a pumice stone.
*Deodorants and antiperspirants – ask your pharmacist for special foot deodorants and antiperspirants. If you have athlete’s foot you should not use deodorants or antiperspirants – treat the fungal infection first with appropriate medication.
*Go around barefoot – whenever you can walk around barefoot, or at least slip out of your shoes regularly.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.
A marine compound discovered off the coast of Key Largo in Florida inhibits cancer cell growth in lab tests and is likely to prompt the development of effective new drugs.
The University of Florida (UF)-patented compound, largazole, is derived from cyanobacteria that grow on coral reefs. It is being described as one of the most promising finds since the college’s marine lab was established three years ago.
The molecule’s natural chemical structure and its ability to inhibit cancer cell growth were first described in the Journal of American Chemical Society in February, and the lab synthesis and description of the molecular basis for its anti-cancer activity appeared on July 2.
“It’s exciting because we’ve found a compound in nature that may one day surpass a currently marketed drug or could become the structural template for rationally designed drugs with improved selectivity,” said Hendrik Luesch, assistant professor in UF’s Department of Medicinal Chemistry and the study’s principal investigator.
Largazole, discovered and named by Luesch for its Florida location and structural features, seeks out a family of enzymes called histone deacetylase, or HDAC. Overactivity of certain HDACs has been associated with several cancers such as prostate and colon tumours, and inhibition of HDACs can activate tumour-suppressor genes that have been silenced in these cancers.
Although scientists have been probing the depths of the ocean for marine products since the early 1960s, many pharmaceutical companies lost interest before researchers could deliver useful compounds because natural products were considered too costly and time-consuming to research and develop.
Many common medications, from pain relievers to cholesterol-reducing statins, stem from natural products that grow on the earth, but there is literally an ocean of compounds yet to be discovered in our seas.
Only 14 natural marine products developed are in clinical trials today, Luesch said, and one drug recently approved in Europe is the first-ever marine-derived anti-cancer agent.
“Marine study is in its infancy”, said William Fenical, professor of oceanography and pharmaceutical sciences at the University of California, San Diego. “The ocean is a genetically distinct environment and the single, most diverse source of new molecules to be discovered”.
HDACs are already targeted by a drug approved for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma manufactured by the global pharmaceutical companyMerck & Co. Inc. However, UF’s compound does not inhibit all HDACs equally, meaning a largazole-based drug might result in improved therapies and fewer side effects, Luesch said.
Luesch said that, within the next few months, he plans to study whether largazole reduces or prevents tumour growth in mice. Luesch has several other anti-tumour natural products from Atlantic and Pacific cyanobacteria in the pipeline.
These results were presented on Thursday at an international natural products scientific meeting in Athens.
Hidradenitis is a chronic disease of the scent or apocrine glands which causes chronic scarring and pus formation of the axillae and groin areas. It is similar to acne which is a disease of the sebaceous glands. This condition is slightly more common in African-Americans and women. Hidradenitis usually starts as one or more red, tender, swellings in the groin or axilla. Over a period of hours to days the lesions enlarge and often open to the skin surface draining clear to yellow fluid. The involved area then heals with scarring. The condition usually continues for years with periods of flare and remission.
Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS), also known as ‘Acne Inversa‘, is a physically, psychologically, and socially disabling disease affecting inverse areas of the body (those places where there is skin-to-skin contact – armpits, groin, breasts, etc.), and where apocrine glands and hair follicles are found. It is non-contagious and recurrent; typically manifesting as a progression from single boil-like, pus-filled abscesses, or hard sebaceous lumps, to painful, deep-seated, often inflamed clusters of lesions with chronic seepage (suppuration — hence the name) involving significant scarring.
For unknown reasons, people with hidradenitis develop plugging or clogging of their apocrine glands. This leads to bacterial infection which can produce pain and odor.
Hidradenitis is made worse by being overweight, however this condition is not caused by obesity.
Hidradenitis is more common in people who have had acne.
