Tag Archives: Brassica

Brassica juncea (Brown Mustard)

Botanical Name: Brassica juncea
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus:     Brassica
Species: B. juncea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Brassicales

Common Names: Brown Mustard,  Mustard greens, Indian mustard, Chinese mustard, or Leaf mustard, Green mustard cabbage

Habitat : Primary center of origin thought to be central Asia (northwest India), with secondary centers in central and western China, eastern India, Burma, and through Iran to Near East. Has been cultivated for centuries in many parts of Eurasia. The principle growing countries are Bangladesh, Central Africa, China, India, Japan, Nepal, and Pakistan, as well as southern Russia north of the Caspian Sea. Considered a principle weed in Canada, a common weed in Argentina and Australia, and a weed in Fiji, Mexico, and the United States, Indian Mustard is widely distributed as a cultivar and escape in subtropical and temperate climates.

Description:
Brassica juncea is a Perennial herb, usually grown as an annual or biennial, up to 1 m or more tall; branches long, erect or patent; lower leaves petioled, green, sometimes with a whitish bloom, ovate to obovate, variously lobed with toothed, scalloped or frilled edges, lyrate-pinnatisect, with 1–2 lobes or leaflets on each side and a larger sparsely setose, terminal lobe; upper leaves subentire, short petioled, 30–60 mm long, 2–3.5 mm wide, constricted at intervals, sessile, attenuate into a tapering, seedless, short beak 5–10 mm long. Rooting depth 90–120 cm. Seeds about 5,660–6,000 per 0.01 kg (1/3 oz).
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Edible Uses:
The leaves, the seeds (Raai in Gujarati), and the stem of this mustard variety are edible. The plant appears in some form in African, Italian, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and soul food cuisine. Cultivars of B. juncea are grown as greens, and for the production of oilseed. In Russia, this is the main variety grown for production of mustard oil, which after refining is considered[according to whom?] one of the best vegetable oils. It is widely used in canning, baking and margarine production in Russia, and the majority of table mustard there is also made from this species of mustard plant.

The leaves are used in African cooking, and leaves, seeds, and stems are used in Indian cuisine, particularly in mountain regions of Nepal, as well as in the Punjab cuisine of India and Pakistan, where a famous dish called sarson da saag (mustard greens) is prepared. B. juncea subsp. tatsai, which has a particularly thick stem, is used to make the Indian pickle called achar, and the Chinese pickle zha cai. The mustard made from the seeds of the B. juncea is called brown mustard. The leaves & seeds (Raai in Gujarati)are used in many Indian dishes.

The Gorkhas of Darjeeling and Sikkim prepare pork with mustard greens (also called rayo in Nepali). It is usually eaten with relish with steamed rice, but could also be eaten with chapati (griddle breads).

Brassica juncea is more pungent than the closely related Brassica oleracea greens (kale, cabbage, collard greens, et cetera), and is frequently mixed with these milder greens in a dish of “mixed greens”, which may include wild greens such as dandelion. As with other greens in soul food cooking, mustard greens are generally flavored by being cooked for a long period with ham hocks or other smoked pork products. Mustard greens are high in vitamin A and vitamin K.

Chinese and Japanese cuisines also make use of mustard greens. In Japanese cuisine it is known as Takana and is often pickled and used as filling in onigiri or as a condiment. A large variety of B. juncea cultivars are used, including zha cai, mizuna, takana (var. integlofolia), juk gai choy, and xuelihong. Asian mustard greens are most often stir-fried or pickled. A Southeast Asian dish called asam gai choy or kiam chai boey is often made with leftovers from a large meal. It involves stewing mustard greens with tamarind, dried chillies and leftover meat on the bone.

