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Herbs & Plants

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

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Botanical Name : Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Hibiscus
Species:H. rosa-sinensis
Kingdom:Plantae

Synonyms Hibiscus boryanus. Hibiscus festalis. Hibiscus storckii

Common Names: Chinese Hibiscus, Shoeblackplant, Hawaiian Hibiscus, Tropical Hibiscus, China Rose, Rose-of-China
Indian Vernacular Names:
Marathi – Jakhand
Bangla – Jaba
Tamil – sembaruthi
Hindi – Jabakusum, Gurhul, Jaba
Malayalam – cemparatti
Oriya – Mandara
Sinhala – Wada Mala / Sapaththu mala
Telugu – Mamdaram
Indonesian – Kembang Sepatu
Filipino – Gumamela
Myanmar – Khaung-Yann
Punjabi – Salu

Habitat : Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is native to South East Asia. It can grow anywhere in worm climate.

Description:
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is a bushy, evergreen shrub or small tree growing 2.5–5 m (8–16 ft) tall and 1.5–3 m (5–10 ft) wide, with glossy leaves and solitary, brilliant red flowers in summer and autumn. The 5-petaled flowers are 10 cm (4 in) in diameter, with prominent orange-tipped red anthers.

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The root is a branched tap root. The stem is erect, green, cylindrical and branched. The leaf is simple, with alternate phyllotaxy and is petiolate. The leaf shape is ovate, the tip is acute and margin is serrated. Venation is unicostate reticulate. (Venation is branched or divergent.) Free lateral stipules are present.

The flower is complete (bisexual), actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous, and solitary. It can bloom all year round.Bloom Color: Orange, Pink, Red, Salmon, White, Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early summer, Early spring, Late summer, Late spring, Mid summer, Mid spring. Form: Oval, Vase.
Cultivation:
Prefers a well-drained humus rich fertile soil in a warm, sheltered position in full sun. A very ornamental plant, it is not very frost-tolerant and needs to be grown in essentially frost-free areas. It might succeed outdoors in the very mildest areas of the country if given a very sheltered warm position. Alternatively, it might be possible to grow the plant as a tender annual by starting it off early in a warm greenhouse. If well-grown it can flower and set seed in its first year. This species grows very well in a frost-free conservatory in Northern Europe so long as it is in a sunny position and free from draughts. Plants will often lose most of their leaves in cool winters, though they will normally regenerate quickly as the warmer weather returns. The flowers of Chinese hibiscus are very important in Hindu devotional ceremonies, being sacred to the Elephant God, Ganesh. Individual flowers are short-lived, in many modern cultivars the flowers wither after 24 hours though in many of the older cultivars they can last for 48 hours. There are many named forms, selected for their ornamental value. Special Features:Attracts birds, Not North American native, Attracts butterflies, Blooms are very showy.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a warm greenhouse. Germination is usually fairly rapid. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. If growing them as annuals, plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer and protect them with a frame or cloche until they are growing away well. If hoping to grow them as perennials, then it is better to grow them on in the greenhouse for their first year and to plant them out in early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Overwinter them in a warm greenhouse and plant out after the last expected frosts.

Edible Uses:
The flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis are edible and are used in salads in the Pacific Islands. Young leaves are sometimes used as a spinach substitute. A nutritional analysis is available. Flowers – raw or cooked. They can also be made into a kind of pickle or used as a purple dye for colouring foods such as preserved fruits and cooked vegetables. A nutritional analysis is available. Root – it is edible but very fibrousy. Mucilaginous, without very much flavour. In several countries the flowers are dried to use in a beverage, usually tea.