Hidradenitis may become worse under stress.
Hidradenitis is not caused by poor hygiene.
Hidradenitis is a chronic disease of the apocrine glands (a form of sweat gland found on certain parts of the body). For unknown reasons, people with hidradenitis develop plugging or clogging of their apocrine glands. It causes chronic scarring and pus formation of the underarms (axilla) and groin/inner thigh areas. In women it can also occur under the breasts. It is similar to acne, which is also a disease of the sebaceous glands. Hidradenitis is more common in people who have had acne. It may be an unusual type of adult acne.
This condition is slightly more common in women and African-Americans. Hidradenitis usually starts as one or more red, tender, swellings in the groin or armpits. Over a period of hours to days the lesions enlarge and often open to the skin surface draining clear to yellow fluid. The involved area then heals with scarring. The condition usually continues for years with periods of flare and remission. Bacterial infection produces the pain and odor. Hidradenitis is made worse by being overweight, however this condition is not caused by obesity and weight loss will improve but not cure hidradenitis. Hidradenitis may become worse under stress. Hidradenitis is not caused by poor hygiene.
Hidradenitis suppurativa usually develops in otherwise healthy people, but it has been associated with Crohn’s disease in some individuals. It is a non-contagious skin disease that usually appears on the body in skin folds of the underarms, groin, or perianal area. It has three main stages, beginning with boils or pockets of infection (abscesses). These become hard, painful, inflamed lumps with drainage (suppuration). Tunnels (sinus tracts) may form around and between the lumps.
Scars form. The last stage is the most debilitating, because large areas of skin are affected by the abscesses, sinus tracts, lumps, and scars.
Worsens over time
Hidradenitis suppurativa usually develops slowly over time, with flare-ups, but in some people the disease progresses quickly. The course of the disease varies for each person. Some will stay at one stage most of the
Topical antibiotics (applied to the skin) are the treatment of choice. Systemic (by mouth) antibiotics are at times necessary when the condition is flaring or when a patient has a severe case.
Tight-fitting clothing is to be strictly avoided.
Dirt does not cause hidradenitis. The involved areas should be cleaned daily using an antibacterial soap, such as the liquid form of Lever 2000. Some patients have found that the liquid form of Lever 2000, applied to the involved areas as a lotion after bathing, can help reduce the odor associated with this condition.
There is no medical cure for hidradenitis. Hidradenitis can be controlled, but not cured. Sometimes surgery is required to drain infected areas or to remove scarred tissue or even large areas of skin.
Weight loss will improve but not cure hidradenitis.
Initial treatments are usually oral antibiotics (minocycline, tetracycline, erythromycin, Augmentin, others) and topical antibiotics (clindamycin or erythromycin). Intralesional injections into the affected places reduce swelling and tenderness within days. Anti-inflammatory pills (Celebrex, Advil, Naprosyn, Alleve, and others) are helpful in addition to the antibiotics, especially if it is a severe case. Some women respond to high estrogen birth control pills (Demulen 1/50 Ortho Novum 1/50) and spironolactone pills.
Tight fitting clothing and shaving the areas are to be strictly avoided. Dirt does not cause hidradenitis. The involved areas should be cleaned daily using an antibacterial soap, as this will reduce any odor associated with this condition. Retin-A cream, a prescription, helps some people. Accutane, a drug for severe acne, offers modest help for moderately bad cases. There is medical control, but not cure for hidradenitis.
Surgery is the most effective treatment for recalcitrant hidradenitis. Aggressive surgery will cure an area of severe, chronic hidradenitis but it has to remove scarred tissue or even large areas of skin. Skin grafts may be needed. Incision (lancing) and draining will reliably help smaller affected areas. Because surgery scars and may have complications, medical treatments are usually tried first.
