Tag Archives: Bone fracture

Bone Broth Is A Most Nourishing Food And good For Any Ailment

 

Bone broth has a long history of medicinal use. It’s known to be warm, soothing, and nourishing for body, mind, and soul.

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Physicians harkening as far back as Hippocrates have associated bone broth with gut healing. And while the importance of gut health is just now starting to fill our medical journals, this knowledge is far from new.

In fact, you could say modern medicine is just now rediscovering how the gut influences health and disease.

Many of our modern diseases appear to be rooted in an unbalanced mix of microorganisms in your digestive system, courtesy of a diet that is too high in sugars and too low in healthful fats and beneficial bacteria.

Digestive problems and joint problems, in particular, can be successfully addressed using bone broth. But as noted by Dr. Kaayla Daniel, vice president of the Weston A. Price Foundation and coauthor (with Sally Fallon Morell) of the book, Nourishing Broth, bone broth is a foundational component of a healing diet regardless of what ails you.

BENEFITS OF BONE BROTH :

Leaky gut is the root of many health problems, especially allergies, autoimmune disorders, and many neurological disorders. The collagen found in bone broth acts like a soothing balm to heal and seal your gut lining, and broth is a foundational component of the Gut and Psychology Syndrome (GAPS) diet, developed by Russian neurologist Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride.

The GAPS diet is often used to treat children with autism and other disorders rooted in gut dysfunction, but just about anyone with suboptimal gut health can benefit from it.

Bone broth is also a staple remedy for acute illnesses such as cold and flu. While there aren’t many studies done on soup, one study did find that chicken soup opened up the airways better than hot water.

Processed, canned soups  may not work as well as the homemade version made from slow-cooked bone broth. If combating a cold, make the soup hot and spicy with plenty of pepper.

The spices will trigger a sudden release of watery fluids in your mouth, throat, and lungs, which will help thin down the respiratory mucus so it’s easier to expel. Bone broth contains a variety of valuable nutrients in a form your body can easily absorb and use. And these are:

1. Calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals……Components of collagen and cartilage

2.Silicon and other trace minerals………….Components of bone and bone marrow

3.Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate……….The “conditionally essential” amino acids proline, glycine, and glutamine

These nutrients account for many of the healing benefits of bone broth, which include the following:

1.Reduces joint pain and inflammation, courtesy of chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine, and other compounds extracted from the boiled down cartilage and collagen.

2.Inhibits infection caused by cold and flu viruses etc.
Indeed, Dr. Daniel reports2 chicken soup — known as “Jewish penicillin“—has been revered for its medicinal qualities at least since Moses Maimonides in the 12th century. Recent studies on cartilage, which is found abundantly in homemade broth, show it supports the immune system in a variety of ways; it’s a potent normalizer, true biological response modifier, activator of macrophages, activator of Natural Killer (NK) cells, rouser of B lymphocytes and releaser of Colony Stimulating Factor.

3.Fights inflammation: Amino acids such as glycine, proline, and arginine all have anti-inflammatory effects. Arginine, for example, has been found to be particularly beneficial for the treatment of sepsis3 (whole-body inflammation). Glycine also has calming effects, which may help you sleep better.

4.Promotes strong, healthy bones: Dr. Daniel reports bone broth contains surprisingly low amounts of calcium, magnesium and other trace minerals, but she says “it plays an important role in healthy bone formation because of its abundant collagen. Collagen fibrils provide the latticework for mineral deposition and are the keys to the building of strong and flexible bones.”

5.Promotes healthy hair and nail growth, thanks to the gelatin in the broth. Dr. Daniel reports that by feeding collagen fibrils, broth can even eliminate cellulite too.

In the conclution it can be said :Bone Broth—A Medicinal ‘Soul Food

Slow-simmering bones for a day will create one of the most nutritious and healing foods there is. You can use this broth for soups, stews, or drink it straight. The broth can also be frozen for future use. Making bone broth also allows you to make use of a wide variety of leftovers, making it very economical. Bone broth used to be a dietary staple, as were fermented foods, and the elimination of these foods from our modern diet is largely to blame for our increasingly poor health, and the need for dietary supplements.

“I would like to urge people to make as much broth as possible,” Dr. Daniel says in closing. “Keep that crockpot going; eat a variety of soups, and enjoy them thoroughly.”