Medicinal Uses:
Reported to be anodyne, apertif, diuretic, emetic, rubefacient, and stimulant, Indian Mustard is a folk remedy for arthritis, footache, lumbago, and rheumatism. Seed used for tumors in China. Root used as a galactagogue in Africa. Sun-dried leaf and flower are smoked in Tanganyika to “get in touch with the spirits.” Ingestion may impart a body odor repellent to mosquitoes (Burkill, 1966). Believed to be aperient and tonic, the volatile oil is used as a counterirritant and stimulant. In Java the plant is used as an antisyphilitic emmenagogue. Leaves applied to the forehead are said to relieve headache (Burkill, 1966). In Korea, the seeds are used for abscesses, colds, lumbago, rheumatism, and stomach disorders. Chinese eat the leaves in soups for bladder, inflammation or hemorrhage. Mustard oil is used for skin eruptions and ulcers.

Other Uses:
Phytoremediation:
This plant is used in phytoremediation to remove heavy metals, such as lead, from the soil in hazardous waste sites because it has a higher tolerance for these substances and stores the heavy metals in its cells. The plant is then harvested and disposed of properly. This method is easier and less expensive than traditional methods for the removal of heavy metals. It also prevents erosion of soil from these sites preventing further contamination

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brassica_juncea
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Brassica_juncea.html

Black mustard

Botanical Name: Brassica nigra
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus:    Brassica
Species: .B. nigra
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Synonym: Brassica sinapioides (Roth.).Sinapis nigra. Sisymbrium nigrum. Brassica brachycarpa. Brassica sinapioides.

Common Names:Black mustard, Sanskrit : Rajakshavak ; Marathi : Kali Mohari

Habitat: Black Mustard is believed to be native to the southern Mediterranean region of Europe and possibly South Asia where it has been cultivated for thousands of years.It grows throughout Europe, except in the north-eastern parts, also in South Siberia, Asia Minor and Northern Africa, and is naturalized in North and South America. It is largely cultivated in England, Holland, Italy, Germany and elsewhere for the sake of the seed, used partly as a condiment, and partly for its oil.

Description:
Black mastered is an erect annual, 3 feet or more in height, with smaller flowers than the White Mustard. The spear-shaped, upper leaves, linear, pointed, entire and smooth, and the shortly-beaked pods, readily distinguish it from the former species.It is hardy to zone (UK) 7 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.The plant is self-fertile.  The smooth, erect flattened pods, each provided with a short slender beak, contain about ten to twelve dark reddish-brown or black seeds, which are collected when ripe and dried. They are about half the size of White Mustard seeds, but possess similar properties. The seedcoat is thin and brittle and covered with minute pits. Like the White Mustard, the seeds are inodorous, even when powdered, though a pungent odour is noticeable when moistened with water, owing to the formation of volatile oil of Mustard, which is colourless or pale yellow, with an intensely penetrating odour and a very acrid taste.
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Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, black mustard is suited to many types of soils except very heavy clays, it grows best on light sandy loams, or deep rich fertile soils. Succeeds in full sun in a well-drained fertile preferably alkaline soil. Prefers a heavy soil in an open position. Another report says that it prefers a light well-drained soil and some shade in the summer. The plant tolerates an annual precipitation of 30 to 170cm, an annual average temperature range of 6 to 27°C and a pH in the range of 4.9 to 8.2. Black mustard is adapted to a wide variety of climatic conditions, it is often grown in the temperate zone though it is mainly suited to tropical areas, and grown chiefly as a rainfed crop in areas of low or moderate rainfall. Black mustard is often cultivated for its edible seed, though it is going out of favour because it rapidly sheds its seeds once they are ripe and this makes it harder to harvest mechanically than the less pungent brown mustard (Brassica juncea).. This is used especially as a food flavouring, though it is also sown with the seeds of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) to provide mustard and cress, a salading eaten when the seedlings are about one week old. Black mustard is also grown as a medicinal plant. It germinates freely and quickly grows rapidly and makes a very useful green manure. The plants are not very winter hardy so the seed is best sown in the spring when grown for its seed whilst it can be sown as late as late summer as a green manure crop. The flowers have a pleasing perfume, though this is only noticed if several flowers are inhaled at the same time[245].

