Ailmemts & Remedies

Lumps and Bumps

PapillomaMost lumps are benign, but it is very important to be sure exactly what they are and find out if they need any  treatment.

Benign vs malignant :…… & see
Lumps are normally referred to as tumours, and they may be benign or malignant. In a tumour, one particular type of cell (such as a glandular, fat or muscle cell) has escaped the normal controls on growth and started to multiply.

The most important characteristic is whether these tumour cells can invade other adjacent cell types, and spread around the body (i.e. they are malignant tumours) or not (in which case they are benign).

Benign tumours:-
Benign tumours include :

•Cysts: lumps filled with fluid. Common types include sebaceous cysts on the skin, filled with greasy sebum, and ovarian cysts….
Nodules: formed in inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, sarcoid and polyarteritis…….
•Lipomas: lumps of fat cells….
Fibromas and fibroademonas: lumps of fibrous or fibrous and glandular tissue…..
Haematoma: lump formed by blood escaping into the tissues – simply a large bruise…..
Haemangioma: lump formed by extra growth of blood vessels……
•Papilloma: formed from skin or internal membrane cells, for example warts….

Benign tumours do not invade or spread. They can grow quite large without causing problems, although that doesn’t mean they’re totally harmless because their growth may start to damage the other tissues or organs around them.

This is a particular problem with a type of brain tumour called a meningioma, which grows from cells in the membranes that surround the brain (the meninges). Although benign, the pressure within the skull from the growing meningioma can cause severe headaches and may be life threatening if the tumour is not removed.

Benign tumours can cause others problems, from simply looking unsightly to releasing excess hormones.

Malignant tumours:-
Malignant tumours are also known as cancers. They invade the tissues around them and spread to other parts of the body by sending out cancer cells into the lymphatic system or through the blood stream.

These cells are deposited in other areas of the body, particularly the lungs, liver, brain and bones, to start ‘secondary’ tumours (also called metastases) at the new sites. Most malignant tumours are life threatening.

Breast tumours:-
•Benign: mostly happens at younger age. Usually a round smooth lump with a border that feels separate to the rest of the breast. Changes may occur in the lump with the menstrual cycle, being more obvious just before a period. The lump may be tender.
Malignant: mostly happens at older age. Usually a craggy or irregular lump, which may be seen to tether the skin There may be other symptoms such as discharge from the nipple. There may be a family history of breast cancer especially if at a young age.
Women are advised to be on the look out for lumps in their breasts. However, among younger women at least, lumps are far more likely to be benign – in women under 40, more than nine out of ten breast lumps are benign. But these lumps still cause a lot of anxiety until they are sorted out.

The most common benign breast conditions are fibrocystic change, benign breast tumours and breast inflammation. These are common problems, in fact fibrocystic change used to be known as fibrocystic disease but, as it affects more than 50 per cent of women at some point, it was thought it could no longer be considered a disease.

Fibroadenomas (sometimes called breast mice because they can be moved around) are particularly common in women in their 20s or 30s. They are benign and not cancerous.

In most cases these lumps are quite harmless, although now and then they may cause troublesome symptoms such as tenderness (especially as many are influenced by hormone levels and tend to get more swollen and painful along with other menstrual symptoms).

Malignant breast tumours mostly occur in older women, and tend to be accompanied by other symptoms such as discharge from the nipple. The lump may feel craggy or irregular.

Women who have a family history of breast cancer, especially breast cancer at a young age, have an increased risk of malignant tumours.

Is it cancerous?
Sometimes it’s fairly clear that a lump is either benign or malignant, but further tests may be required, including x-rays, ultrasound or biopsy. Often the best way to get an answer is to remove the whole lump and send it to the laboratory for analysis.

Benign lumps may not need to be removed but this is usually the most effective way to reassure someone because, whatever the problem, it’s gone

If you find a lump
•Get a doctor’s opinion – no one minds checking hundreds of harmless lumps if it means that one malignant or cancerous lump is caught early.
•Don’t hide a lump or fret silently about it – if it does prove to be malignant the sooner it’s dealt with the greater the chance of cure.
•Bear in mind that most lumps, especially in younger people, are benign or relatively harmless.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Source:BBC Health

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Ailmemts & Remedies

Abnormal Nipples

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There are two main types of nipple abnormality: retraction into the breast and disorders affecting the skin on or around the nipple. although these abnormalities are most often caused by minor problems that are easily treatable, any changes in the condition of the nipples should receive medical attention because, in rare cases, they may indicate breast & see

Possible causes:
Inversion of the nipples may occur during puberty if the breasts do not develop properly. this type of inversion is usually harmless, although it may later make breast-feeding difficult. Nipple inversion may also occur in the previously normal breast as a result of inflammation of the milk ducts behind the nipple. This condition most often affects women who are breast-feeding. Changes in the structure of the breasts as they age may cause the nipple to be drawn into the breast in older women. Less commonly, nipple inversion that develops in adulthood may be due to breast cancer.