Resources: Mercola.com

Preventing Kidney Stones May Be Simple

Today, the rates of kidney stones are rising like any other diseas.In most cases, kidney stones pass without causing lasting damage, but the pain during passing can be excruciating. Kidney stones are also sometimes associated with lower back pain, stomach pain, nausea or vomiting, fever, and chills.

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Generally, the larger the stone, the more pain and symptoms it will cause. Sometimes aggressive treatments are needed to clear the stones, and each year, more & more people are going to emergency rooms due to kidney stones.

Once you’ve had them, your risk of recurrence increases. About 35 percent to 50 percent of people will have another bout with kidney stones within five years unless changes are made.Now, What type of changes? According to new guidelines issued by the American College of Physicians (ACP), one of the simplest strategies you can take is to drink more water.
If you Stay Hydrated you Lower Your Risk of Recurrent Kidney Stones:

The number one risk factor for kidney stones is not drinking enough water. If you aren’t drinking enough, your urine will have higher concentrations of substances that can precipitate out and form stones.

Specifically, stone-forming chemicals include calcium, oxalate, urate, cysteine, xanthine, and phosphate. These chemicals should be eliminated in your urine via your kidney, but if too little liquid is present, they can join together to form a stone. According to the National Kidney Foundation:

Urine has various wastes dissolved in it. When there is too much waste in too little liquid, crystals begin to form. The crystals attract other elements and join together to form a solid that will get larger unless it is passed out of the body with the urine… In most people, having enough liquid washes them out or other chemicals in urine stop a stone from forming.”

The new ACP guidelines call for people who have had a kidney stone in the past to increase their fluid intake so they have at least two liters of urine per day, which they say could decrease stone recurrence by at least half.And to achieve this, they recommend increased fluid intake spread throughout the day, pointing out that both water and mineral water are beneficial.

The National Kidney Foundation recommends drinking more than 12 glasses of water a day, but a simpler way to know if you are drinking enough water is to check the color of your urine; you want your urine to be a very light, pale yellow (darker urine is more concentrated).

Every person’s water requirement is different, depending on your particular metabolic requirements and activity level, but simply keeping your urine light yellow will go a long way toward preventing kidney stones.

Remember to increase your water intake whenever you increase your activity and when you’re in a warmer climate. If you happen to be taking any multivitamins or B supplements that contain vitamin B2 (riboflavin), the color of your urine will be a very bright, nearly fluorescent yellow and this will not allow you to use the color of your urine as a guide to how well you are hydrated.

By increasing water intake you will get rid of discomfort like, constipation,prostrate problems etc.

But if it in mind that Water Reduces Risk of kidney stone, but Soda wate or any othar areated water Increases It:

One important point: not just any fluid will do to increase your urine output. While water and mineral water were protective, drinking soda is associated with kidney stones, possibly because the phosphorus acid it contains acidifies your urine, which promotes stone formation.

In addition, one South African study found that drinking soda exacerbates conditions in your urine that lead to formation of calcium oxalate kidney stone problems.6 The sugar, including fructose (and high fructose corn syrup in soda), is also problematic.

A diet high in sugar can set you up for kidney stones, since sugar upsets the mineral relationships in your body by interfering with calcium and magnesium absorption. The consumption of unhealthy sugars and soda by children is a large factor in why children as young as age 5 are now developing kidney stones.

Sugar can also increase kidney size and produce pathological changes in your kidney, such as the formation of kidney stones. According to The National Kidney Foundation, you should pay particular attention to keeping your fructose levels under control:

“Eating too much fructose correlates with increasing risk of developing a kidney stone. Fructose can be found in table sugar and high fructose corn syrup. In some individuals, fructose can be metabolized into oxalate.”

So if you’re a soda drinker, cutting back is an important strategy to remember. In one study, those with kidney stones who eliminated soda from their diet lowered their risk of recurrence by about 15 percent.
Kidney Stones Associated with Increased Risk of Broken Bones:

As mentioned, kidney stones usually pass without any lasting complications, however there are some long-term associated risks. Kidney stones increase your risk of developing chronic kidney disease, for instance, and new research also shows they might be associated with more brittle bones.

