Herbs & Plants

Sapium salicifolium

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Botanical Name : Sapium salicifolium
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Tribe: Hippomaneae
Subtribe: Hippomaninae
Genus: Sapium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malpighiales

Synonym  :Yerba de la flecha.

Common Names:Tallow Tree or Sapium.

Habitat:Sapium salicifolium is native to Tropics of both Hemispheres and cultivated in China and Paraguay.Grows in Mexico, New Mexico and Arizona.

It yields a milky juice, which is acrid and even poisonous, the leaves are willow-like, and at their point of union with the stalk have two round glands; the flowers are small and greenish, and grow in terminal spikes, the lower portion bearing the fertile, and the upper ones the sterile flowers. The bark of Sapium Salicifolium yields a substance for tanning which is used instead of oak; most modern writers unite this genus with Stillingia, from which there are no reliable characters to distinguish it. In America, S. Biglandulosum is a source for rubber. Sapium or S. Indicum is known in Borneo under the name of Booroo; the leaves are used for dyeing and staining rotang a dark colour; theacrid milky juice burns the mouth as Capsicum does; the young fruit is acid and eaten as a condiment; the fruit is also used to poison alligators; the ripe fruit are woolly, trilobed capsules, about 1 inch across, threecelled and containing only one seed in each.


S. sebiyerum, the Chinese Tallow Tree, gives a fixed oil which envelops the seeds. The tallow occurs in hard brittle opaque white masses, which consists of palmatin and stearin. The oil is used for lighting and the waste from the nuts for fuel and manure.

Medicinal Uses:
Sapium Salicifolium is an energetic cathartic and diuretic, produces copious liquid discharges without griping. In minute doses at intervals of four hours it stimulates the torpid liver up to its normal action, also increases the flow of urine and exerts a direct influence on the kidneys and urinary passages.

Therapy—In bilious colic caused by presence of calculous matter, sapium salicifolium combined with mono-bromated camphor promptly dislodges the gravel, calms the nervous system and quiets the distressed stomach.

The principal advantage the drug has over other cathartics and diuretics is its superior efficacy, its pleasing taste, besides its antilithic properties; the agent is not widely known. The small and pleasant dose and kindly action will give it a place as an efficient cathartic, if the above statements are confirmed.

Known Hazards: In large doses it is poisonous, produces dysentery, vertigo and death from prostration and nervous exhaustion.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider


Herbs & Plants

Dryobalanops aromatica

Botanical Name : Dryobalanops aromatica
Family: Dipterocarpaceae
Genus: Dryobalanops
Species: D. aromatica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malvales

Arbor camphorifera Rumph., Dipterocarpus dryobalanops Steud., Dipterocarpus teres Steud., Dryobalanops camphora Colebr., Dryobalanops junghuhnii Becc., Dryobalanops vriesii Becc., Pterigium teres Correa, Shorea camphorifera Roxb.

Common Name:Borneol, Borneo Camphor, Camphor Tree, Malay Camphor, or Sumatran Camphor
Local Names in Borneo :Kapur, Kapur anggi, Kapur bukit, Kapur peringii, Kapur ranggi, Keladan, Kladan, Telajin.

Habitat :Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo (Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah, East-Kalimantan).In undisturbed mixed dipterocarp forests up to 300 m altitude. Growing on hillsides and ridges with sandy soils. In secondary forests usually present as a pre-disturbance remnant tree.

Emergent trees up to 62 m tall and 197 cm dbh. Stem with resin. Stipules up to ca. 7 mm long. Leaves alternate, simple, penni-veined, secondary venation very close together. Flowers ca. 5 mm in diameter, white, placed in short panicles. Fruits ca. 35 mm long, yellow-red-purplish, with five wings originating from the calyx base up to ca. 50 mm long, wind dispersed.

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Medicinal Uses:
Used internally as sedative and antispasmodic.  Externally it is employed as antiphlogistic in stomatitis, nasal mucositis, conjunctivitis.    The drug’s analgesic and antipyretic properties make it an excellent external remedy for abscesses, boils, sores, sore throat and other external heat excess symptoms.