Propagation:          
Seed – sow in situ from early spring until late summer in order to obtain a succession of crops. The main crop for seed is sown in April.
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Edible Uses:
Leaves – raw or cooked. A hot flavour, they can be finely chopped and added to salads or cooked as a potherb[183]. The seedlings can also be used as a salading when about one week old, adding a hot pungency to a salad. Immature flowering stems – cooked and eaten like broccoli. Mustard seed is commonly ground into a powder and used as a food flavouring and relish. This is the black mustard of commerce, it is widely used as a food relish and as an ingredient of curry. Pungency of mustard develops when cold water is added to the ground-up seed – an enzyme (myrosin) acts on a glycoside (sinigrin) to produce a sulphur compound. The reaction takes 10 – 15 minutes. Mixing with hot water or vinegar, or adding salt, inhibits the enzyme and produces a mild bitter mustard. The seed can also be used whole to season pickles, curries, sauerkraut etc. Black mustard has a stronger more pungent flavour than white mustard (Sinapis alba) and brown mustard (B. juncea). An edible oil is obtained from the seed.

Medicinal Uses:
Mustard seed is often used in herbal medicine, especially as a rubefacient poultice[4]. The seed is ground and made into a paste then applied to the skin[4, 21, 46, 213] in the treatment of rheumatism, as a means of reducing congestion in internal organs. Applied externally, mustard relieves congestion by drawing the blood to the surface as in head afflictions, neuralgia and spasms. Hot water poured on bruised seeds makes a stimulant foot bath, good for colds and headaches. Old herbals suggested mustard for treating alopecia, epilepsy, snakebite, and toothache. Care must be taken not to overdo it, since poultices can sometimes cause quite severe irritation to the skin. The seed is also used internally, when it is appetizer, digestive, diuretic, emetic and tonic. Swallowed whole when mixed with molasses, it acts as a laxative. A decoction of the seeds is used in the treatment of indurations of the liver and spleen. It is also used to treat carcinoma, throat tumours, and imposthumes. A liquid prepared from the seed, when gargled, is said to help tumours of the “sinax.”. The seed is eaten as a tonic and appetite stimulant. Hot water poured onto bruised mustard seeds makes a stimulating foot bath and can also be used as an inhaler where it acts to throw off a cold or dispel a headache. Mustard Oil is said to stimulate hair growth. Mustard is also recommended as an aperient ingredient of tea, useful in hiccup. Mustard flour is considered antiseptic.

Other Uses:
Green manure;  Oil;  Oil;  Repellent.

A semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed, as well as being edible it is also used as a lubricant, illuminant and in making soap. The plant is often grown as a green manure, it is very fast, producing a bulk suitable for digging into the soil in about 8 weeks. Not very winter hardy, it is generally used in spring and summer. It does harbour the pests and diseases of the cabbage family so is probably best avoided where these plants are grown in a short rotation and especially if club root is a problem. Mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) is used in commercial cat and dog repellent mixtures.

Known Hazards :    When eaten in large quantities, the seed and pods have sometimes proved toxic to grazing animals. Mustard allergy possibly especially in children and adolescents. Retention of seeds possibly in intestines if taken internally.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider..

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brassica_nigra
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/m/mustar65.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Brassica+nigra

Brassica napus

Botanical Name :Brassica napus
Family: Brassicaceae
Tribe: Brassiceae
Genus: Brassica
Species: Brassica napus L.
Cladus: eurosids II
Order: Brassicales

Common NamesCanola oil rapeseed

Habitat :Brassica napus is grown throughout temperate regions. Cultivated in most European countries, but naturalized in most.

