Herbs & Plants

Solanum nigrum

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Botanical Name: Solanum nigrum
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Solanum
Species: S. nigrum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Solanales

Trade Name & Family Name :  Makoy, kaamanchi / Solanaceae

Common Names: Black Nightshad, European black nightshade or locally just “black nightshade”, duscle, garden nightshade, “garden huckleberry”, hound’s berry, petty morel, wonder berry, small-fruited black nightshade or popolo.

Habitat : Black Nightshade is a native of West Africa but is now grown all over India and introduced in the Americas, Australasia and South Africa.

Parts Used : whole plant

Black nightshade is a common herb or short-lived perennial shrub, found in many wooded areas, as well as disturbed habitats. It reaches a height of 30 to 120 cm (12 to 48 in), leaves 4 to 7.5 cm (1.5 to 3 in) long and 2 to 5 cm (1 to 2.5 in) wide; ovate to heart-shaped, with wavy or large-toothed edges; both surfaces hairy or hairless; petiole 1 to 3 cm (0.5 to 1 in) long with a winged upper portion. The flowers have petals greenish to whitish, recurved when aged and surround prominent bright yellow anthers. The berry is mostly 6 to 8 mm (0.3 to 0.8 in) diam., dull black or purple-black. In India, another strain is found with berries that turn red when ripe.


Sometimes Solanum nigrum is confused for the more toxic deadly nightshade, Atropa belladonna, in a different Solanaceae genus altogether. A comparison of the fruit shows that the black nightshade berries grow in bunches, the deadly nightshade berries grow individually.




Commercial berry and vegetable crop quality is significantly reduced when black nightshade berries mix with them. The plant also produces a sticky substance that clogs agricultural equipment. Berries are poisonous to humans and to most livestock.
Cultivation : The plant grows in different kinds of soil including dry, stony, shallow, or deep soils. It usually grows in moist habitat in waste lands as weed. It can be cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical agro-climatic regions.

Berries and seed are dispersed by rodents, birds, livestock, humans, and along watercourses.The green berries and mature leaves contain glycoalkaloids and are poisonous to eat raw. Their toxicity varies and there are some strains which have edible berries when fully ripe. The plant has a long history of medicinal usage, dating back to ancient Greece.

Black nightshade is a fairly common plant, found in many wooded areas, as well as disturbed habitats. It has a height of 30-120 cm (12-48″), leaves 4-7.5 cm (1 1/2-3″) long; ovate to heart-shaped, with wavy or large-toothed edges. The flowers have petals greenish to whitish, recurved when aged and surround prominent bright yellow anthers. The fruits are oval black berries in small hanging clusters.

The vitamins and minerals present in this herb includ iron,calcium,niacin,riboflavin,phosphorus and vitamin C .The calorific value of the herb is 68.The plant and the fruit of the herb contains toxic alkaloid solanine saponin.

Chemical Constituents : solanine, a’ and a’ solamargine, solasonine and a’ and a’solaigrine, sterioidal genin

Medicinal Action and Uses–-Narcotic, diuretic, sedative, antispasmodic, mydriatic. Belladonna is a most valuable plant in the treatment of eye diseases, Atropine, obtained during extraction, being its most important constituent on account of its power of dilating the pupil. Atropine will have this effect in whatever way used, whether internally, or injected under the skin, but when dropped into the eye, a much smaller quantity suffices, the tiny discs oculists using for this purpose, before testing their patient’s sight for glasses, being made of gelatine with 1/50000 grain of Atropine in each, the entire disk only weighing 1/50 grain. Scarcely any operation on the eye can safely be performed without the aid of this valuable drug. It is a strong poison, the amount given internally being very minute, 1/200 to 1/100 grain. As an antidote to Opium, Atropine may be injected subcutaneously, and it has also been used in poisoning by Calabar bean and in Chloroform poisoning. It has no action on the voluntary muscles, but the nerve endings in involuntary muscles are paralysed by large doses, the paralysis finally affecting the central nervous system, causing excitement and delirium.

The various preparations of Belladonna have many uses. Locally applied, it lessens irritability and pain, and is used as a lotion, plaster or liniment in cases of neuralgia, gout, rheumatism and sciatica. As a drug, it specially affects the brain and the bladder. It is used to check excessive secretions and to allay inflammation and to check the sweating of phthisis and other exhausting diseases.

