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The Science of Yoga

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Scientific evidence proves the benefits of yogic postures, especially surya namaskar.
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The “S.N.” in his name does not stand for “surya namaskar”. But it may not be inappropriate for S.N. Omkar, an aerospace researcher at the Bangalore-based Indian Institute of Science (IISc), to have the term as his second name, considering his contribution to the art of yoga, particularly surya namaskar or sun salutation.

Omkar — who is also the yoga coach of the Indian cricket team — recently demonstrated why surya namaskar is one of the best forms of exercise for the human body. And that’s a claim he supports with his own scientific studies.

According to a study by him that appeared last week in the Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, regularly practising surya namaskar aids in bone formation (osteogenesis) and bone remodelling. The paper is co-authored by Meenakshi Mour and Debarun Das, research students at the National Institute of Technology, Durgapur.

Independent experts agree that performing surya namasakar every day greatly benefits mental and physical well being. But to say that it helps in osteogenesis is slightly far-fetched, they argue.

To prove his point, Omkar developed a mathematical model to tabulate the forces acting on the various joints in the body — such as the wrists, elbows, shoulders, hip, knees and ankles — during the 10 different postures the exercise involves. According to him, no major joint is overstressed during any of the sequences. At the same time, the activity burns calories at rates comparable to those of many rigorous aerobic exercises. For instance, quoting his own earlier work, the IISc scientist says that if a person weighing 70kg does the exercise 120 times at a stretch — and this can be done in around 55 minutes — he or she could burn up to 380 kilo calories, which is almost equal to the energy expenditure in one hour of brisk walking.

A product of the B.K.S. Iyengar School of Yoga in Pune, Omkar was always interested in unravelling the science behind different yoga postures. An opportunity beckoned to him when recently the Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) approached him for a project. The space agency — which is contemplating an indigenous man mission to space in the near future — wanted Omkar, an aerospace expert, to probe aspects of the balance and stability required by an astronaut to combat space motion sickness, a condition produced by the absence of a gravitational field and subsequent confusion of the human vestibular (balance) system. “The project is in its nascent stage,” says Omkar, refusing to elaborate further.

As a first step, the IISc researcher wanted to derive a mathematical model of the forces and moments acting on the various joints in the body. “The model is based on simple mechanics. It will help detect the forces and moments experienced by major joints during the practice of surya namaskar. Through this one can compare the joint forces and moments during various yoga activities,” Omkar told KnowHow.

The joints are subjected to dynamic strains and moments as the body executes the various postures, explains Omkar. Earlier studies by bone specialists have shown that persistent low-amplitude but high-frequency mechanical strain on the bones can hasten the rate of bone formation, he adds.

Experts such as Venkatesh Balasubramanian — an associate professor of biomechanics at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Madras — have lauded the effort to scientifically validate the ancient practice of yoga. “But the calculations are too simplistic to be accurate,” Balasubramanian told KnowHow from Melbourne in Australia, where he is on a sabbatical.

According to Balasubramanian, Omkar’s study largely ignores the forces exerted by most of the muscles and ligaments involved in the exercise. “Overall, it is a good attempt to scientifically explain surya namaskar. A more rigorous study would be a step forward in this direction,” he says. Balasubramanian is also not very sure of the calorie-burning rate the IISc researchers have cited.

Melany Westwell of the Connecticut Children’s Medical Center in the US, who has studied yoga postures, too thinks there is a flaw in the biomechanical model used in the study. But she agrees that since the postures require the use of large muscle groups — which are core muscles — and a large range of motion, a lot of calories are burnt. “As long as you have muscle contraction, you have to be burning calories,” she says.

Omkar, however, argues that the calorie counting was done using a Polar watch, which is commonly used by sportspersons all over the world. “They are quite dependable,” he asserts.

Whatever be the research methodology, one thing seems clear: understanding the scientific basis of yoga asanas and pranayamas will enable their use in therapy in a more effective manner.

List of asanas

Source: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

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Iyengar yoga improves immunity

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A study, conducted by researchers at the Washington State University, has found that the immunity
system of breast cancer survivors improved significantly after practising the Iyengar form of yoga.


Created by B K S Iyengar, based on the traditional eight limbs of yoga as expounded by Patanjali in his Yoga Sutras, this yoga form emphasises the development of strength, stamina, flexibility and balance, as well as concentration and meditation.

Considered to be a more active form of yoga, researchers reported on Monday at the American Physiological Society meeting in Washington DC that in breast cancer survivors, the Iyengar method not only promoted psychological well-being but also benefited the patients’ immune system.

According to lead researcher Pamela E Schultz, practising the yoga form resulted in decreased activation of an important immune system protein called NF-kB in patients, which is a marker of stress in the body.
“So it’s possible,” Schultz said, “that decreased activation of NF-kB indicates decreased stress in the body. NF-kB is activated in the body by physical or mental stress.”

Schultz randomly assigned 19 women, average age 61 years, diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer and receiving antiestrogen or aromatase inhibitor hormonal therapy, to eight weeks of Iyengar yoga. Beginning level Iyengar yoga classes were conducted two times per week for eight weeks and included the following yoga poses: standing poses, chest and shoulder openers and inversions.

Blood sample to determine lymphocyte NF-kB activation were collected prior to and following the intervention.
“Psychosocial tests showed that the demands of illness, which reflects the burden of hardship of being a breast cancer survivor, lowered in the yoga participants. The survivors showed changes in the way their immune cells respond to activation signals. The function of genes in immune cells can be regulated by proteins called transcription factors. Transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) is linked to immune cell activation and to the stress response,” Schultz said.

Speaking to TOI, 89-year-old Iyengar said, “Similar studies in Mumbai found that certain asanas improve the quality of blood and results in better blood circulation. It also improved the production of proteins in the immune system called T-cell receptors that actually direct the immune system to attack specific targets. Immune cells that contain the engineered T-cell receptor better display targeted immunity with a few asanas.”

Cancer and its treatments are associated with considerable distress, impaired quality of life and reduced physical function, especially for women with breast cancer who receive multi-modality treatment over an extended period of time. “Yoga greatly helps to relieve and improve quality of life among cancer patients over time,” Iyengar said.

Dr Chidanand Murthy, director of Central Council for Research in Yoga, said, “A similar study conducted in AIIMS on 30 patients in 2006 found that Sudarshan Kriya and Pranayama greatly helped cut down the growth of breast cancer cells within the body. Through release of stress, adverse effects of chemotherapy were also avoided.”

Indian Council of Medical Research data shows that the incidence of breast cancer is high among Indians and is estimated that one in 22 Indian females is likely to develop breast cancer during her lifetime in contrast to one in eight in America.

According to Delhi’s latest cancer registry, breast cancer among women is rising by about 2% every year. It now affects 30 per 100,000 females.

Source:The Times Of India