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Amelanchier intermedia

Botanical Name : Amelanchier intermedia
Family:Rosaceae
Genus: Amelanchier
Species:Amelanchier intermedia Spach
Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering Plants
Class: Magnoliopsida
Sub Class:Rosidae
Order:Rosales

Common Name: Serviceberry

Habitat :Amelanchier intermedia is native to Eastern N. America – Vermont to North Carolina. It grows on swamps and moist soils.

Description:
Amelanchier intermedia is a  perennial deciduous Shrub growing to 6 m (19ft) by 4 m (13ft).The plant does not have spines, prickles, or thorns.The bark of an adult plant is thin and smooth. The leaf blade is simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets) There is one leaf per node along the stem but the edge of the leaf blade has teeth. Leaf blade length is 25–60 mm and the width is 18–30 mm.There are three or more scales on the winter bud, and they overlap like shingles, with one edge covered and the other edge exposed.

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It is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July.The fruit is fleshy. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.
Cultivation:
Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade but thrives in any soil that is not too dry or water-logged. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers an acid or neutral soil. Plants are hardy to about -25°c. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe. Considerable confusion has existed between this species and A. arborea, A. canadensis and A. laevis, see for the latest (1991) classification. Some botanists consider this species to be part of A. canadensis or A. lamarckii. A group of plants growing at Kew were about 5 years old in 1995. They were flowering well in early April, were about 2 metres tall and had lots of side branches. Their native range was given as western N. America, which conflicts with other reports. Older plants are being grown at Hilliers Arboretum in Hampshire, in early April 1999 they were 4 metres tall, suckering quite freely in a tight clump and flowering very freely. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Grafting onto seedlings of Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing.

Propagation:
Seed – it is best harvested ‘green’, when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring – takes 18 months. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses:

Edible fruit – raw or cooked. We have yet to see the fruit on this species, but if it is like the closely related A. lamarckii, then it will be sweet and succulent with a flavour of apples. The fruit can also be dried for later use and is up to 10mm in diameter. The fruit is rich in iron and copper.

Medicinal Uses: Not yet known.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amelanchier+intermedia
http://www.newyork.plantatlas.usf.edu/Plant.aspx?id=2778
https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/amelanchier/intermedia/

Amelanchier basalticola

Botanical Name : Amelanchier basalticola
Family: Rosaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales
Subfamily: Amygdaloideae
Tribe: Maleae
Subtribe: Malinae
Genus: Amelanchier

Synonyms: A. alnifolia pumila. (Nutt.)Nels.

Habitat: Amelanchier basalticola is native to North-western N. America – Washington. It grows on open woods, canyons and hillsides, from near sea level to the sub-alpine zone.

Description:
Amelanchier basalticola is a deciduous Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft) by 3 m (9ft).
It  is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.

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Cultivation:
Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade but thrives in any soil that is not too dry or water-logged. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers an acid or neutral soil. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe. There is much difference of opinion in the naming of members of this genus, with many botanists viewing this species as no more than a form of A. alnifolia. It hybridizes freely with other members of the genus. Grafting onto seedlings of A. lamarckii or Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing.

Propagation:
Seed – it is best harvested ‘green’, when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring – takes 18 months. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
Fruits are edible both raw or cooked. It is 9 – 12mm in diameter. The fruit is rich in iron and copper.

Medicinal Uses:   Not yet known.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amelanchier+basalticola
http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=508694

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelanchier

Aciphylla squarrosa

Botanical Name : Aciphylla squarrosa
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Aciphylla
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Apiales

Common Name: Speargrass,Taramea, Spaniard
Aciphylla squarrosa is known as “kurikuri” by Maori.

Habitat :Aciphylla squarrosa is native to New Zealand. It is found from sea-level to montane areas in North and South Islands to latitude 41° 30′ south.