Past research has suggested that people with kidney stones have lower bone mineral density. The new study used data from more than 52,000 people and showed that those with kidney stones were at a significantly higher risk of bone fractures. Specifically:

*Men with kidney stones were 10 percent more likely to suffer broken bones than men without

*Male teens with kidney stones had a 55 percent higher fracture risk than those without

*Women with kidneys stones had a 17 percent to 52 percent increased fracture risk depending on age (from their 20s to 60s); those aged 30-39 had the highest risk
Fluoride Also Linked to Kidney Stones:

If you live in area with fluoridated drinking water (such as most of the US), you might be interested to know that high levels of fluoride in water are associated with kidney stones.11 The condition was nearly five times more common in an area with high fluoride (3.5 to 4.9 parts per million, or ppm) than a similar area without high fluoride levels in the water.

Overall, the prevalence of kidney stones in the high-fluoride area was nearly double in those with fluorosis than those without. Dental fluorosis – a condition in which your tooth enamel becomes progressively discolored and mottled – is one of the first signs of over-exposure to fluoride.

Eventually, it can result in badly damaged teeth, and worse… It’s important to realize that dental fluorosis is NOT “just cosmetic.” It can also be an indication that the rest of your body, such as your bones and internal organs, including your brain, has been overexposed to fluoride as well. In other words, if fluoride is having a visually detrimental effect on the surface of your teeth, you can be virtually guaranteed that it’s also damaging other parts of your body, such as your bones. A reverse osmosis water filtration system can remove fluoride from your drinking water.

Exercise, Avoiding Overeating Are Two More Powerful Tools for Preventing Kidney Stones:

You’re more prone to kidney stones if you’re bedridden or very sedentary for a long period of time, partly because limited activity can cause your bones to release more calcium. Exercise will also help you to resolve high blood pressure, a condition that doubles your risk for kidney stones. Even low amounts of exercise may be beneficial to reducing your risk. In a study involving more than 84,000 postmenopausal women, it was found that those who exercised had up to a 31 percent lower risk of kidney stones.13 The link persisted even with only small amounts of physical activity.

Specifically, the research showed a lower risk from three hours a week of walking, four hours of light gardening or just one hour of moderate jogging. You can find my comprehensive exercise recommendations, including how to perform highly recommended high-intensity interval training (HIIT), here. Diet wise, women who ate more than 2,200 calories per day increased their risk of kidney stones by up to 42 percent, while obesity also raised the risk. It should be noted that even though obesity increases kidney stone risk, weight loss surgery that alters your digestive tract actually makes them more common. After weight loss surgery, levels of oxalate are typically much higher (oxalate is the most common type of kidney stone crystal).
Dietary Approaches for Avoiding Kidney Stones:-

1. Make Sure You’re Getting Enough Magnesium

Magnesium is responsible for more than 300 biochemical reactions in your body, and deficiency of this mineral has been linked to kidney stones. An estimated 80 percent of Americans are deficient, so this could be a major factor. Magnesium plays an important role in your body’s absorption and assimilation of calcium, as if you consume too much calcium without adequate magnesium, the excess calcium can actually become toxic and contribute to health conditions like kidney stones.

Magnesium helps prevent calcium from combining with oxalate, which, as mentioned, is the most common type of kidney stone. Green leafy vegetables like spinach and Swiss chard are excellent sources of magnesium, and one of the simplest ways to make sure you’re consuming enough of these is by juicing your vegetables. Vegetable juice is an excellent source of magnesium, as are some beans, nuts like almonds, and seeds, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, and sesame seeds. Avocadoes are also a good source.

2. Eat Calcium-Rich Foods (But Be Careful with Supplements)

In the past, kidney stone sufferers have been warned to avoid foods high in calcium, as calcium is a major component of the majority of kidney stones. However, there is now evidence that avoiding calcium may do more harm than good. The Harvard School of Public Health conducted a study of more than 45,000 men,14 and the men who had diets rich in calcium had a one-third lower risk of kidney stones than those with lower calcium diets. It turns out that a diet rich in calcium actually blocks a chemical action that causes the formation of the stones.

It binds with oxalates (from foods) in your intestine, which then prevents both from being absorbed into your blood and later transferred to your kidneys. So, urinary oxalates may be more important to formation of calcium-oxalate kidney stone crystals than is urinary calcium. It is important to note that it is the calcium from foods that is beneficial — not calcium supplements, which have actually been found to increase your risk of kidney stones by 20 percent.
3. Avoid Non-Fermented Soy:

Soybeans and soy-based foods may promote kidney stones in those prone to them, as they may contain high levels of oxalates, which can bind with calcium in your kidney to form kidney stones. This is just one reason why unfermented soy — the type found in soy milk, soy burgers, soy ice cream, and even tofu — is not a health food. If you were to carefully review the thousands of studies published on soy, I strongly believe you would reach the same conclusion as I have — which is, the risks of consuming unfermented soy products FAR outweigh any possible benefits.

