Local Common Names: Bukakau (Bik.),Kanubsubang (Pamp.)Kaykayu (If.),Saimbangan-tubig (Sul.),Sigan-lupa (Tag.),Bearded knotweed (Engl.),Subsuban (Tag.),Jointweed (Engl.),Knotgrass (Engl.),Smart-weed (Engl.)
Other Common name: Bearded Knotweed, water milkwort Bengali: bekh-unjubaz Kannada: konde malle, kondemalle Malayalam: belutta-modela-mucca Manipuri: Yelang Marathi: dhaktasheral Mizo: anbawng Nepali: Bish
Tamil: niralari, neer alari
Telugu: kondamalle, neeruganneru
Habitat :It is found in the streamsides, wet areas, water sides; sea level to 1300 m.In the places like Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sikkim, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
Herbs perennial, rhizomatous. Stems erect, 40-90 cm tall, robust, pubescent, simple or branched above. Petiole 5-8 mm, densely hispidulous; leaf blade lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, 7-15 × 1.5-4 cm, both surfaces pubescent, base cuneate, margin ciliate, apex acuminate; ocrea tubular, 1.5-2 cm, membranous, densely hispidulous, apex truncate, cilia 1.5-2 cm. Inflorescence terminal, spicate, erect, 4-8 cm, several spikes aggregated and panicle-like, rarely solitary; bracts funnel-shaped, glabrous, margin ciliate, each 3-5-flowered. Pedicel short. Perianth white or greenish, 5-parted; tepals elliptic, 1.5-2 mm. Stamens 5-8, included. Styles 3; stigmas capitate. Achenes included in persistent perianth, black, shiny, ovoid, trigonous, 1.5-2 mm. Fl. Aug-Sep, fr. Sep-Oct. 2n = 60.
Parts used: Leaves, seeds, and roots.
Considered astringent, carminative, parasiticide.
*Pounded leaves applied to wounds as cicatrizant.
*Seeds are used for colic.
*Decoction of leaves and stems used to wash wounds and ulcers.
*It has been tried for diabetes with no observed benefits.
*Sap applied to wounds as antiseptic.
*Paste of roots used for treatment of scabies.
Studies • Anti-Ulcer: A study on the aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of P barbatum showed reduction of gastric volume, total acidity, free acidity and ulcer index. The antiulcer activity may be due to the presence of flavanoids and tannins. • Wound-Healing: A study of wound healing on albino rats of Wistar strain showed a significant increase in wound closure rate, tensile strength and decrease in epithelization perioe in PB treated group. Study concludes that ethanolic extract of P B had greater wound healing activity than nitrofurazone ointment.
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider
Botanical Name : Bambusa arundinacea Willd Family :Graminae, Poaceae Common Name :Mungil, Bans, Kotoha, Ketua, Kantaki, Keechaka, Vamsha, Spiny thorn bamboo
Bengali/vernacular name: Bans, Kantabans, Ketsi. English name: Bamboo, Spiny Bamboo.
Habitat : The plant grows wild all over India, mainly in forests of western and southern parts of the country.Thorny Bamboo is native over much of India. It is Wild in most parts of tropical India and Pakistan, growing up to 1000 m altitudes in the Nilgiris and hills of southern India; north into China.
It grows up to 1500 – 2000 meters elevation. It is an erect, 15-35 meters tall, thorny tree , with many stems. The plant is hollow between the joints, with 2-3 alternate thorns on the stem. The leaves sheathing, linear, 20 cm long and 2 cm broad, lanceolate, tapering in the pointed tips. The flowers in bunches, yellow or yellowish green in long panicles. The fruits are oblong grains, resembling like yava fruits, hence called as vamsayava.
Tall woody bamboo, stems thorny, numerous, tufted, up to 40 m tall, curving at top; branches numerous, internodes 30–45 cm long, prominent, bearing in lower parts of stems dense half whorls of stiff, naked, horizontal branches, armed with 2–3 recurved, stout spines; lowest nodes rooting; stem-sheaths leathery, orange-yellow when young, hairy outside, shining and ribbed inside, 30–45 cm long; blade triangular, glabrous, covered with a brown felt of bristly hairs inside; leaves thin, linear, up to 20 cm long, glabrous above, hair beneath; leaf-sheaths hairy, small; inflorescence an enormous panicle, often occupying the entire stem; branchlets loose clusters of pale, glabrous spikes.