Composition:
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Flowers (Fresh weight)

•0 Calories per 100g
•Water : 89.8%
•Protein: 0.06g; Fat: 0.4g; Carbohydrate: 0g; Fibre: 1.56g; Ash: 0g;
•Minerals – Calcium: 4mg; Phosphorus: 27mg; Iron: 1.7mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
•Vitamins – A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.03mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.05mg; Niacin: 0.6mg; B6: 0mg; C: 4.2mg;

Medicinal Uses:
Chinese hibiscus is a sweet, astringent, cooling herb that checks bleeding, soothes irritated tissues and relaxes spasms. The flowers are aphrodisiac, demulcent, emmenagogue, emollient and refrigerant. They are used internally in the treatment of excessive and painful menstruation, cystitis, venereal diseases, feverish illnesses, bronchial catarrh, coughs and to promote hair growth. An infusion of the flowers is given as a cooling drink to ill people. The leaves are anodyne, aperient, emollient and laxative. A decoction is used as a lotion in the treatment of fevers. The leaves and flowers are beaten into a paste and poulticed onto cancerous swellings and mumps. The flowers are used in the treatment of carbuncles, mumps, fever and sores. The root is a good source of mucilage and is used as a substitute for marsh mallow (Althaea officinalis) in the treatment of coughs and colds. A paste made from the root is used in the treament of venereal diseases. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is considered to have a number of medical uses in Chinese herbology. It may have some potential in cosmetic skin care; for example, an extract from the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has been shown to function as an anti-solar agent by absorbing ultraviolet radiation.
Other Uses:
Landscape Uses:Border, Container, Hedge, Standard, Seashore, Specimen.

The flower is additionally used in hair care as a preparation. It is also used to shine shoes in certain parts of India. It can also be used as a pH indicator. When used, the flower turns acidic solutions to a dark pink or magenta color and basic solutions to green. It is also used for the worship of Devi, and the red variety is especially prominent, having an important part in tantra. In Indonesia, these flowers are called “kembang sepatu”, which literally means “shoe flower”

The juice from the petals is used in China as shoe-blacking and mascara. A dye is made from the petals. A good quality fibre is obtained from the stems. In warm sub-tropical areas the fibres can be up to 3 metres long, but in Britain they are likely to be much shorter. The fibre is used for coarse fabrics, nets and paper. Plants are often used for hedges and screens, though since they are not very cold hardy they are not suitable for this use in Britain.

National symbol:
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the national flower of Malaysia, called Bunga Raya in Malay. Introduced into the Malay Peninsula in the 12th century, it was nominated as the national flower in the year 1958 by the Ministry of Agriculture amongst a few other flowers, namely ylang ylang, jasmine, lotus, rose, magnolia, and medlar. On 28 July 1960, it was declared by the government of Malaysia that Hibiscus rosa-sinensis would be the national flower.

The word bunga in Malay means “flower”, while raya in Malay means “celebratory” or “grand”. The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is literally known as the “celebratory flower” in Malay. The red of the petals symbolizes the courage, life, and rapid growth of the Malaysian, and the five petals represent the five Rukun Negara of Malaysia. The flower can be found imprinted on the notes and coins of the Malaysian ringgit.

Cultural references:
In March 1987 DPR Korea issued a postage stamp depicting Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.
On 7th October 2012, Sri Lanka too, issued a stamp set of four and one of it carried a Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower.

Known Hazards : Do not use during pregnancy or if planning children.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hibiscus_rosa-sinensis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Hibiscus+rosa-sinensis

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Sonchus alpinus

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Botanical Name: Sonchus alpinus
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Cicerbita
Species: C. Alpina
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Names: Cicerbita alpina, Alpine Sow-thistle or Alpine Blue-sow-thistle, Mountain sow- thistle

Habitat : Sonchus alpinus is native to upland and mountainous parts of Europe.It grows on many mountains of Europe (the Alps, the Pyrenees, the northern Apennines, the Scandinavian Peninsula, Scotland (where it is endangered and found in only four known locations), the Carpathians and the Urals. These plants can be found in alpine woods, besides streams, in rich-soil in hollows and in tall meadows, usually between 1,000 and 1,800 metres (3,300 and 5,900 ft) above sea level.