If you’re interested in enjoying the health benefits of soy, choose fermented soy, as after a long fermentation process, the phytate (which blocks your body’s uptake of essential minerals) and anti-nutrient levels of soybeans (including oxalates) are reduced, and their beneficial properties become available to your digestive system.

In the conclution it can be said that the good news is  there’s plenty you can do to reduce your risk of kidney stones.

Sources:Mercola.com

Comfrey

Botanical Name : Symphytum officinale
Family: Boraginaceae
Genus: Symphytum
Species: S. officinale
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: (unplaced)

Common Name :common comfrey, Quaker comfrey  and cultivated comfrey  and Other common names include boneset, knitbone, consound, and slippery-root.

Habitat :Symphytum officinale  is native to Europe and it is known elsewhere, including North America, as an introduced species and sometimes a weed.

Description:
Symphytum officinale is a perennial hardy plant and it  can grow to  1.2 m (4ft) by 0.6 m (2ft in) at a fast rate.It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.
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Cultivation:  
Tolerates most soils and situations but prefers a moist soil and some shade. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Best grown in an open sunny site in a deep rich soil if it is being grown for compost material. Plants can be invasive, often spreading freely by means of self-sown seed. The root system is very deep and difficult to eradicate, even small fragments of root left in the soil can produce new plants.

Propagation :
Seed – sow spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. If you have sufficient seed you can try an outdoor sowing in situ in the spring. Division succeeds at almost any time of the year. Simply use a spade to chop off the top 7cm of root just below the soil level. The original root will regrow and you will have a number of root tops, each of which will make a new plant. These can either be potted up or planted out straight into their permanent positions

Edible Uses:
Young leaves – cooked or raw. The leaf is hairy and the texture is mucilaginous. It may be full of minerals but it is not pleasant eating for most tastes. It can be chopped up finely and added to salads, in this way the hairiness is not so obvious. Young shoots can be used as an asparagus substitute. The blanched stalks are used. Older leaves can be dried and used as a tea. The peeled roots are cut up and added to soups. A tea is made from the dried leaves and roots. The roasted roots are used with dandelion and chicory roots for making coffee

Medicinal Uses:
Anodyne;  Antidiarrhoeal;  Antirheumatic;  Astringent;  Demulcent;  Emollient;  Expectorant;  Haemostatic;  Homeopathy;  Refrigerant;  Vulnerary.

Comfrey is a commonly used herbal medicine with a long and proven history in the treatment of various complaints. The root and the leaves are used, the root being more active, and they can be taken internally or used externally as a poultice. Comfrey is especially useful in the external treatment of cuts, bruises, sprains, sores, eczema, varicose veins, broken bones etc, internally it is used in the treatment of a wide range of pulmonary complaints, internal bleeding etc. The plant contains a substance called ‘allantoin’, a cell proliferant that speeds up the healing process. This substance is now synthesized in the pharmaceutical industry and used in healing creams. The root and leaves are anodyne, astringent (mild), demulcent, emollient, expectorant, haemostatic, refrigerant, vulnerary. Some caution is advised, however, especially in the internal use of the herb. External applications and internally taken teas or tinctures of the leaves are considered to be completely safe, but internal applications of tablets or capsules are felt to have too many drawbacks for safe usage . See also the notes above on toxicity. The leaves are harvested in early summer before the plant flowers, the roots are harvested in the autumn. Both are dried for later use. A homeopathic remedy is made from the fresh root, harvested before the plant flowers. This has a very limited range of application, but is of great benefit in the treatment of broken bones and eye injuries. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Symphytum officinale for blunt injuries .