Small doses allay cardiac palpitation, and the plaster is applied to the cardiac region for the same purpose, removing pain and distress.

It is a powerful antispasmodic in intestinal colic and spasmodic asthma. Occasionally the leaves are employed as an ingredient of cigarettes for relieving the latter. It is well borne by children, and is given in large doses in whooping cough and false croup.

For its action on the circulation, it is given in the collapse of pneumonia, typhoid fever and other acute diseases. It increases the rate of the heart by some 20 to 40 beats per minute, without diminishing its force.

It is of value in acute sore throat, and relieves local inflammation and congestion.

Hahnemann proved that tincture of Belladonna given in very small doses will protect from the infection of scarlet fever, and at one time Belladonnna leaves were held to be curative of cancer, when applied externally as a poultice, either fresh or dried and powdered.

Belladonna plasters are often applied, after a fall, to the injured or sprained part. A mixture of Belladonna plaster, Salicylic acid and Lead plaster is recommended as an application for corns and bunions.

The nlack nightshade is used as an important ingredient in several Medicines.It is very useful in swellings, cough, asthma,wounds, ulcers, general debility etc .

The plant helps in removing catarrhal matter and phelgm from the bronchial tubes in asthma patients.The fruits of black nightsade can also be used in treating asthma.The plant is useful in chronic skin diseases. The plant is useful in the treatment of dropsy.

Urinary Disorders:
It increases the secretion and discharge of urin.It can be used as decoction or as a vegetable.
A cardiac tonic prepared from the plant is beneficial for patients.It reduces irritation pain and excitment.

As herbal medicine Black Nightshade has multivarious other uses in Neutrition,Idigestion,Stomach disorders,Fever,Skin disorders,Reeumatic Pain and gouts,Burns, etc.

Other uses:A decoction of makoy plant leaves should be used to wash tomours and inflamed,irritated and painful parts of the body. Hot leaves of the plant can be applied with gratifying results over swollen and painful scrotum and testicles.

Known Hazards:
Solanine levels in S.nigrum can be toxic. Children have died from poisoning after eating unripe berries. However, the plant is rarely fatal,[9] with ripe berries causing symptoms of mild abdominal pains, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Poisoning symptoms are typically delayed for 6 to 12 hours after ingestion. Initial symptoms of toxicity include fever, sweating, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, confusion, and drowsiness. Death from ingesting large amounts of the plant results from cardiac arrhythmias and respiratory failure. Livestock have also been poisoned from nitrate toxicity by grazing the leaves of S. nigrum. All kinds of animals can be poisoned after ingesting nightshade including cattle, sheep, poultry, and swine.

Black nightshade is highly variable and poisonous plant experts advise to avoid eating the berries unless they are a known edible strain. The toxin levels may also be affected by the plant’s growing conditions. The toxins in Solanum nigrum are most concentrated in the unripe green berries, and immature fruit should be treated as toxic. Most cases of suspected poisoning are due to consumption of leaves or unripe fruit.

There are ethnobotanical accounts of S.nigrum leaves and shoots being boiled as a vegetable with the cooking water being discarded and replaced several times to remove toxins.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

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Herbs & Plants

Babul (Vachellia nilotica/Acacia arabica)

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Botanical Name: Vachellia nilotica
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Vachellia
Species: V. nilotica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Synonyms: . Acacia  nilotica, Mimosa nilotica

Common Names:  Gum arabic tree, Babul/Kikar, Egyptian thorn, Sant tree, Al-sant or Prickly acacia; Thorn mimosa or Prickly acacia ( in Australia) Lekkerruikpeul or Scented thorn ( in South Africa) Karuvela maram (in South India)

In Bengal it is called Babla or Babul

Habitat:It is indigenous in Sind in Pakistan. Scented Thorn Acacia is native from Egypt south to Mozambique and Natal. Apparently, it has been introduced to Zanzibar, Pemba, India and Arabia. Acacia nilotica ‘Tomentosa’ is restricted to riverine habitats and seasonally flooded areas.

Description: It is a large tree with throns on it’s branches.It has darkish grey bark and yellowish flowers in spherical heads.