\Many women develop fine cracks and tender areas on their nipples during the first few weeks of breast-feeding. these cracks are most often the result of the baby not taking the whole nipple into his or her mouth properly when feeding. leaving your nipples wet after a feed can also cause them to become sore and cracked. cracked nipples often cause stabbing or burning pain as the baby starts or stops feeding and may become infected, causing inflammation of the breast tissue.

Dry, flaky patches of skin that occur on or around both nipples may be due to eczema. eczema is usually itchy and tends to occur in several sites on the body. however, occasionally, skin changes on the nipples that resemble eczema are in fact caused by paget’s disease of the breast, a rare form of cancer that originates in the milk ducts. unlike eczema, paget’s disease rarely develops on both nipples and does not heal. this type of breast cancer often causes soreness and bleeding from the nipple and is often associated with a breast lump.

What might be done?
Your doctor will examine your breasts, paying particular attention to your nipples. if nipple inversion has occurred in adulthood but is not related to breast-feeding, your doctor may arrange for ultrasound scanning or breast x-rays to look for breast abnormalities. if a breast lump is found, cells or fluid may be taken from it using a needle and syringe and examined under the microscope for cancerous cells. If you have a persistent rash on or around a nipple, your doctor may take a skin sample to look for cancerous cells.

Occasionally, it is possible to correct nipple inversion that has been present since puberty by gently drawing the nipples out between your thumb and forefinger every day for several weeks. Suction devices, such as nipple shells, which are temporarily worn in your bra, can also help draw out the nipple.

If your nipples have become cracked, washing and drying them carefully and applying a moisturize may help. make sure that you wash the moisturizer off before breast-feeding. You should also avoid plastic-lined breast pads which may become damp and encourage infection. infection is usually treated with antibiotics and eczema can be improved by hydrocortisone cream.

If cancer of the breast is discovered, you will be referred to a specialist for treatment, and further tests, including blood tests and x-rays, may be done to find out if the cancer has spread to other body organs. if paget’s disease is diagnosed, the affected skin will be surgically removed along with surrounding tissue. if a lump is present, treatment can include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

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Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.


Ailmemts & Remedies

Woman Breast Pain

click & seeBreast pain can range from mild tenderness to a dull ache to a stabbing sensation in the breasts (milk-producing glands composed of fat and other tissue). According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services  Office on Women’s Health, approximately 50 percent of all women experience breast pain at some point in their lives.

In most cases, breast pain is caused by hormonal changes, such as those associated with the onset of puberty, menstruation, menopause, pregnancy and breastfeeding. In addition, certain medications, such as antidepressants, cardiovascular agents or oral contraceptives (birth control pills), can cause breast pain. However, women should notify their physician immediately if they experience breast pain that is persistent, more intense than usual or recurrent, especially if it is exhibited in only one breast… & see

Diagnosis of breast pain typically begins with a complete medical history and physical examination. Treatment for breast pain is directly related to the cause of the pain. For less serious causes of breast pain, treatment may be as simple as wearing a support bra or taking a pain reliever. For more severe cases of breast pain, there are medications that can relieve the discomfort. For women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, all drugs should be approved by a physician prior to use to avoid possible harm to the baby.
About breast pain
Breasts are milk-producing glands that are made up of fat and other tissue, including nerves, blood vessels and milk ducts (small tube-like paths). Breast pain can occur in a variety of forms – from a slight tenderness to a dull ache to a stabbing pain. Approximately half of all women experience breast pain at some point in their lives, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services  Office on Women’s Health.

The medical terms for breast pain include mastalgia, mastodynia and mammalgia. It is usually caused by normal hormonal changes in a woman’s body, such as those associated with menstruation. Because of its strong association with hormones, breast pain or tenderness is more common in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. Some experts believe that stress can be another factor that affects the development and severity of breast pain. Other conditions that commonly cause breast pain include:

Fibrocystic breast changes
Breast cysts (fluid-filled sacs inside the breast)
Breast infection (mastitis)
Injury or trauma to the breast
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
Water retention (common during menstruation)
Surgery to the breast (e.g., breast implants)

Other, less common conditions that can cause breast pain include:

Poorly fitting bra or uncomfortable clothing
Medications, such as antidepressants, cardiovascular agents or oral contraceptives
Excessive caffeine consumption
Breast cancer
Nipple piercing that becomes infected
Mondor’s disease (a blood clot in the breast)
Liver damage from alcoholism
Arthritis or a pinched nerve in the neck area
Inflammation of a rib joint
Muscle pulls or strains