Prevention: For those who are really worried about a hangover, the best piece of advice is don’t get drunk. But, here’s some tips on drinking…..….click & see
1. Don’t keep up with the boys. Women do not have the tolerance for alcohol that men do, even when they are the same size. For men the standard is two drinks per evening. For women a better limit should be one drink for smaller women (less than 120 lbs.) and one and a half for all others. A drink is defined as one mixed drink, 4 oz of wine, or 12 oz of beer. A “half drink” is a light beer, or a wine cooler.
2. Drink clear alcohol. Dark alcohol tends to contain a substance called cogeners. These types of alcohols are more likely to cause hangover symptoms. White wine, vodkas, light rum are examples of clear alcohols. Red wine, dark rum, sherry, brandy are high in cogeners. Beer is in between, mostly depending on how dark it is. This difference has no effect on how drunk a woman can get, only the liklihood and severity of hang-overs.
3. The food thing. Everyone knows this already. Eat something before and during alcohol consumption. This slows the absorption of alcohol. Fats and carbohydrates are best for slowing absorption. Sugars intake prevents hang-overs. Cakes and pastries are the party food that has lots of all three.
4. The water thing. Dehydration is a big part of hang-overs. Combat it while you are drinking. Intersperse the measily ration of drinks a woman has, with water-based drinks. Try to avoid ones with caffeine and acids. Carbonation? Depends on how easily upset the woman’s stomach gets. If she has a weak stomach, skips the bubbles. Get some more sugar in here too.
5. Think about how fattening getting drunk and preventing the hangover is. Six alcohol drinks, 2 brownies, and 4 sugar-based drinks–a whopping 2100 calories. Will a woman’s social life improve by becoming a fat, drunk woman?
1. More Water. The dehydration of getting drunk actually stimulates the body to absorb water from the brain, which in fact shrinks a bit. This causes the headaches, dry mouth, and part of the general malaise of the hangover. By drinking water prior to going to sleep a person helps prevent dehydration, and speeds up the flushing of alcohol from the body. Some people even suggest drinking Gatorade or a sports drink before going to bed. Sugar based drinks can help too. Again, no caffeine, such as coffee should be avoided as they only act to further dehydrate a person and sleep will be the best escape anyway. Avoid carbonation and acidic drinks (like orange juice) if the stomach is upset. Apple juice, Hawaiian Punch, and Gatorade are good drinks. Milk can be hard to digest at this point. If nauseated, clear water at room temperature, taken in small sips will be the easiest to hold down.
2. More Sugar. This helps because alcohol breaks down sugar stores in the liver that need to be replaced. Without these sugar stores we often feel lightheaded and weak.
3. Pepto Bismol or Antacid.If you are suffering from an upset stomach, brand names such as Pepto-Bismol, Tums or Maalox can help counter the discomfort. – click & see
4. Maybe Some Ibuprofen. If stomach is not upset and there is no history of ulcers or bleeding problems, and the woman is NOT a regular, heavy drinker, a couple of ibuprofen or similar pain-relievers can help. Be careful. Both alcohol and these medications irritate the stomach and increase the tendency to bleed. It isn’t worth adding to the problem. Advil, Aleve are acceptable alternatives.
5.Tylenol or aspirin probably won’t touch it. In addition, Tylenol (actominophen) can cause liver damage and should be avoided if the woman is a regular, heavy drinker. This is defined as 3 or more drinks a day. Asprin can also contribute to stomach bleeding.
6. Put extras of all the above next to the mattress,which should be put on the floor. Put a solid sided wastebasket or bucket nearby too. Unhook the phone.
Usually your body will crave just what it needs. A method that combines all of these helpful hints: Step 1. Start with Pepto Bismol Step 2. A large glass of water (16-32 oz a standardized-size canned drink is 12 oz) OR A large glass of orange juice, if the stomach is OK (with or without extra sugar added) Step 3. A big chocolate chip cookie or brownie Step 4. Followed by 2 ibuprofen (if meet the above criteria) Step 5. Remember this moment Step 6. Repent Step 7. Unhook the phone, go back to bed.