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Herbs & Plants

Solanum lyratum

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Botanical Name : Solanum lyratum
Familia: Solanaceae
Subfamilia: Solanoideae
Tribus: Solaneae
Genus: Solanum
Species: Solanum lyratum

Habitat: Solanum lyratum is native toE. Asia – China, Japan, Korea, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam. It grows on thickets in hills and low mountains all over Japan. Grasslands in valleys, near roads and fields, 100 – 2900 metres

Description:
Solanum lyratum is a perennial climber growing to 2 m (6ft 7in). The plant producing much-branched, annual stems 50 – 300cm long from a perennial rootstock. It is in flower from Jun to October, and the seeds ripen from Oct to November. Vines herbaceous, much branched, 0.5-3 m tall, villous overall with elongate, many-celled hairs more than 2 mm. Petiole 1-3 cm; leaf blade elliptic or lyrate, 3-11 × 2-6 cm, base cordate or hastate, margin entire or 3-5-parted, apex acuminate. Inflorescences axillary, extra-axillary, or appearing terminal, few- to many-flowered panicles; peduncle 2-4 cm, villous. Pedicel 0.8-1.5 cm, villous. Calyx 1.5-2.5 × 3-4 mm in diam., sparsely pubescent; lobes rounded. Corolla blue-purple or white, 5-8 × 10 mm; lobes elliptic-lanceolate, ca. 4 × 2 mm, usually reflexed, puberulent at apex. Filaments ca. 0.8-1 mm; anthers free, oblong, 2.8-3.2 mm. Style glabrous, 6-8 mm. Fruiting pedicel sparsely pubescent, usually curved. Berry red or red-black, globose, 7-9 mm in diam. Seeds discoid, ca. 1.5 mm in diam., reticulate.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

The plant is harvested from the wild for local medicinal use.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will succeed in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Succeeds in most soils.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a warm greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out after the last expected frosts.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves.

Leaves – cooked. Caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity.

Medicinal Uses:

Cancer; Depurative; Febrifuge.

The whole plant is depurative and febrifuge. A decoction is used in the treatment of leucorrhoea, abscesses, cancer of the oesophagus and stomach, enlarged thyroid glands etc. The leaves are boiled with the mother’s milk in order to treat babies nausea. The stems can be used as a medicine for treating convulsions in infants, whilst the branches and leaves are used for clearing away heat and cooling the blood.

Known Hazards: Although no specific mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where many if not all the members have poisonous leaves and sometimes also the unripe fruits.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Solanum_lyratum
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200020591
http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Solanum+lyratum
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Solanum+lyratum

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Herbs & Plants

Asplenium ceterach

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Botanical Name : Asplenium ceterach
Family: Aspleniaceae
Genus: Asplenium
Species: A. ceterach
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pteridophyta
Class: Pteridopsida
Order: Blechnales

Synonyms : Ceterach officinarum DC.

Common Names :   Rustyback,Rusty Back Fern

Habitat : Asplenium ceterach  is found in Western and Central Europe, including the Mediterranean region. It is associated with fissures in carbonate rocks and also grows on the mortar of stone and brick walls .

Description:
Rhizome: erect, branching, scales clathrate.

Frond: 15 cm high by 2 cm wide, evergreen, monomorphic, blade/stipe ratio: 8:1.

Stipe: green, from base all up the rachis, scaly, vascular bundles: 2 C-shaped, back to back, uniting to 1 upwards to an X-shape.

Blade: pinnatifid, lanceolate, leathery, deep green upper surface, scales dense, light brown, entirely covering the lower surface.

Pinnae: 6 to 12 pair, alternate; margins entire or sometimes irregularly crenate, slightly bending upwards, revealing the scales; veins netted, veins closing near the margins, not visible without removing the scales.

Sori: linear, along veins, indusium: vestigial, replaced by scales, sporangia: dark brown, maturity: late summer, then overwintering to maturity early .
Dimensionality: a rosette, fairly flat on the ground.

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Medicinal Uses:
In the eighteenth century the leaves were official in some pharmacopoeias, as its botanical name indicates. Infusions from the fern are particularly helpful to sufferers from dysuria (difficulty in passing urine) when oxalic acid is present, and to prevent colic caused by kidney stones.  A syrup made from the fern is sometimes used to treat lung infections, but it is less effective than maidenhair.  The whole plant is widely used in the Mediterranean to treat gravel in the urine and is also used with other mucilaginous plants to treat bronchial complaints.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asplenium_ceterach
http://hardyfernlibrary.com/ferns/listSpecies.cfm?Auto=149
http://www.univ-lehavre.fr/cybernat/pages/asplcete.htm
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm?Voucher2=Connect+to+Internet

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