Comfrey leaves and especially the root contain allantoin, a cell proliferant that increases the healing of wounds. It also stops bleeding, is soothing, and is certainly the most popular ingredient in herbal skin sales for wounds, inflammation, rashes, varicose veins, hemorrhoids and just about any skin problem. Taken internally, comfrey repairs the digestive tract lining, helping to heal peptic and duodenal ulcers and colitis. Studies show it inhibits prostaglandins, which cause inflammation of the stomach lining. Comfrey has been used to treat a variety of respiratory diseases and is a specific when these involve coughing of blood. In cases of bleeding of the lungs, stomach or bowels the leaves or root should be made into a strong decoction, or a strong infusion of the leaves and regular hourly or two hourly drinks taken until the bleeding ceases. The root is stronger and more effective than the leaves. In the case of bleeding piles the addition of distilled extract of Witch Hazel to the infusion or decoction will increase the effectiveness. To aid in the cure of mucous colitis mix equal parts of comfrey leaves, agrimony herb, cranesbill herb and marshmallow herb, use one ounce of the mixed herbs, make an infu9sion and take a wineglassful at least three times daily.

The leaves moisten the lungs, help dissolve and expel mucus, soothe the throat, lowers fever, relieves cough and treat asthma. It is applied externally as a poultice and taken internally to promote healing of injured tissues and bones. The root is used to treat chronic lung diseases with dry cough and inflammation, sore throat, pulmonary catarrh, stomach ulcers, and wasting diseases. It is excellent both internally and externally for promoting the healing of sores, bones, muscles and other tissues, and is as powerful as some of the best Oriental tonic herbs. Concurrent internal and external application has the most favorable effect on the healing process.

Other Uses :
Biomass;  Compost;  Gum.

The plant grows very quickly, producing a lot of bulk. It is tolerant of being cut several times a year and can be used to provide ‘instant compost’ for crops such as potatoes. Simply layer the wilted leaves at the bottom of the potato trench or apply them as a mulch in no-dig gardens. A liquid feed can be obtained by soaking the leaves in a small amount of water for a week, excellent for potassium demanding crops such as tomatoes. The leaves are also a very valuable addition to the compost heap.  A gum obtained from the roots was at one time used in the treatment of wool before it was spun

Known Hazards: This plant contains small quantities of a toxic alkaloid which can have a cumulative effect upon the liver. Largest concentrations are found in the roots, leaves contain higher quantities of the alkaloid as they grow older and young leaves contain almost none. Most people would have to consume very large quantities of the plant in order to do any harm, though anyone with liver problems should obviously be more cautious. In general, the health-promoting properties of the plant probably far outweigh any possible disbenefits, especially if only the younger leaves are used. Use topically on unbroken skin. May cause loss of appetite, abdominal pain, vomiting. Do not use with Eucalyptus. Do not combine with herbs containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids (e.g. agrimony, alpine ragwort, help, tansy ragwort)

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Symphytum+officinale
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symphytum_officinale
http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail89.php

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

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Some Health Quaries & Answers

No saccharin, please :
___________________
Q: I am diabetic and use a branded sugar substitute in coffee, milk and juices. I am breast feeding and want to know if it is safe for my baby.


A:
Any medication or chemicals that you consume crosses over into the breast milk and reaches the baby. Common artificial sweeteners such as saccharin and aspartame are classified by the US Food and Drug Administration as class “C”. This means they should not be used during pregnancy or lactation unless they are absolutely essential to the health and survival of the mother. This is not the case with artificial sweeteners. Human beings are very adaptable. You may try unsweetened coffee, tea and juice. That is healthier for you as well as the baby.

Thyroid pill
:-
____________
Q: I was not conceiving and then was diagnosed as having hypothyroidism. Once I started taking Eltroxin, I became pregnant. Do I need to continue the medicine?


A: Eltroxin needs to be continued all your life as your thyroid gland is not producing enough eltroxin for your own needs. The blood hormonal levels need to be monitored during pregnancy. Eltroxin can cross the placenta to the baby. Too little will affect you adversely and too much will be harmful to the baby. Your baby needs to have a thyroid test soon after birth. The eltroxin you are taking will not affect the baby’s test results.

My feet burn :-
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Q: The soles of my feet burn every night. I leave them uncovered but that does not help much. My sleep is disturbed and I am left feeling irritable all day.

A: Diabetes can cause burning feet. So can a disease in the blood vessels, kidney or liver failure, vitamin deficiency or alcoholism. Remove your shoes and socks as soon as you return from work and soak your feet in tepid water. Take calcium and vitamin supplements. If there is no improvement in a week, consult a physician.

Hearing loss

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Q: I feel that my son is becoming deaf. He does not respond when he is called. He seems to live in a world of his own. The problem started after we bought him a new mobile phone.


