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Botanical Name : Hibiscus cannabinus
Sectio: Hibiscus sect. Furcaria
Species: Hibiscus cannabinus
Common Names : Kenaf, Brown Indianhemp
English: kenaf (Persian origin), Deccan hemp, Java jute…
French: chanvre de Bombay, chanvre du Deccan, chanvre de Guinée, chanvre de Gambo, chanvre de roselle, jute de Java, jute de Siam, kénaf, ketmie à feuilles de chanvre (Belgium), roselle
German: Ambari, Dekkanhanf, Gambohanf, Hanfeibisch, Javajute, Kenaf, Rosellahanf, Roselle, Siamjute
Portuguese: cânhamo rosella, juta-de-java, juta-do-sião, quenafe
Spanish: cáñamo de la India, cáñamo de gambo, cáñamo Rosella, pavona encendida, yute de Java, yute de Siam
Brazilian Portuguese: papoula-de-são-francisco, cânhamo-brasileiro, quenafe
Egypt & Northern Africa: til, teel, or teal
West Africa: dah, gambo, and rama
Himachal(Pangolu) fiber known as sunn used to make rope used for beds and to tie cattle and all other possible uses.
India (Manipur): Shougri
India (Bihari): Kudrum
India (Bengal): mesta
India (Marathi): Ambaadi
India (Tamil): pulicha keerai , Palungu
India (Telugu): Gongura, Taag-Ambadi , Punti Kura
Iran (Persian): Hanf (guttural H)
Habitat : Hibiscus cannabinus is probably native to southern Asia, though its exact natural origin is unknown.
Hibiscus cannabinus is an annual or biennial herbaceous plant (rarely a short-lived perennial) growing to 1.5-3.5 m tall with a woody base. The stems are 1–2 cm diameter, often but not always branched. The leaves are 10–15 cm long, variable in shape, with leaves near the base of the stems being deeply lobed with 3-7 lobes, while leaves near the top of the stem are shallowly lobed or unlobed lanceolate. The flowers are 8–15 cm diameter, white, yellow, or purple; when white or yellow, the centre is still dark purple. The fruit is a capsule 2 cm diameter, containing several seeds.It is in flower from Aug to September, and the seeds ripen from Oct to November. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Prefers a well-drained humus rich fertile soil in full sun. Tolerates most soils but prefers a light sandy soil. Plants are adapted to a wide range of soils and climatic conditions. Kenaf is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation in the range of 57 to 410cm, an annual temperature range of 11.1 to 27.5°C and a pH in the range of 4.3 to 8.2 (though it prefers neutral to slightly acid). The plant is frost sensitive and damaged by heavy rains with strong winds. Kenaf is widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world, where it is grown mainly as a fibre crop but also for its seeds and leaves. It is not very hardy outdoors in Britain, it really requires a frost free climate. It can, however, probably be grown as an annual. A fast-growing plant, it can be harvested in 3 – 4 months from seed. The plant requires temperatures in the range of 15 – 25°c. It succeeds as a crop as far north in N. America as Indiana, Iowa, Kansas and Nebraska. Plants are daylight sensitive, they remain vegetative and do not flower until the daylength is less than 12.5 hr/day. Two weeks of very cloudy days will induce flowering as daylength approaches 12.5 hr. The plant has a deep-penetrating taproot with deep-seated laterals. Plants, including any varieties, are partially self-fertile.
Seed – sow early spring in a warm greenhouse. Germination is usually fairly rapid. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. If growing them as annuals, plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer and protect them with a frame or cloche until they are growing away well. If hoping to grow them as perennials, then it is better to grow them on in the greenhouse for their first year and to plant them out in early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Overwinter them in a warm greenhouse and plant out after the last expected frosts.
Young leaves – cooked. Used as a potherb or added to soups. The leaves have an acid flavour like sorrel. Seed – roasted or ground into a flour and made into a kind of cake. Root – it is edible but very fibrousy. Mucilaginous, without very much flavour. An edible oil is obtained from the seed. The yield varies from 2 – 10 tonnes per hectare.
The juice of the flowers, mixed with sugar and black pepper, is used in the treatment of biliousness with acidity. The seeds are aphrodisiac. They are added to the diet in order to promote weight increase. Externally, they are used as a poultice on pains and bruises. The leaves are purgative. An infusion of the leaves is used in the treatment of coughs. In Ayurvedic medicine, the leaves are used in the treatment of dysentery and bilious, blood and throat disorders. The powdered leaves are applied to Guinea worms in Africa. The peelings from the stems have been used in the treatment of anaemia, fatigue, lassitude, etc
Yields a fibre from the stem, a very good jute substitute though it is a bit coarser. The fibre strands, which are 1.5 – 3 metres long, are used for making rope, cordage, canvas, sacking, carpet backing, nets, table cloths etc. For the best quality fibre, the stems should be harvested shortly after the flowers open. The best fibre is at the base of the stems, so hand pulling is often recommended over machine harvesting. Yields of about 1.25 tonnes of fibre per hectare are average, though 2.7 tonnes has been achieved in Cuba. The pulp from the stems has been used in making paper. The seed contains between 18 and 35% of an edible semi-drying oil. It is rather similar to groundnut oil, obtained from Arachis hypogaea. The oil is also used for burning, as a lubricant and in making soap, linoleum, paints and varnishes. The seed yield varies from 2 to 10 tonnes per acre (or is it per hectare). The stems have been used as plant supports for growing runner beans etc. The soot from the stems has been used as a black pigment in dyes. The stem has been used as a base for drilling fire.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
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