Other Uses:Timber is used.It is a heavy hardwood sold under the trade names of Kapur. It is recorded from at least two protected areas (Lambir and Gunung Mulu National Parks).

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Herbs & Plants

Baeckea frutescens

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Botanical Name: Baeckea frutescens
Family: Myrtaceae
Subfamily: Myrtoideae
Genus: Baeckea
Tribe: Chamelaucieae.

Vernacular Names:
*Malyasia:Chuhur atap,cucuran atap,huogn atap

*Indonesia:Junjung atap,(Banka)jung rabab(javanese),jhung rahab(Madurese)

*Thailand :Son naa, son saai(Peninsular), son hom (South-eastem)

*Combodia: Moreck ansaiii

*Vietnam:Ch(oor)i xi(eer), ch(oor)i, thanh hao

*Borneo : Berungis, Cucor atap, Rampa-rampa, Rempah-rempah, Tagai, Tuturun atap, Ujung atap.

Habitat :Baeckea frutescens grows in southeast Asia to Australia, including southern China, Thailand,Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi and New Guinea. It does not grow in Java, the Lesser Sunda Islands or the Philippines.In exposed places in keranga, swamp, regrowth and sub-montane forests up to 1000 m altitude. Often on alluvial sites, but also on hillsides and ridges. On poor sandy to ultrabasic soils.

Shrub up to 6 m tall and 11 cm dbh. Stipules absent. Leaves needle-like, opposite, simple, glabrous. Flowers ca. 3 mm diameter, white-pink, placed solitary in leaf axils. Fruits ca. 3 mm diameter, green-red-brown, urns-shaped, berry-like capsules.
click & see the pictures

Medicinal Uses:
Tea of the leaves is used to treat sunstroke, fever.  Indonesians consider the decoction to be diuretic, emmenagogue, refrigerant and tonic.  It is also used for dysmenorrheal, parturition and as a tonic.  Leaves and flowers are also used in Indochina for catarrh, headache and rheumatism.  Packets of leaves are burned under the bed of colic sufferers.Leaves  dried and mixed with other ingredients in a powder, they can be rubbed on the stomach for painful menstruation or childbirth.

Other Uses:
The wood is locally used for fencing. The leaves can be boiled to make a refreshing tea.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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Herbs & Plants

Siit (Caesalpinia sumatrana Roxb.)

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Botanical Name :Caesalpinia sumatrana Roxb.
Family :Fabaceae / Leguminosae
Scientific names : Mesoneuron sumatranum (Roxb.) W. & A. ,Caesalpinia sumatrana Roxb.,Mezoneuron rubrum Merr. ,Mezoneuron sulfureum.
Common names :Siit (Tag.) ,Cat’s claw (Engl.)

Habitat :Siit is found in thickets at low altitude in Palawan. It also occurs in the Malay Peninsula, Singapore, Sumatra, and Borneo.


This plant is a robust, prickly climber, 6 to 10 meters in length. The leaves are 30 centimeters or more in length, and compound. The pinnae are 6, about 10 centimeters long. The leaflets are firm, oblong or obovate-oblong, 5 to 8 centimeters in length, and 2.5 to 3.5 centimeters wide. The racemes are forked, as long as the leaves, hairy, and obtuse at the tip. The calyx is smooth and 1 to 1.3 centimeters long, with upper teeth minute, the lowest rather longer, and the tube splitting off the insertion of the glabrous filaments. The petals are a little exserted, reddish-yellow, much narrower than in Mezoneurum latisiliquum, permanently imbricated, and oblanceolate-spatulate. The pods are thin, about 15 centimeters long, 4 to 5.5 centimeters wide, and furnished with a moderately broad wing, and contain 4 to 5 seeds.

According to Burkill, the active substance is a saponin, which has a weak, destructive action if brought into contact with the blood. Boorsma reports that in the leaf and bark, a weak alkaloid is present, which in an experiment failed to kill a frog.