Description:
Sonchus alpinus on average reaches 80 centimetres (31 in) in height, with a minimum height of 50 cm (20 in) and a maximum height of 150 cm (59 in). The stem is erect and usually unbranched. It has glandular hairs and contains a white milky juice, a kind of latex. The alternate leaves are broad, triangular and clasping the stem, bluish-grey beneath, hairy along the veins and with toothed margins. The inflorescence is a panicle. Each composite flower is about 2.5 cm (1 in) wide and is set within a whorl of bracts. The individual blue-violet florets are tongue-like with a toothed, truncated tip, each having five stamens and a fused carpel. All the florets are ray florets; there are no disc florets. The seeds are clothed in unbranched hairs. The flowering period extends from June to September in the temperate northern hemisphere.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES : It is a tall handsome plant with very large blue flowers, but also very rare in the islands.
Edible Uses:Sonchus alpinus has been used as a salad in Lapland, the young shoots being stripped of their skin and eaten raw, but Linnaeus informs us that it is somewhat bitter and unpalatable.

Constituents:
The edible shoots of Cicerbita alpina contain 8-O-Acetyl-15-beta-D-glucopyranosyllactucin, which causes the bitter taste of the vegetable, and caffeic acid derivatives chlorogenic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, caffeoyltartaric acid, and cichoric acid

Medicinal Uses: Culpepper considers that the Sow-Thistles possess great medicinal virtues, which lie chiefly in the milky juice. He tells us:
‘They are cooling and somewhat binding, and are very fit to cool a hot stomach and ease the pain thereof. . . . The milk that is taken from the stalks when they are broken, given in drink, is very beneficial to those that are short-winded and have a wheezing.’

He goes on to inform us, on the authority of Pliny, that they are efficacious against gravel, and that a decoction of the leaves and stalks is good for nursing mothers; that the juice or distilled water is good ‘for all inflammation, wheals and eruptions, also for haemorrhoids.’ Also that:
‘the juice is useful in deafness, either from accidental stoppage, gout or old age. Four spoonsful of the juice of the leaves, two of salad oil, and one teaspoonful of salt, shake the whole well together and put some on cotton dipped in this composition into the ears and you may reasonably expect a good degree of recovery.’

Again, that:
‘the juice boiled or thoroughly heated in a little oil of bitter almonds in the peel of a pomegranite and dropped into the ears is a sure remedy for deafness.’

Finally, he informs us that the juice ‘is wonderfully efficacious for women to wash their faces with to clear the skin and give it lustre.’

Another old herbalist also says:
‘The leaves are to be used fresh gathered; a strong infusion of them works by urine and opens obstructions. Some eat them in salads, but the infusion has more power.’

The whole plant has stiff spines on the leaf margin, and the seeds and roots are used in homoeopathic medicine.

The milky juice of all the Sow-Thistles is an excellent cosmetic. The leaves are said to cure hares of madness

Other Uses:
In Finland, this plant is known as “bear-hay” because the Eurasian brown bear feeds on it, as do elk and reindeer. People also sometimes make use of it and eat it raw or cooked in reindeer milk.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/sowthi71.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cicerbita_alpina

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Clausena anisata

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Botanical Name:Clausena anisata
Family: Rutaceae
Subfamily: Aurantioideae
Genus: Clausena
Species: C. anisata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Synonyms: Clausena abyssinica (Engl.) Engl. ,Clausena inaequalis (DC.) Benth.

Common names: Horsewood (E) Maggot killer (E) Muvengahonye (S) Muvhunambezo (S)

Engl: Horsewood, maggot killer

African vernacular names:
Kwere: Mkomavikali Massai: Ol matassia Pare: Mkwingwimi
Shona: Runga honya Venda mudede Xhosa: Umukambi, isifuta, isitutu
Zigua: Mjavikali Zulu: Nukamdida, umsanga
Philippines: nampi (Tagalog)

Habitat : India, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Africa; in the Western_Ghats- throughout.

Description:
Shrub or small tree. The plant, a tropical shrub or tree up to 10 meters high is growing in and on the margins of evergreen forests. Leaves pinnately compound with 10-17 alternate or subopposite leaflets and a terminal leaflet.