A: The new mobile phone may have an MP3 player which might be the reason your son is glued to it. If he has been using “in-ear” earphones at a high volume for long periods of time, it is possible he has developed some hearing loss. The condition can be evaluated.

Your son may become socially withdrawn as he has his music and SMS friends. This is now an international social problem. Encourage him to be more physically active. Also, you can consider spending more time talking to him and listening to what he has to say.

Obstetric care :-
_____________
Q: My wife is pregnant with our first child and I am at a loss as to how to deal with things. I want a good hospital so that the mother and child are safe.

A: Before choosing a hospital (and an obstetrician) you need to scout a few places to see where you are likely to receive the best care. Preferably, there should be several duty doctors following a “shift” system. A single doctor, however good, cannot be “on call” night and day. If he or she is tired or busy, you might wind up with an unnecessary Caesarian section. Also check if the hospital has a paediatrician.

Ear block
:-
___________

Q: My left ear gets blocked whenever I swim. I have had the ear checked and there is no wax blocking it.

A: After getting out of the pool, tilt your head to the left and hop on the left leg a few times. This usually does the trick. If that doesn’t work, hold your nose, close your mouth and breathe out through the nose.

Fractured collar bone:-

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Q: My four-year-old grandson fell down a couple of stairs and fractured his collar bone. The doctor says it will heal and gave him just a cloth sling. Is this enough?

A: Collar bone fractures are common in babies, children and adolescents. The only treatment is rest, a figure-of-eight bandage, a sling and analgesics for the pain. Healing usually takes around 12 weeks but a painless bump may persist for many months.

Active brain :-
_____________
Q: Is there any way I can keep my brain active? I am scared of dementia.

A: Several studies show that memory games, memorising poetry and regularly doing Sudoku puzzles keep the mind active and prevent deterioration of the grey matter. Most newspapers regularly feature puzzles. You can also access them on the Internet.

Source: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

Bone Scan

Alternative Names:Scintigraphy – bone

Definition:
The process of bone growth and renewal is part of your body’s metabolism — natural processes that create and use energy.

Changes in your bone metabolism can be caused by a number of problems. To get a picture of your bone metabolism, your doctor may order a procedure called a bone scan. A radiologist will look for evidence of abnormal metabolism on images from your bone scan.

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Your doctor may order a bone scan to help diagnose subtle or hidden bone fractures, such as a stress fracture, that may not show up on a routine X-ray. Bone scans can also help detect other conditions as well. It is a test that detects areas of increased or decreased bone metabolism (turnover). The test is performed to identify abnormal processes involving the bone such as tumor, infection, or fracture.
…...Nuclear Scan->
This is a nuclear scan, also called a radionuclide scan. In a bone scan, a radioactive tracer accumulates in places in your bones with a lot of repair activity. In this way, the tracer is used to identify areas that might be injured due to a fracture, bone infection, arthritis, or invading cancer. The tracer gives off gamma rays, which can be detected using a specialized camera. The camera relays information to a computer to produce images of the bones being scanned. In the images, bright spots appear in the areas where the tracer has collected. Bone scans are most frequently done for people with cancer to see if the cancer has spread to bones.

Why Bone Scan is Done:
Your doctor may order a bone scan to determine whether you have any bone abnormalities that may signify one of the following disorders:

*Fractures
*Arthritis
*Paget’s disease of bone
*Bone tumors
*Infection of the joints, joint replacements or bone (osteomyelitis)
*Fibrous dysplasia
*Avascular necrosis or impaired bone blood supply
*Unexplained bone pain

Your doctor may order a bone scan to determine whether cancer, such as prostate, lung or breast cancer, has spread (metastasized) to bone.

How the Test is Performed
A radiotracer (a bone-seeking radioactive material) is injected into vein, so it travels through the bloodstream. As the material wears away, it gives off radiation. This radiation is detected by a camera that slowly scans your body. The camera takes pictures of how much radiotracer collects in the bones.

If a bone scan is done to see if you have a bone infection, images will be taken shortly after the radioactive material is injected, as well as 3 to 4 hours later, when it has collected in the bones. This is called a 3-phase bone scan.

To evaluate metastatic bone disease, images are taken only after the 3 to 4 hour delay.

The scanning part of the test will last about 1 hour and may require you to change positions.

How do you prepare for the test?
No special preparation is required on your part before a bone scan, though you may be asked to remove jewelry or other metal objects. You can eat or drink anything you like before the test.