Description:
Aciphylla squarrosa is an evergreen Perennial growing to 2.5 m (8ft) by 1.5 m (5ft). It is a large speargrass with stiff rigid leaves and a spiny flower stalk.It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jun to July.Flower colours are Green & Yellow. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is not self-fertile. The flower spikes occur in summer and grow up to 2m tall.
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USDA hardiness zone : 4-8

Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
Requires a perfectly drained gritty soil in full sun. Easily grown in a moist but well-drained soil in full sun. Hardy to about -10°c according to one report whilst another says it is hardy to about -15°c. Dioecious but female plants have occasional male flowers. Male and female plants must normally be grown if seed is required. The flowers are sweetly scented.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe. Stored seed should be sown in a greenhouse in late winter or early spring. Germination can be very slow. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter before planting them out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Edible Uses: 
Edible Parts: Leaves; Root.
Edible Uses: Gum; Gum.

Root – cooked. Aromatic. A very good taste. The resin is used as a chewing gum. Shoots and young stems. No further details.

Medicinal Uses: Not yet known.
Other Uses:.Gum; Gum…..The plant yields a semi-transparent resinous gum that is edible and also used in perfumery.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aciphylla+squarrosa
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aciphylla
http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora_details.aspx?ID=1471
http://findaplant.co.nz/2011/06/08/featured-plant-aciphylla-squarrosa/

Allium dregeanum

Botanical Name: Allium dregeanum
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. dregeanum
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales

Common Name : Wild Onion

Habitat :Allium dregeanum is native to South Africa. It grows on the dry stony slopes and flats, often along the sides of roads or in old cornfields, from Clanwilliam to Riversdale and Long Kloof.

Description:
Allium dregeanum is a bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in). The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

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Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it could succeed outdoors at least in the milder parts of the country. This species is related to the wild leek of Europe (Allium ampeloprasum). The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Most members of this genus are intolerant of competition from other growing plants. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. The plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season, pot up the divisions in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are growing well and then plant them out into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root.
Bulb – raw or cooked. Leaves – raw or cooked. Used as a condiment. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.
Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.

Other Uses :...Repellent…The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles

Known Hazards: Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_dregeanum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+dregeanum

Allium scorodoprasum

Botanical Name : Allium scorodoprasum
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. scorodoprasum
Kingdom: Plantae
clade: Angiosperms
clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales

Common Name : Rocambole,Sand leek

Habitat : Allium scorodoprasum is native to  Most of Europe, including Britain, east and south to W. Asia and Syria.It grows on the grassland and scrub on dry soils.

Description;

Allium scorodoprasum is a perennial plant with an egg-shaped bulb. The plant produces two to five unstalked leaves, the bases of which are sheath-like. Each leaf blade is linear, 7-20 mm wide,   flat with a slight keel, an entire margin and parallel veins. The edges of the leaf and the central vein are rough to the touch. It is in flower from May to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects. The flowering stem is cylindrical, growing to a height of 30 to 90 cm (12 to 35 in) and the upper half is leafless. The whole plant has an onion-like aroma. The inflorescence is a globular cluster surrounded by membranous bracts in bud which wither when the flowers open. Each individual flower is stalked and has a purple perianth 4 to 7 mm (0.16 to 0.28 in) long. There are six tepals, six stamens and a pistil formed from three fused carpels. Mixed with the flowers are a number of purple bulbils. The fruit is a capsule, but the seeds seldom set, and propagation usually takes place when the bulbils are knocked off and grow into new plants.

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The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It cannot grow in the shade.It requires dry or moist soil.

Cultivation :
Prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil. Thrives in poor dry soils. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Many forms of this species produce numerous bulbils in the flowering head.  The plants can become very invasive by means of these bulbils. The sub-species A. scorodoprasum jajlae and A. scorodoprasum rotundum do not produce bulbils. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Occasionally cultivated, especially in Russia, for its edible bulb. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation :
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. Very easy, the plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season and the divisions can be planted straight out into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Flowers;  Leaves;  Root.

Bulb – raw or cooked. A garlic substitute, it is used as a flavouring in salads, soups etc. The bulbs are smaller than garlic and have a milder flavour, they are produced at the points of the stem as well as at the base. The bulbs are 10 – 20mm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring in salads etc. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.

Medicinal Uses :

Depurative;  Digestive.

The plant is digestive and depurative. The bulb is used in the treatment of abscesses, amoebic dysentery, bronchitis, cholera, dysentery, influenza, skin diseases and TB.

Other Uses
Repellent.
The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles

Known Hazards :  Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in very large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+scorodoprasum
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_scorodoprasum
http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Allium_scorodoprasum.jpg

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