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Trunk\bark :  Bark reddish brown, scaly; blaze pink.

Branchlets : Young branchlets terete, grey pubescent.

Leaves :  Leaves compound, usually imparipinnate, sometimes paripinnate, cluster at twig ends, alternate, spiral, 13-26 cm long; rachis terete, grey pubescent, sometimes glabrescent; petiolule 0.2 cm long; leaflets 7-13 pairs, 2.5-8 (-12) x 1.3-3.5 (-6.5) cm, generally increase in size towards apex, ovate with unequal sides, apex acuminate with retuse tip, base asymmetric, margin entire to crenulate, chartaceous, glandular punctuate, usually grey pubescent on nerves and midrib on both surfaces, sometimes glabrescent; midrib raised above; secondary_nerves 7-11 pairs; tertiary_nerves broadly reticulate.

Flowers :  Inflorescence axillary racemes; flowers white, tetramerous. Flowering time is August – November…

Fruit& seed : Berry, globose, 1.3 cm across; seeds oblong.

Constituents:

Carbazole alkaloids are the major constituents of Rutaceous plants together with
coumarines and phenylpropanoids which are named clausamines. Their chemical
structure was determined by spectroscopic data and MS. They belong to the class of
1-oxygenated-3-methoxy-carbazoles having a prenyl side chain or an analogous
moiety at C-4.
In Cl. anisata nine carbazole alkaloids extracted by acetone could be found.
Among them:
Clausamine D is a colourless powder, structure formula C20H21NO3,
Clausamine E is a colourless oil, C20H21NO4
Clausamine G is a yellow oil, C20H21NO5 (4)
From the alcoholic extract of the stem bark of C. anisata contains the two alkaloids
clausenol and clausenine. Their structure was 1-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-
methylcarbazole and 1,6-dimethoxy-3-methyl carbazole, respectively. The
molecular weight of clausenol was 227(m/z), the structure formula C14H31NO2 (1).
In Nigeria four coumarins could be found from the root bark, among these
chalepin and imperatorin (5).
Steam distillation of fresh leaves yields sweet smelling, brownish-yellow oil. Its
major component is estragole, not anethole. It is 1 ½ times more toxic than the
crude oil

Medicinal Uses:
Plant parts used:  The root, the stem bark, the fresh leaves

The pounded roots, with lime and Guinea grains, are applied to rheumatic and other pains in Nigeria, where also the leaves are considered anthelmintic.   In some parts of Africa it is considered a cough remedy.  Recent research has shown the root methanolic extract indicates

This species is used in treating an uncommonly wide range of ailments and conditions. Decoctions of the leaves or roots are taken for gastro-intestinal disorders, fever, pneumonia, headache, hypotension, sore throat and sinusitis, venereal diseases, as an aphrodisiac and anthelmintic, as a tonic for pregnant women, and as a tonic for infants to prevent rickets and to control convulsions. Root decoctions and infusions are also taken for whooping cough, malaria, syphilis and kidney ailments, irregular menses, threatening abortion, skin diseases and epilepsy, and given to women before and after parturition to ease delivery and to expel blood from the uterus, and later to boost milk production. Roots are chewed to combat indigestion.

Crushed leaves are used as an antiseptic and analgesic, and are applied to open wounds, mouth infections, otitis and abscesses, also burns, haemorrhoids, rheumatism and general body pains. Crushed leaves are also used to treat wounds in domestic animals, and as a snake-bite antidote. Dried leaves are widely used as an arthropod repellent, such as a filling material for mattresses and pillows against fleas, lice and bedbugs. The fruits are sweet and readily eaten by people and other animals. Stem bark is pounded and used as rope.

that the herb possesses hypoglycaemic activity, though not as strong as insulin; and thus lends credence to the suggested folkloric use of C. anisata root in the management and/or control of adult-onset, Type-2 diabetes mellitus in some communities of South Africa.

 

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=133210
http://www.biotik.org/india/species/c/clauanis/clauanis_en.html

Click to access mp09clausenaanisata.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clausena_anisata

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

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