As with most tests, tell your doctor if you’re pregnant or think you might be pregnant. Bone scans aren’t usually performed on pregnant women because of concerns about radiation exposure to the fetus. You may be asked to wear a hospital gown.

What happens when the test is performed?
The test is performed in the radiology department of a hospital. You will be given a radionuclide. A machine with a specialized camera moves around you. The procedure is painless, but the machine can be noisy. The scan usually takes less than an hour.

There is a small amount of pain when the needle is inserted. During the scan there is no pain. You must remain still during the examination, and you will be instructed when to change positions by the technologist.

You may experience some discomfort due to lying still for a prolonged period of time.

Risk Factor.
The radioactivity you are exposed to is too small to cause side effects or complications except to a fetus. The small amount of radioactivity rapidly diminishes.If you are pregnant or nursing, the test may be postponed to prevent exposing the fetus to radiation.

The amount of radioactivity in the injection is very small, and virtually all activity is gone from the body within 2-3 days.

Although it is extremely rare with bone scanning agents, a person may develop rash, swelling, or anaphylaxis (severe allergic response).

There is a slight risk of infection or bleeding with any intravenous injection. The risk of an allergic reaction to the tracers is extremely rare.

You might find the injection and the need to lie still during the scanning procedure mildly uncomfortable.

Must you do anything special after the test is over?
Nothing.

How long is it before the result of the test is known?
Results are usually available within a few days.

What you can expect
A bone scan falls under the category of nuclear medicine procedures, which means that it uses tiny amounts of radioactive materials called tracers (radionuclides). These tracers accumulate in certain organs and tissues, such as bones. Once introduced into the body, tracers emit a type of radiation called gamma waves, which are detected by a special camera. This camera produces images that are interpreted by radiologists or nuclear medicine specialists.

In a sense, a nuclear procedure such as a bone scan is the opposite of a standard X-ray examination. An X-ray passes radiation into or through your body to create an image on film placed on the other side of your body. In a nuclear scan, the source of radiation is inside your body and travels to the surface, where a camera detects it.

A bone scan can be divided into two basic parts:

*The injection. You will receive an injection of tracers into a vein in your arm, and depending on the reason your doctor orders the scan, images of the injection may be taken immediately. You’ll then wait between two and four hours to allow the tracers to circulate and be absorbed by your bones. You may be allowed to leave the radiology department during this time. Your doctor will ask you to drink extra water to remove unabsorbed radioactive material from your system.

*The scan. During the scan, you’ll be asked to lie still on a table while a machine with an arm-like device supporting the gamma camera passes over your body to record the pattern of tracer absorption by your bones. This is painless. A scan of your entire skeleton takes as long as 60 minutes. Scanning a limited area of your body takes less time.
In some cases, your doctor might order a three-phase bone scan, which includes a series of images taken at different times. A number of images are taken as the tracer is injected, then shortly after the injection, and again three to four hours later.

For certain conditions your doctor might also order additional images called single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). This can help analyze conditions that are especially deep in your bone or in places that are difficult to see with static or two-dimensional (planar) images. The additional SPECT images take approximately 30 minutes.

After the test
Once inside your body, the tracers don’t remain active for long. The radioactivity is eliminated within two days. You should feel no side effects after the procedure, and no aftercare is necessary.

Results:
The radiologist looks for evidence of abnormal bone metabolism on the scans. These show up as darker “hot spots” and lighter “cold spots” where the tracers have or haven’t accumulated.

Although a bone scan is very sensitive to abnormalities in bone metabolism, it’s less helpful in determining the exact cause of the abnormality. However, a thorough medical history often reveals the cause, such as a suspected fracture, infection or bone tumor. Other tests may be performed to help establish the diagnosis. For instance, in order to rule out bone cancer, your doctor may need further imaging studies (computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) or a biopsy, which is a sample of bone tissue that’s removed for examination.
Normal Results
Normal distribution areas appear uniform and gray throughout all the bones in your body.

What Abnormal Results Mean
The images should show that the radioactive material has been evenly distributed throughout the body. There should be no

areas of increased or decreased distribution. “Hot spots” are areas where there is an increased accumulation of the radioactive material. “Cold spots” are areas that have taken up less of the radioactive material.

Resources:
https://www.health.harvard.edu/diagnostic-tests/bone-scan.htm
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/bone-scan/
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003833.htm

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