Medicinal Uses:

Parts Used :Leaves

Burkill and Haniff state that the Malays use it medicinally, giving decoctions of the leaves as a vermifuge, and for intestinal complaints such as diarrhea; also, they administer it after childbirth.

• The Malays use is medicinally.
Decoction of leaves used as a vermifuge, for intestinal complaints.
• Also used after childbirth.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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Herbs & Plants

Artocarpus lacucha

Botanical Name::Artocarpus lacucha
Family: Moraceae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Genus: Artocarpus
Species: A. lacucha
Antiaris fretessii Teijsm. & Binn., Artocarpus acuminatissima Merr., Artocarpus cumingiana Trecul, Artocarpus cumingiana var. stenophylla Diels, Artocarpus dadah Miq., Artocarpus dadah var. pubescens Miq., Artocarpus dasyphylla var. flava J.J.Sm., Artocarpus ficifolia W.T.Wang, Artocarpus fretessii Teijsm. & Binn., Artocarpus inconstantissima (Miq.) Miq., Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb., Artocarpus lakoocha var. malayana King, Artocarpus leytensis Elmer, Artocarpus mollis Miq., Artocarpus ovatus Blanco, Artocarpus paloensis Elmer, Artocarpus peltatus Merr., Artocarpus refracta Becc., Artocarpus reniformis Becc., Artocarpus rufescens Miq., Artocarpus vrieseanus var. papillosus F.M.Jarrett, Artocarpus vrieseanus var. refractus (Becc.) F.M.Jarrett, Artocarpus tampang Miq., Artocarpus yunnanensis Hu, Ficus inconstantissima Miq., Ficus tampang Miq., Metrosideros spuria Rumph., Prainea rumphiana Becc.

Common Name
: Bahot, Barhal, Dephal, Monkey Jack, Dahu, Lakoocha, Esuluhuli, Wotomba, Jeuto, Irapala, Kammaregu, Lakuchamu.

Monkey fruit, Monkey Jack or Barhar (Hindi: Badahar,Bengali:Daua/Banta)

Local names in Borneo:
Anjarubi, Asam, Beruni, Beto, Burinik, Dadah, Dadak, Darak, Dudak, Tampan, Tampang, Tampang wangi.

:From India and Bhutan and southern China to New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. In Borneo collected throughout the island.


Mid-canopy tree up to 37 m tall and 57 cm dbh. Stem with white sap. Stipules ca. 4 mm long, hairy. Leaves alternate, simple, penni-veined, hairy below. Flowers ca. 1 mm diameter, yellowish, flowers fused into a globose flower body. Fruits ca. 45 mm diameter, yellow-brown, fleshy, slightly warty syncarp with many seeds in pinkish-red flesh.

Edible uses:

The fruits are edible.

Medicinal Uses:

The sap and juice of the bark is applied externally to boils, pimples, cuts and wounds.The root is astringent and is also used as a purgative
The macerated bark is used as a poultice for treating skin ailments. The bark is used to treat headache.

Other Uses:
Agroforestry Uses:
The tree is an important component of traditional agroforestry systems, being integrated into mixed cropping systems with other crops.

A fibre obtained from the inner bark is used for cordage.

A yellow colouring matter is obtained from the wood and roots. It is used for dyeing textiles

A sticky latex is present in all parts of the tree and has many uses.

The yellow wood is durable, hard and suitable for polishing. It is resistant to termites. It is used for timber, heavy construction, furniture and boat building.
The wood is an important local source of fuel. The wood is used for construction.

Seed – it has a very short viability and so is best sown as soon as it is ripe. The seedcoat is very thin – the seeds need to be handled carefully to avoid damaging them. Sow seeds in a nursery seedbed, or sow 2 seeds per individual container – any surplus seedlings can be moved to another pot. The seed germinates best at a temperature of 24 – 27°c. The seed germinates quite quickly and, when 2 – 3 weeks old, are robust enough to withstand full sun and rain. Seedlings are planted out when about 20 – 25cm tall.
Root cuttings.
Air layering.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.