Click to see the picturer

The tree



Babul Tree

Acacia nilotica ‘Tomentosa’ is a tree 5-20 m high with a dense spheric crown, stems and branchlets usually dark to black coloured, fissured bark, grey-pinkish slash, exuding a reddish low quality gum. The tree has thin, straight, light, grey spines in axillary pairs, usually in 3 to 12 pairs, 5 to 7.5 cm long in young trees, mature trees commonly without thorns. The leaves are bipinnate, with 3-6 pairs of pinnulae and 10-30 pairs of leaflets each, tomentose, rachis with a gland at the bottom of the last pair of pinnulae. Flowers in globulous heads 1.2-1.5 cm in diameter of a bright golden-yellow color, set up either axillary or whorly on peduncles 2-3 cm long located at the end of the branches. Pods are strongly constricted hairy white-grey, thick and softly tomentose.

Food Uses
In part of its range smallstock consume the pods and leaves, but elsewhere it is also very popular with cattle. Pods are used as a supplement to poultry rations in India and Pakistan. Dried pods are particularly sought out by animals on rangelands. In India branches are commonly lopped for fodder. Pods are best fed dry as a supplement, not as a green fodder.

Medicinal Uses
According to Hartwell, African Zulu take bark for cough, Chipi use the root for tuberculosis. Masai are intoxicated by the bark and root decoction, said to impart courage, even aphrodisia, and the root is said to cure impotence.

The astringent bark is used for diarrhea, dysentery, and leprosy and the bruised leaves poulticed onto ulcers.

In West Africa, the gum or bark is used for cancers and/or tumors (of ear, eye, or testicles) and indurations of liver and spleen, condylomas, and excess flesh.

Sap or bark, leaves, and young pods are strongly astringent due to tannin, and are chewed in Senegal as an antiscorbutic.

In Ethiopia, it is used as a lactogogue.

In Tonga, the root is used to treat tuberculosis. In Lebanon, the resin is mixed with orange-flower infusion for typhoid convalescence. In Italian Africa, the wood is used to treat smallpox. Egyptian Nubians believe that diabetics may eat unlimited carbohydrates as long as they also consume powdered pods.

The bark of Babul tree is very useful in the treatment of Eczema and Leucorrhoea.The decoction of it’s bark mixed with rock salt should be use to gargle in treating Tonsillitis. The Babul leaves are beneficial in treating Epiphora(an eye disease). The various parts of Babul tree are useful in treating Diarrhoea of ordinary intensity.The leaves of Babul tree are effective in the treatment of Conjunctivitis.Fresh pods of Babul tree is effective in several Sextual Disorder. Chewing a fresh bark of Babul tree helps strengthen loose teeth and prevent gum bleeding.

As per ayurveda it subdues deranged kapha; astringent, beneficial in skin diseases; anthelmintic; antidotal. Its extract is astringent, subdues pitta and anila (vata); effective in the treatment of blood dysentery, haemorrhagic diseases, polyuria, leucorrhaea, fractures; sheeta (sheetaveerya) and styptic.

Parts Used: Pods, leaves, bark and gum.

Therapeutic Uses:

Pods: decoction beneficial in urinogenital diseases;

: infusion of tender leaves used as an astringent and remedy for diarrhoea and dysentery;

Bark: decoction used as a gargle in sore throat and toothache; dry powder applied externally in ulcers; useful in vitiated kapha, pitta, ascites,chronic dysentery, diarrhea, leprosy, leucoderma, leucorrhoea, seminal weakness, uterovesiccal disorders, oral ulcers, odontopathy.

astringent and styptic, useful in vitiated vata, pitta, cough, asthma, diarrhoea, dysentery, seminal weakness, leprosy, uriogenital discharges, burns haemorrhoids, colic.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Herbs & Plants

Arjun (Terminalia arjuna)

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Botanical Name:Terminalia arjuna
Family:    Combretaceae
Genus:    Terminalia
Species:    T. arjuna
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:    Myrtales

Common Names: Arjuna or Arjun tree in English,  Thella Maddi in Telugu and Marudha Maram in Tamil.

Habitat : Arjuna is  native  to Indian Subcontinent.  The arjuna is usually found growing on river banks or near dry river beds in West Bengal and south and central India.  It grows all over India,Burma,Bangladesh and Srilanka.

Arjuna is a large sized deciduous tree. Height of this plant is around 60-80ft with spreading branches. Bark smooth and flower is sessile type with often buttressed trunk, smooth grey bark, and drooping branchlets. Leaves; sub opposite, hard, oblong or elliptic, 10-20 cm long. Terminalia Arjuna Flowers; yellowish white. Fruits; 2.5-5 cm long, obvoid-oblong, with 5-7 equal, hard, leathery appearance, thick narrow wings, their striations curving upwards. Terminalia Arjuna Flowers in March to June and fruits in September to November.