Description:
Annual or biennial, when sown late and flowering the following spring, with slender or stout, hard, long, fusiform tuberous taproot; stems erect, much-branched, up to 1.5 m tall, often purple toward base; leaves glaucous, the lower ones lyrate-pinnatifid or lobed, with petioles 10–30 cm long, glabrous or with a few bristly hairs, upper stem leaves lanceolate, sessile, clasping, more or less entire; flowers pale yellow, 1.2–1.5 cm long, open flowers not overtopping buds of inflorescence; inflorescence much-branched, up to 1 m tall as an elongating raceme; silique 5–11 cm long, 2.5–4 mm wide, with slender beak 0.5–3 mm long. Underground part curved or crooked for 5–7.5 cm and then dividing into stout horizontal branches. Fl. late spring to fall; fr. early summer to fall

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Cultivation:
Fall plowing and preparation of a good firm seedbed is desirable as rape seeds are small. Cultipacking before seeding make a firm even seedbed. Germination must be fast with uniform emergence for the crop to get ahead of the weeds. Seed of Polish and Argentine types germinate readily when moisture and temperature conditions are suitable. Seed rate and spacing of rows varies in different areas. Sow seed with a grain drill, in rows 30–40 cm apart. Because seed are so small, it is recommended to mix 50–50 with cracked grain, so as to spread out the rape seed; for a 10 kg/ha rate, calibrate the drill for 20 kg/ha of mixture. If fertilizer is used mixed with the seed when sowing, sow about 30 kg/ha of mixture and mix at the time of sowing. Seed may be sown with a grass-seed attachment, or broadcast and then harrowed or disced lightly. Depth of sowing should be 2.5 cm or less, but seedlings will emerge from 5 cm or more if soil does not crust on top. Seedlings develop slowly and are easily destroyed by drifting soil. Spreading manure where drifting might start helps trap drifting soil. Early sowings give higher yields, but crop is more susceptible when emerging, -4°C either killing or injuring seedlings, whereas -2°C has no affect when one month old. Sowing in late April or early May is best in northern areas; sowing as late as June or early July give rather good results. Rape may be planted after grains, flax, corn, potatoes, sugar beets or fallow, but not after rape, mustards or sunflowers (Reed, 1976).
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Medicinal Uses:
Folk Medicine
The seed, powdered, with salt is said to be a folk remedy for cancer. Rape oil is used in massage and oil baths, believed to strengthen the skin and keep it cool and healthy. With camphor it is applied for rheumatism and stiff joints. Medicinally, root used in chronic coughs and bronchial catarrh

Like soybean, canola contains both high oil content as well as high protein content. It contains about 40% oil and 23% protein compared to 20% and 40%, respectively, for soybean. Like soybean, when the oil is crushed out, it leaves a high quality, high protein (37%) feed concentrate which is highly palatable to livestock. Commercial varieties of canola were developed from two species; Brassica napus (Argentine type) and Brassica campestris (Polish type). Both species of canola produce seed that is high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and linolenic).

Other Uses:
Grown sparingly for young leaves used as potherb; more generally grown as forage for livestock feed, and as source of rapeseed oil. Rape oil used in food industry, as an illuminant and lubricant, and for soap manufacture. Residual rapeseed cake, though low in food value, used as livestock feed. Rapeseed oil has potential market in detergent lubrication oils, emulsifying agents, polyamide fibers, and resins, and as a vegetable wax substitute. According to the Chemical Marketing Reporter (April 26, 1982) “the most common use for the oil is still in the production or erucic acid, a fatty acid used in turn in the manufacture of other chemicals. Sprouts are used dietetically and as seasoning.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail397.php
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/brassica_napus.html
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Brassica_napus

Brassica cernua

 

Botanical Name : Brassica cernua
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Brassica
Species: B. juncea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Synonym :Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. subsp. juncea

Common Name : Chinese cabbage, pak choi, pakchoi, Pe-tsai, petsai, wong bok, wongbok, Chinese salad, Chou chinois (Fr), kapisi, kapeti ni jaina (Fiji), kapisi siaina (Tonga, Tuvalu),
Mustard greens, Indian mustard, Chinese mustard, Jie Cai (in Mandarin) or Kai Choi (in Cantonese), or leaf mustard is a species of mustard plant.

Habitat :Brassica cernua is native to Eastern Asia. Places in India where it grows are  Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu, Punjab, Haryana, West Bengal, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh.