Bamboos may be produced by means of seeds, vegetative portions or by layering the stems and letting them root at the nodes. Seeds are sown in soil about 0.6 cm deep and about 2.5 cm apart in rows 7.5–10 cm apart. Germination occurs in about a week and seedlings grow rapidly. When plants are 15–20 cm tall, they are transplanted to individual containers. Transplanting to the field is done when plants are about 1 m tall. Growing plants from seed is the most economical and convenient method of propagating large numbers of plants. Clump division is the traditional and most generally prevalent method of propagating bamboos vegetatively. Active growth of young shoots from buds on the rhizome in this group of bamboos is initiated during the summer. The commonly recommended practice is to process vegetative propagules just before the initiation of growth of these buds. A clump is divided into two equal parts, retaining the root system, branches and leaves of each part as fully intact as possible. Properly set out, these propagules usually give the highest degree of success. Clump divisions taken from the edge of the clump are apt to give superior results. The rhizome should be severed at one point only, at the neck of the oldest rhizome axis in the propagule. Cut should be made at the slender neck where the minimum damage to the rhizome is done. Roots are best preserved and protected keeping them in a ball of earth when the propagule is taken from the parent plant. Some species, as B. tulda, has been successfully propagated by rhizomes planted in situ, with 95% survival not uncommon. Culm segments, with one or more nodes, bearing buds or branches, are used widely as a means of propagation in both the Old and New World. Branches are usually pruned to 30 cm or less, with no foliage retained. Such cuttings are set upright or at an angle, with at least one node well covered. B. vulgaris is often propagated this way.
Bamboos are harvested for food when the young shoots are 30–75 cm tall. Other parts of the plant are harvested whenever needed, as the leaves, branches and woody stems.
Edible Uses: The roots, leaves, sprouts, fruits and the gum resin – vamsarocana, have great medicinal value.
It contains silica 90% or silicon as hydrate of silicic acid, peroxide or iron, potash, lime, alumina, vegetable matter. The grains of the plant contain water 11.0%, starch 73.1%, albuminoids 11.86%, fiber 1.7% and ash 1.2%. The young shoots containing cyanogenic glycoside are poisonous. The glycoside is gydrolysed by an enzyme also present in the shoots when they are cut and soaked in water.
The stem consists almost entirely of cellulose and hemicellulose (xylans, arabans, polyuronides, etc.) and lignins, with a small amount of resins. Oven-dried stems contain 3.3% ash, 1.8% silica, 6.0% hot water solubles (see above), 19.6% pentosans, 30.1% lignin, and 57.6% cellulose. Analyses from paper pulping showed 8.5% water extract, 1.2% fat, wax, etc., 24.4% pectose, 15.6% lignin, 50.3% cellulose, and 1.6% ash. Per 100 g, the seeds are reported to contain 11.0% H2O, 11.8 g protein, 0.6 g fat, 75.4 g total carbohydrate, 1.7 g fiber, and 1.2 g ash (C.S.I.R., 1948–1976). On a zero moisture basis the fresh leaves (57.1% DM) contain 18.6% CP, 24.1% CF, 11.8% ash, 4.1% EE, 41.4% NFE. With sheep the CP exhibits 72.4% digestibility, CF 49.1%, EE 10.8%, and NFE 48.8% (Gohl, 1981). Per 100 g, the shoot is reported to contain 29 calories, 90.7 gH2 0, 2.3 g protein, 0.2 g fat, 6.6 g total carbohydrate, 0.5 g fiber, 0.7 g ash, 33 mg Ca, 41 mg P, 0.4 mg Fe, 20 meg b-carotene equivalent, 0.15 mg thiamine, 0.7 mg riboflavin, 0.6 mg niacin, and 4 mg ascorbic acid (Food Comp. Table Latin America).