Cultivation Method: after collection of nature fruits dried into sunlight & then stored up to 6-12 months. Seeds are pretreated by soaking in water for 48 hrs before sowing in beds. 8-9 months old seedlings are better to transplant in the field.
Useful Parts: Every parts useful medicinal properties Arjun holds a reputed position in both Ayurvedic and Yunani Systems of medicine. According to Ayurveda it is alexiteric, styptic, tonic, anthelmintic, and useful in fractures, uclers, heart diseases, biliousness, urinary discharges, asthma, tumours, leucoderma, anaemia, excessive prespiration etc. According to Yunani system of medicine, it is used both externally and internally in gleet and urinary discharges. It is used as expectorant, aphrodisiac, tonic and diuretic.
Chemical Constituents: A glucoside – arjunetin – has been isolated from bark. Recently new flavance – arjunone has been isolated from fruits alongs with cerasidin, ?-sitosterol, friedlin, methyl oleanolate, gallic, ellagic and arjunic acids.
Principal Constituents ß-sitosterol, ellagic acid, and arjunic acid.

Ayurvedic Formulations: Arujanarishta, Arjunghrita, Arjunakhsirpak, Arvindasava, Devadarvy – arishta etc.
Medicinal uses: Arjuna (Kakubhah) is cooling and checks heart diseases, Haemorrhagic consumption and poisons (Toxaemia). It is useful in obesity (Medas) and in Diabetic wounds. It is astringent and checks Kapha and Pitta. As an astringent, it is used in tooth powders. Action:– Cardiac tonic.

Ayurvedic Uses:– It is a reputed heart tonic of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. It is observed large doses to depress the heart. Small doses taken over a long period with sugar and ghee steadily improves the condition of the heart giving it strength. It is used as a powder either alone or in combination with other herbs. This pure dried Arjun bark can be made into a tea by steeping for 10 minutes in hot water. The bark can be re used 3 times if carefully dried between use.Powdered from bark is used as astringent, cardiac tonic & asthma. Leaf juice is used to cure blood dysentery.
The bark of tree is a cardiac stimulant and has a cooling and tonic effect. It is useful in arresting secretion or bleeding. It helps to relieve fever. It is also useful in removing calculi or stones formed in the urinary system, in promoting flow of bile and in the healing of wounds. Asthma, acne, diarrhea or dysentery, earache.

The bark is useful as an anti-ischemic and cardioprotective agent in hypertension and ischemic heart diseases, especially in disturbed cardiac rhythm, angina or myocardial infarction. The bark powder possesses diuretic, prostaglandin enhancing and coronary risk factor modulating properties. It apparently has a diuretic and a general tonic effect in cases of cirrhosis of the liver.
Other Uses: Recommended for reclamation of saline, alkaline soils and deep ravines. Used for agro and social forestry. Timber is locally used for carts, agricultural implements, water troughs, traps, boat building, house building, electric poles, tool-handles, jetty-piles and plywood. Fodder is useful for tassar silkworm. It is one of the major tannin yielding trees. Bark (22 to 24%), leaf (10 to 11%) and fruit (7 to 20%) contains tannins.

The arjuna is one of the species whose leaves are fed on by the Antheraea paphia moth which produces the tassar silk (tussah), a wild silk of commercial importanc.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider
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Herbs & Plants

Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.)

Botanical Name: Andrographis paniculata
Family:    Acanthaceae
Genus:    Andrographis
Species:    A. paniculata
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:    Lamiales

Common Name(s): Kalmegh (Hindi), Chuanxinlian (Chinese), Kalupnath , Kiriat , Mahatita (“ King of Bitters ), Alui , Bhunimba , Yavatikta (Sanskrit), Sambiloto (Malay)

Habitat: Kalmegh or Andrographis paniculata is a herbaceous plant in the family Acanthaceae,  native to India, China, and Southeast Asia.

It is widely cultivated in southern Asia, where it is used to treat infections and some diseases, often being used before antibiotics were created. Mostly the leaves and roots were used for medicinal purposes .