Description:
Brassica cernua is a  perennial, biennial, often grown as an annual herb.It is a succulent herb forming rosettes, of open or tight vegetative heads followed by flowering stalks reaching 20-50 cm in height. Leaves are succulent and light green.May be harvested after 40-60 or 50-90 days, depending on variety. (Eswaran) 25-45 days for leaves and 100-110 days for seeds.

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Edible Uses:
The leaves are eaten fresh, boiled, fried, or fermented. Some varieties produce seeds that can be pressed for oil.

Cultivation:
It can in the tropics be grown at elevations up to 1500 m, but at elevations below 500 m heading is less likely to occur. A difference of 5-6°C in day and night temperatures appears to increase the vigour of the plant. Temperatures below 16°C promote flowering, particularly in daylengths of 13 hours or more. Drought stress in the heading stage prevents head formation. It is easely damaged by high winds. Leaf yields between 5 and 70 t/ha or 0.5-7 kg/m? may be obtained depending on length of growing period, plant desity, environmental conditions and cultivars. Photosynthesis pathway C3.

Medicinal Uses:
The seeds treat pain in nerves, arthritis, pneumonia

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:

http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropView?id=547
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm
http://www.tuinkrant.com/plantengids/groenten/29947.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brassica_juncea

Wild Cabbage(Brassica oleracea)

Botanical Name: Brassica oleracea
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Brassica
Species: B. oleracea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Synonyms : Brassica sylvestris.

Common Names: Wild Cabbage, Broccoli, Tronchuda cabbage, Brussels sprouts, Kohlrabi, Sprouting broccoli

Habitat : Brassica oleracea is native to Coastal regions of the Mediterranean and W. Europe north to France and Britain. Its high tolerance of salt and lime and its intolerance of competition from other plants typically restrict its natural occurrence to limestone sea cliffs.

Description:
Biennial/Perennial growing to 1.2m.Wild  forming a stout rosette of large leaves in the first year, the leaves being fleshier and thicker than those of other species of Brassica, adaptations to store water and nutrients in its difficult growing environment. In its second year, the stored nutrients are used to produce a flower spike 1 to 2 metres (3–7 ft) tall bearing numerous yellow flowers.

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They have smooth margins and look like the outer or basal, non-heading leaves of cabbage. The lower leaves tend to sag down and the upper ones are more erect and cup-shaped. Kale leaves are not as thick as collards and in many cultivars they are fringed or wavy-edged. Kale plants, and their leaves, are smaller than those of collards. There are many cultivars of kale and collards. Some were selected more for ornamental use than food.

It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to August, and the seeds ripen from July to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant is self-fertile.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves.

Leaves – raw or cooked. Slightly bitter raw, they can be cooked in one or more changes of water. We find that the slight bitterness actually enhances the flavour, and this is one of our favourite cooked leaves. The plant can usually be harvested all year round, though there will be little to pick in very cold winters.

Medicinal Actions & Uses
Anthelmintic; Cardiotonic; Diuretic; Laxative; Stomachic.

The leaves are cardiotonic and stomachic. They have been used in the treatment of gout and rheumatism. The leaves can be used as a poultice to cleanse infected wounds – the mid-rib is removed and the leaf ironed then placed on the affected area whilst still hot. The poultice should not be left on too long or it an cause blisters. The seeds are anthelmintic, diuretic, laxative and stomachic.

Cabbages best known medicinal use is as a poultice,  the leaves of the wild or cultivated plant are blanched, crushed, or chopped, and applied to swellings, tumors and painful joints. Wild cabbage leaves eaten raw or cooked aid digestion and the breakdown of toxins in the liver, so the Romans   eating it to ease a hangover was quite sensible.  The leaves can be used as a poultice to cleanse infected wounds – the mid-rib is removed and the leaf ironed then placed on the affected area whilst still hot. The seeds are anthelmintic, diuretic, laxative and stomachic.  Cabbage is also detoxifying and helpful in the long term treatment of arthritis.  The high vitamin C content of cabbage has made it useful in the prevention of scurvy.

Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, it succeeds in full sun in any reasonable soil, though it prefers a well-drained fertile preferably alkaline soil. It does well in heavy clay soils. It is often found wild by the coast and tolerates considerable maritime exposure. The true wild cabbage is a short-lived perennial, though we have seen specimens 5 years old or more[K]. This species has long been cultivated for its edible leaves, stems etc and a wide diversity of forms have been developed, including cabbages, cauliflowers, broccolis and Brussels sprouts. Most of these forms are biennial in cultivation, though there are also some perennial forms. These different forms are detailed below and have each been given their own entry in the database. We have chosen the most up to date classification we can find, as treated in ‘World Economic Plants’. B. oleracea alboglabra. Chinese kales are fast-growing plants with tender edible leaves. Although perennials, they are usually grown as annuals and are eaten as a summer and autumn crop whilst still young. B. oleracea botrytis. Cauliflowers are grown mainly for their edible swollen inflorescence. Different cultivars can be used to provide crops all year round. B. oleracea botrytis aparagoides. A short-lived perennial form of cauliflower producing a small cauliflower head in the spring followed by a number of broccoli-like flowering shoots. B. oleracea capitata. These are the cultivated cabbages, grown for their edible leaves that usually form a compact head. Reasonably winter hardy, different cultivars can be used to provide edible plants all year round. B. oleracea costata. Couve tronchuda is a tall-growing form of cabbage. It is less hardy than most other forms of this genus. B. oleracea gemmifera. Brussels sprouts form large edible axillary buds 5cm or more long. They are mainly used as late autumn to spring crops. B. oleracea gongylodes. Kohl rabi produces an edible swollen stem 8cm or more in diameter. It is reasonably cold hardy and provides crops from mid summer to the winter. B. oleracea italica. The calabreses and sprouting broccolis, grown mainly for their edible flowering shoots. Calabrese is the less hardy and is used mainly as an autumn and early winter crop. The sprouting broccolis are very winter hardy and are grown outdoors through the winter to provide a spring to early summer crop. B. oleracea medullosa. Marrowstem kales have edible leaves and stems. B. oleracea palmifolia. The Jersey kale produces a very tall stem which has been used as a walking stick. B. oleracea ramosa. The thousand-headed and perennial kales are very cold hardy. Their flavour is stronger than most of the other cultivated forms and they are mainly used as a winter crop. This form is very close to the wild species and has the most potential for developing perennial cultivars. B. oleracea subauda. The savoy cabbages form large heads like the cultivated cabbages (B. oleracea capitata). They have a stronger flavour, crinkly leaves and are generally more cold-hardy so can provide a winter crop in areas with quite severe winters. B. oleracea sabellica. The curly kales have attractively curled leaves. These are quite cold-tolerant plants and are mainly used to provide edible leaves in winter and spring. B. oleracea viridis. Collards are a cold-hardy non-heading form of cabbage, used mainly to provide green leaves in the spring.

Propagation
Seed – sow April in situ. Seedlings transplant very well and so, if you sow the seed too thickly, it is a simple matter to move some of the plants to give them more space. Cuttings root very easily at almost any time in the growing season[K]. Use shoots about 8cm long of the current year’s growth and place them in individual pots in the cuttings frame.

Cultivars
‘Tree Collards’
This is a perennial form of cabbage that is said to live for 20 years or more. The leaves are a very dark green and look somewhat like the leaves of savoy cabbages, though the plant does not form a heart. The flavour is very good and the leaves can be eaten raw or cooked. The plant can be harvested all year round. The shoot tips are removed when about 15 – 20cm long, making sure that there is plenty of stem left. The plant then forms new sideshoots along the stem and these can also be harvested in their turn.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Brassica+oleracea
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brassica_oleracea
http://www.floridata.com/ref/b/bras_ole_kale.cfm

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

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