Medicinal Uses: Properties
Vamsa is sweet and astringent in taste, sweet in the post digestive effect and has cold potency. The seeds are bitter in taste, pungent in the post digestive effect and have hot potency. The gum resin is astringent and sweet in taste, sweet in the post digestive effect and has cold potency. All these, mentioned above, alleviate kapha and pitta doshas. The seeds aggravate pitta and vata doshas, whereas the sprouts aggravate all the three doshas. The chief properties of vamsa are diuretic, wound-healer and cleanse the urinary bladder. Vamsarocana is anti-tussive, anabolic and a general tonic. The seeds have vermicidal property. Vamsa is used in the diseases like dermatitis, wounds, edema, blood disorders etc. Vamsarocana is a rejuvenative for lungs and is salutary in cough, asthma, tuberculosis and urinary disorders and the seeds (vamsayava) in helminthiasis. (Kaiyadeva and Dhanvantari Nighantu)
Vamsa is used both, internally as well as externally. Externally, the paste of roots is panacea for various skin disorders and discoloration. The sprouts are beneficial in dressing the wounds. The burnt ash of roots is useful in ringworm infestations and premature hair loss. Internally, vamsa is used in vast range of diseases. The decoction of the sprouts is beneficial in anorexia, dyspepsia and worms. Vamsarocana (bamboo manna) is useful in various disorders like hyperdipsia, diarrhea, vomiting, Rakta pitta, heart diseases, cough, asthma, fever, tuberculosis and a general tonic in convalescents. The leaves are cooling, emmenagogue, hence, beneficial in dysmenorrhea. The roots are diuretic, tonic, depurative, laxative and cooling; they are used in skin diseases, burning sensation, arthralgia, general debility and dysuria. The fruits are salutary in diabetes whereas, the seeds are useful in obesity to reduce fats. The decoction of roots is an antidote for arka (Calotropis procera) poisoning.
Very young shoots are consumed as food in some parts of India and China. In raw state, shoots (ca 8 cm in diameter and 37.5 cm long) are very acrid, but with two changes of water in cooking and with addition of salt and butter, they make a pleasant vegetable. Young shoots pickled or made into curries. Wood used by Chinese in household carpentry, furniture, boxes, ornamental vases, scaffolding, etc. Leaves used as fodder. Stems in great demand for manufacture of paper pulp of good quality. Seeds edible and used in times of scarcity of food. Other species of Bambusa, found in various parts of the tropics, are used for similar purposes: those used for the young shoots or buds as a vegetable include B. cornuta Munro, B. multiplex Raeusch, B. oldhami Munro, B. spinosa Roxb., B. tulda Roxb., and B. vulgaris Schrad.; species used for construction and other such purposes include B. balcooa Robx. (one of the best and strongest bamboos for building purposes), B. multiplex Raeusch (culms used for paper), B. nana Roxb. (fishing poles), B. pervariabilis McClure (heavy construction), B. polymorphs Munro (roofs of houses, floors and walls), B. sinospinosa McClure (sheaths made into sandals), B. spinosa Roxb. (timber bamboo), B. texilis McClure, B. tulda Roxb., and B. tuldoides Munro (weaving mats, hats, baskets and ropes), B. vulgaris Schrad. (paper pulp), B. beecheyana Munro [Sinocalamus beecheyanus (Munro)McClure] is an important source of commercial edible bamboo shoots.
Folk Medicine :
An ointment from the root is said to be a folk remedy for cirrhosis and hard tumors, especially tumors of the abdomen, liver, spleen and stomach (Hartwell, 1967–1971). Tabasheer, a siliceous secretion (up to 97% SiO2), considered aphrodisiac, cooling, and tonic, is used in asthma, cough and debilitating diseases (C.S.I.R., 1948–1976). Leaves given to horses suffering coughs and colds.
Other uses: The culms are strong and extensively used for building purposes. A single herbarium collection is known: Kashmir, Falconer 1245(K).
Eight grams of raw shoots or slightly more improperly cooked shoots can cause death. Young shoots contain 0.03% HCN (C.S.I.R., 1948–1976). Hairs on various bamboos, and fungi which live thereon, may cause dermatitis (Mitchell and Rook, 1979). Benzoic acid and traces of cyanogenic glucoside present in shoots have lethal effect on mosquito larvae (has antiseptic and larval properties).
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Bamboos are a group of woody perennial evergreen plants in the true grass family Poaceae, subfamily Bambusoideae, tribe Bambuseae. Some of its members are giants, forming by far the largest members of the grass family.
There are 91 genera and about 1,000 species of bamboo. They are found in diverse climates, from cold mountains to hot tropical regions. They occur from Northeast Asia (at 50Â°N latitude in Sakhalin), south throughout East Asia west to the Himalaya, and south to northern Australia. They also occur in sub-Saharan Africa, and in the Americas from the southeast of the USA south to Chile, there reaching their furthest south anywhere, at 47Â°S latitude. Major areas with no native bamboos include Europe, north Africa, western Asia, northern North America, most of Australia, and Antarctica.