Description of the plant:

A. paniculata is an erect annual herb. The square stem has wings on the angles of new growth and is enlarged at the nodes, while the small flowers are borne on a spreading panicle. It is widely cultivated in Asia. The above-ground parts are collected in the fall. The genetic variability of the species has been examined.
It grows erect to a height of 30-110 cm in moist shady places with glabrous leaves and white flowers with rose-purple spots on the petals. Stem dark green, 0.3 – 1.0 m in height, 2 – 6 mm in diameter, quadrangular with longitudinal furrows and wings on the angles of the younger parts, slightly enlarged at the nodes; leaves glabrous, up to 8.0 cm long and 2.5 cm broad, lanceolate, pinnate; flowers small, in lax spreading axillary and terminal racemes or panicles; capsules linear-oblong, acute at both ends, 1.9 cm x 0.3 cm; seeds numerous, sub quadrate, yellowish brown.

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It prefers a sunny situation. The seeds are sown during May-June. The seedlings are transplanted at a distance of 60 cm x 30 cm.

Andrographis paniculata plant extract is known to possess a variety of pharmacological activities. Andrographolide, the major constituent of the extract is implicated towards its pharmacological activity. A study has been conducted on the cellular processes and targets modulated by andrographolide treatment in human cancer and immune cells. Andrographolide treatment inhibited the in vitro proliferation of different tumor cell lines, representing various types of cancers. The compound exerts direct anticancer activity on cancer cells by cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase through induction of cell cycle inhibitory protein and decreased expression of cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). Immunostimulatory activity of andrographolide is evidenced by increased proliferation of lymphocytes and production of interleukin 2. Andrographolide also enhanced the tumor necrosis factor α production and CD marker expression, resulting in increased cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes against cancer cells, which may contribute for its indirect anticancer activity. The in vivo anticancer activity of the compound is further substantiated against B16F0 melanoma syngenic and HT 29 xenograft models. These results suggest that andrographolide is an interesting pharmacophore with anticancer and immunomodulatory activities and hence has the potential for being developed as a cancer therapeutic agent.

The herb is the well-known drug Kalmegh ‘green chiretta’, and forms the principal ingredient of a reputed household medicine (‘alui’), used as a bitter tonic and febrifuge.
Clinical Overview

Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), the Kalmegh of Ayurveda is an erect annual herb extremely bitter in taste in each and every part of the plant body. The plant is known in north-eastern India as  Maha-tita, literally  king of bitters  and known by various vernacular names (Table below). It is also known as   Bhui-neemâ, since the plant, though much smaller in size, shows similar appearance and has bitter taste as that of Neem (Azadirachta indica). Incidentally, the genus Andrographis consists of 28 species of small annual shrubs essentially distributed in tropical Asia. Only a few species are medicinal, of which A. paniculata is the most popular.

Properties: Analgesic* Antiparasite* Antibacterial* Astringent* Febrifuge* Stomachic* Laxative* Antispasmodic* Immunostimulant* Tonic*

Uses of Kalmegh
Kalmegh has been used for liver complaints and fevers and as an anti-inflammatory and immunostimulant. In clinical trials, Andrographis extract shortened duration and reduced symptoms of colds.

Kalmegh Dosing
Kalmegh dosage in clinical studies has ranged from 3 to 6 g of the crude plant, 1.2 g daily, or 48 mg of andrographolide daily, for common cold, tonsilitis, and familial Mediterranean fever.

Contraindications have not yet been identified.

Documented adverse effects. Abortifacient. Avoid use.

Kalmegh Interactions

None well documented.

Kalmegh Adverse Reactions
No data.


Male reproductive side effects have been studied. In rats, kalmegh decreased sperm count and motility.

The herb has been used primarily for liver complaints and to reduce fevers in the traditional medicine of India and China, as well as for its bitter tonic properties. A large variety of Indian herbal patent medicines are available in which A. paniculata is a prominent ingredient.

The diterpene lactone andrographolide was first isolated as a major constituent and later characterized as a lactone. Its full structure was determined by Cava’s group in the 1960s, while x-ray crystallography later confirmed the structure. A number of related minor diterpenes and their glycosides have since been identified. Methods of analysis including high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have been published. A method for rapid isolation of andrographolide also is available. When callus cultures of the plant were investigated, it was found that andrographolide and the other diterpenes were not produced. Instead, the sesquiterpenes paniculides A-C were found. Other constituents of the plant include various flavones.

Kalmegh Uses and Pharmacology:

It is chiefly used in viral hepatitis, diminished appetite and drug induced liver damage. It is used in loss of appetite in infants.  Andrographis paniculata has been shown to reduce liver damage due to toxins such as alcohol.  It has been demonstrated that Andrographis paniculata can protect the liver from the effects of alcohol if taken prior to consumption.  Research has also linked Andrographis paniculata to increases in immune system activity.  When supplemented with Andrographis paniculata, animals had an increase activity of both their specific and non-specific immune systems.  Andrographis paniculata may be effective in both the prevention and treatment of ailments that range from the common cold to cancer. It has also been shown to help alleviate atherosclerotic narrowing of arteries induced by high cholesterol diets.  This can, in turn, reduce the risk of heart disease and heart attacks, as well as helping the recovery of patients who already suffer from these conditions.  It is useful in burning sensation, wounds, ulcers, chronic bronchitis, leprosy, pruritis, flatulence, colic and diarrhea.

Common Uses: Colds * Diarrhea * Digestion/Indigestion * Influenza *

Liver :The aqueous extract of A. paniculata protected mice from liver damage induced by hexachlorocyclohexane, while andrographolide protected rat hepatocytes from damage by acetaminophen. Several isolated Andrographis diterpenes protected mice from liver damage by carbon tetrachloride or tert-butylhydroperoxide. Both the extract and andrographolide induced hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in rats, although the extract was more effective than the isolated compound. An increase in bile flow was noted with administration of andrographolide to rats and guinea pigs, while it blocked the decrease in bile flow induced by acetaminophen.

Animal data:  Both antigen-specific and nonspecific immune responses in mice were stimulated by andrographolide and an ethanolic extract, although the extract was more potent than andrographolide, suggesting that other constituents also were immunostimulants. 23 Inhibition of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and mast cell stabilization was observed in studies of the purified diterpenes in rats.

Clinical data: Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of kalmegh to treat liver complaints.Immunostimulant and anti-infective. A small clinical study found the extract to shorten the duration of common colds and to reduce symptoms. Extracts of Andrographis have shown modest activity in vitro against HIV; however, a phase Ι study of andrographolide showed no effect on viral replication, while adverse effects required interruption of the trial after 6 weeks. Succinoylated derivatives of andrographolide have been studied for their protease inhibitory properties, which were suggested to be involved in the anti-HIV activity in vitro. Activity in antimalarial screens has also been noted for Andrographis extracts.

Other uses

The extract of A. paniculata has been shown to block E. coli enterotoxin-induced secretion in rabbit and guinea pig models of diarrhea. Andrographolide and 3 other related diterpenes were responsible for this action. An ethanol extract of Andrographis reversed elevation in blood glucose caused by streptozotocin in rats. Two purified Andrographis diterpenes stimulated nitric oxide release from cultured human endothelial cells, an effect linked to their hypotensive effect in rats. Several fractions of Andrographis were shown to reduce mean arterial blood pressure in rats, although andrographolide was not active in this model.

A water soluble extract of the plant was reported to delay death from cobra venom in mice, in line with its folk use for snakebite in India. Andrographolide has demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects in several cellular systems, including prevention of phorbol ester-induced reactive oxygen species and N -formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced adhesion in rat neutrophils and inhibition of TNF-induced upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and monocyte adhesion. Additionally, Andrographis extract blocked rat vas deferens voltage-gated calcium channels 41 and induced cell differentiation in mouse myeloid leukemia cells, as did several diterpenes from the extract. The diversity of pharmacologic activities observed for extracts of Andrographis and its diterpenes begs the question of pharmacologic specificity, which more studies will clarify.

Kalmegh dosage in clinical studies has ranged from 3 to 6 g of the crude plant, 1.2 g daily, or 48 mg of andrographolide daily, for common cold, tonsilitis, and familial Mediterranean fever.

Documented adverse effects. Abortifacient. Avoid use. 46

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions
Research reveals little or no information regarding adverse reactions with the use of this product.

Kalmegh extracts are not acutely toxic, but the male reproductive toxicology of Andrographis has been studied. Reported infertility in rats led to a subchronic 60-day study in male rats that showed no changes in testicular weight, histology, or testosterone levels. However, detailed studies with purified andrographolide in rats over 48 days have shown decreases in sperm counts and motility, linked to disruption of spermatogenesis.

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> Kalmegh

Medicinal Uses of Kalmegh

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.



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