Many bamboos are popular in cultivation as garden plants. In cultivation, care needs to be taken of their potential for invasive behavior. They spread mainly through their roots and/or rhizomes, which can spread widely underground and send off new culms to break through the surface. There are two patterns for the spreading of bamboo, “clumping” (monopodial) and “running” (sympodial). Clumping bamboo species tend to spread underground slowly. Swimming bamboo species are highly variable in their tendency to spread; this is related to both the species and the soil and climate conditions. Some can send out runners several meters a year, while others can stay in the same general area for long periods. If neglected, they can be invasive over time and can cause problems by moving into adjacent areas. The reputation of bamboo as being highly invasive is often exaggerated, and situations where it has taken over large areas is often the result of years of untended or neglected plantings.
Once established as a grove, it is difficult to completely remove bamboo without digging up the entire network of underground rhizomes. If bamboo must be removed, an alternative to digging it up is to cut down the culms, and then repeatedly mow down new shoots as they arise, until the root system exhausts its energy supply and dies. If any leaves are allowed to photosynthesize the bamboo survives and will keep spreading.
There are two main ways to prevent the spread of running bamboo into adjacent areas. The first method is rhizome pruning or “edging”, which involves removing any rhizomes escaping the desired bamboo area. Hooks, shovels and picks are usual tools. The rhizomes are generally very close to the surface(just under a sod layer), so, if rhizome pruning is done twice a year, it will sever most, if not all, of the new growth. Some species may be deep running (beyond typical spade depth). These are much harder to control and deeper cuts will need to be made. Regular maintenance will indicate major growth directions and locations. Once the rhizomes are cut they should be removed. If any bamboo shoots come up outside of the bamboo area afterwards their presence indicates the precise location of the missed rhizome. The fibrous roots that radiate from the rhizomes do not grow up to be more bamboo so they stay in the ground.
The second way is by surrounding it with a physical barrier. Concrete and specially rolled HDPE plastic are usual materials. This is placed in a 60-90 cm (2-3 feet) deep ditch around the planting, and angled out at the top to direct the rhizomes to the surface. Strong rhizomes and tools can penetrate plastic barriers with relative ease, so great care must be taken. Bamboo in barriers is much more difficult to remove than free-spreading bamboo. Barriers and edging are unnecessary for clump forming bamboos. Clump forming bamboos may eventually need to have portions taken out if they get too large.
Edible bamboo shoots.The shoots (new bamboo culms that come out of the ground) of bamboo, called zhÃº sÇ”n or simply sÇ”n in Chinese, are edible. They are used in numerous Asian dish and broth, and are available in supermarkets in various sliced forms, both fresh and canned version. Bamboo shoot tips are called zhÃº sÇ”n jiÄn or simply sÇ”n jiÄn .
In Indonesia they are sliced thinly and then boiled with santan (thick coconut milk) and spices to make a dish named gulai rebung. Other recipes using bamboo shoots are [sayur lodeh]] (mixed vegetables in coconut milk) and lun pia (sometimes written lumpia: fried wrapped bamboo shoots with vegetables). Note that the shoots of some species contain toxins that need to be leached or boiled out before they can be eaten safely.
Pickled bamboo, used as a condiment, may also be made from the pith of the young shoots.
The sap of young stalks tapped during the rainy season may be fermented to make ulanzi (a sweet wine) or simply made into a soft drink. ZhÃºyÃ¨qÄ«ng jiÇ” is a green-coloured Chinese liquor that has bamboo leaves as one of its ingredients.
Bamboo leaves are also used as wrappers for zongzi, a steamed dumpling typical of southern China, which usually contains glutinous rice and other ingredients.
Bamboo is used in Chinese medicine for treating infections. It is also a low calorie source of potassium.
Bamboo leaves are aromatic,stimulant and tonic.They are useful in counteracting spasmodic disorders and prevent bleeding.They are also an effective aphrodisiac.
Stomach Disorders:Bamboo leaves are beneficial in the treatment of stomach disorders.Young shoots of bamboo tree are also very useful for this.
Diarrhoea: Bamboo leaves are used in the form of decoction to treat this disease.
Menstrual Disorders: A decoction of bamboo leaves promots and regulates the mensprual periods. A decoction of bamboo nodes stem is also useful for this purpose.
Wounds: A poultice of tender bamboo shoots is used for cleaning wounds and maggot-infested sores.Decoction of fresh bamboo leaves is applied as a medicine in such ulcers.
Respiratory Disorders: The tender bamboo shoots are useful in the treatment of this disease.The bamboo leaves are used in the killing of intestinal worms.,such as thread worms. It should be taken in the form of decoction.
Bamboos have thousands of other uses. It is used as most useful plant from the begining of human culture.